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Lying opposite to Thesprotia, at a distance of twelve miles from Buthrotus, and of fifty from Acroceraunia, is the island of Corcyra1, with a city of the same name, the citizens of which are free; also a town called Cassiope2, and a temple dedicated to Jupiter Cassius. This island is ninety-seven miles in length, and in Homer has the names of Scheria and Phæacia; while Callimachus calls it Drepane. There are some other islands around it, such as Thoronos3, lying in the direction of Italy, and the two islands of Paxos4 in that of Leucadia, both of them five miles distant from Corcyra. Not far5 from these, and in front of Corcyra, are Ericusa, Marathe, Elaphusa, Malthace, Trachie, Pythionia, Ptychia, Tarachie, and, off Phalacrum6, a promontory of Corcyra, the rock into which (according to the story, which arises no doubt from the similarity of appearance) the ship of Ulysses was changed.

Before Leucimna7 we find the islands of Sybota, and between Leucadia and Achaia a great number of islands, among which are those called Teleboïdes8, as also Taphiæ; by the natives, those which lie before Leucadia are called by the names of Taphias, Oxiæ, and Prinoessa9; while those that are in front of Ætolia are the Echinades10, consisting of Ægialia, Cotonis, Thyatira, Geoaris, Dionysia, Cyrnus, Chalcis, Pinara, and Mystus.

In front of these, and lying out at sea, are Cephallenia11 and Zacynthus12, both of them free, Ithaca13, Dulichium14, Same15, and Crocyle16. Cephallenia, formerly known as Melæna17, lies at a distance of eleven miles from Paxos, and is ninety-three miles in circumference: its city of Same has been levelled to the ground by the Romans; but it still possesses three others18. Between this island and Achaia lies the island of Zacynthus, remarkable for its city of the same name, and for its singular fertility. It formerly had the name of Hyrie, and lies to the south of Cephallenia, at a distance of twenty-five miles; in it there is the famous mountain of Elatus19. This island is thirty-six miles in circumference. At a distance of fifteen miles from Zacynthus is Ithaca, in which is Mount Neritus20; its circumference in all is twenty-five miles. Twelve miles distant from this island is Araxus21, a promontory of the Peloponnesus. Before Ithaca, lying out in the main sea, are Asteris22 and Prote; and before Zacynthus, at a distance of thirty-five miles in the direction of the south-east wind, are the two Strophades23, by some known as the Plotæ. Before Cephallenia lies Letoia24, before Pylos the three Sphagiæ25, and before Messene the Œnussæ26, as many in number.

In the Asinæan Gulf there are the three Thyrides27, and in that of Laconia Theganusa28, Cothon, and Cythera29, with the town of that name, the former name of which island was Porphyris. It is situate five miles from the promontory of Malea30, thus forming a strait very dangerous to navigation. In the Gulf of Argolis are Pityusa31, Irine, and Ephyre; opposite the territory of Hermione32, Tiparenus, Aperopia33, Colonis34, and Aristera; and, opposite that of Trœzen, Calauria35, at a distance of half a mile, Plateis36, Belbina, Lasia, and Baucidias. Opposite Epidaurus is Cecryphalos37, and Pityonesos38, six miles distant from the mainland; and, at a distance of fifteen miles from this last, Ægina39, a free island, the length of which, as you sail past it, is eighteen miles. This island is twenty miles distant from Piræus, the port of Athens: it used formerly to be called Œnone. Opposite the promontory of Spiræum40, lie Eleusa41, Adendros42, the two islands called Craugiæ, the two Cæciæ, Selachusa Cenehreis, and Aspis; as also, in the Gulf of Megara, the four Methurides. Ægila43 lies at a distance of fifteen miles from Cythera, and of twenty-five from Phalasarna, a city of Crete.

1 Now Corfu. Of its city of Corcyra only a few ruins now exist.

2 There are still some remains of it near the village called Cassopo.

3 Now Fano, or Merlere.

4 Now Paxo and Antipaxo.

5 On the contrary, they lie at the other end of the isle of Corcyra. Some of them are mere rocks, and cannot be distinguished by their ancient names. The present names of four are Sametraki, Diaplo, Boaia, and the Isle of Ulysses.

6 Now Capo Drasti.

7 Now Capo Levkimo. The islands are those of Santo Niccolo.

8 Or Islands of the Teleboans.

9 These three seem to be those now called Magnisi, Kalamota, and Kastus. These lie facing the promontory of Leucadia, the others opposite Ætolia.

10 Opposite Acarnania: by the Venetians they were called the Islands of Kurtzolari. Some of them are cultivated, others again are mere rocks.

11 Now called Cephallenia.

12 Now Zante.

13 Now Thiaki, or Cefalogna Piccola—Little Cephallenia.

14 The general opinion is, that Strabo is right in identifying this island with one of the Echinades; but it seems impossible now to say which of them was so called.

15 Sometimes confounded with Cephallenia; but, according to Virgil and Mela, as well as Pliny, they were different islands.

16 Crocylæa was a town of Acarnania, referred to by Homer; and there was a district of Ithaca called Crocyleium. Pliny is probably in error in mentioning Crocyle as an island.

17 Or the "Black Island;" probably from its thick foliage.

18 Pale, Cranii, and Proni.

19 So called from its fir-trees. It now has the name of Scopo.

20 Now Monte Stefano.

21 See c. 6 of this Book.

22 Supposed by some writers to be the same with the rocky isle now called Dyscallio. Though mentioned by Homer, its existence was disputed by many of the ancient commentators.

23 The modern Strivali and Stamphane.

24 The present Guardiania, according to Lapie.

25 According to Ansart, these were Prote, now Prodano, and Sphagia, formerly Sphacteria, before Pylos, now called Zonchio, or Old Navarino; the third being perhaps the isle of Bechli, in the Bay of Navarino.

26 Now called Sapienza, Santa Maria, and Cabrera.

27 Venetico and Formignes are the names of two of them.

28 Now Servi.

29 The modern Cerigo.

30 It is much further from the Cape of Malea or Santo Angelo than the distance here mentioned. It derived its name of Porphyris from the purple fishery established here by the Phœnicians.

31 The modern Isle of Port Tolon. Irine is the present Hipsyli according to Leake, who also identifies Ephyre with Spetzia.

32 At the south of Argolis.

33 The modern Dhoko, according to Leake. Some authorities think that Tiparenus, and not Ephyre, is the modern Spetzia.

34 Leake thinks that Colonis and Hydreia, now called Hydra, were the same island; but Kiepert thinks it the same as the small island to the south of Spetzia.

35 Now Poros.

36 These are the islands now called Moni Jorench, Kophinidia, and San Giorgio d'Arbora. It is perhaps impossible to identify them, except that Belbina is generally supposed to be the island of San Giorgio.

37 Now Kyra.

38 The modern Angistri.

39 Which name, or Eghina, it still retains.

40 See c. 9 of this Book.

41 Probably the modern Laoussa, one of this group.

42 By Brotier said to be the modern Pentenesia. The other islands here mentioned seem not to have been identified.

43 Now Cerigotto.

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