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The Greeks have also invented terrace-roof1 pavements, and have covered their houses with them; a thing that may easily be done in the hotter climates, but a great mistake in countries where the rain is apt to become congealed. In making these pavements, the proper plan is to begin with two layers of boards, running different ways, and nailed at the extremities, to prevent them from warping. Upon this planking a rough-work must be laid, one-fourth of which consists of pounded pottery: and upon this, another bed of rough-work, two-fifths composed of lime, a foot in thickness, and well beaten down with the rammer. The nucleus2 is then laid down, a bed six fingers in depth; and upon that, large square stones, not less than a couple of fingers in thickness; an inclination being carefully observed, of an inch and a half to every ten feet. This done, the surface is well rubbed down with a polishing stone. The general opinion is, that oak3 should never be used for the planking, it being so very liable to warp; and it is considered a good plan to cover the boards with a layer of fern or chaff, that they may be the better able to resist the action of the lime. It is necessary, too, before putting down the planking, to underset it with a bed of round pebbles. Wheat-ear4 tesselated pavements are laid down in a similar manner.

1 "Subdialia;" more literally, "open-air pavements."

2 Or "kernel;" so called because it lay in the middle. Vitruvius says that it was composed of one part lime, and three parts pounded pottery.

3 "Quercus."

4 "Spicata testacea." These pavements were probably so called because the bricks were laid at angles to each other (of about forty-five degrees), like the grains in an ear of wheat; or like the spines projecting from either side of the back-bone of a fish.

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