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1 Now generally known as the Palus Mæotis or Sea of Azof.
2 The modern Caraboa, according to Brotier, stands on its site. Priapus was the tutelary divinity of Lampsacus in this vicinity.
3 Or "entrance of Pontus"; now the Sea of Marmora.
4 "Ox Ford," or "passage of the cow," Io being said to have crossed it in that form: now called the "Straits of Constantinople."
5 Said to have been called ἄξενος or "inhospitable," from its frequent storms and the savage state of the people living on its shores. In later times, on the principle of Euphemism, or abstaining from words of ill omen, its name was changed to εὔξεινος "hospitable."
6 This was a favourite comparison of the ancients; the north coast, between the Thracian Bosporus and the Phasis, formed the bow, and the southern shores the string. The Scythian bow somewhat resembled in form the figure ς, the capital Sigma of the Greeks.
7 Now the Straits of Kaffa or Enikale.
8 This town lay about the middle of the Tauric Chersonesus or Crimea, and was situate on a small peninsula, called the Smaller Chersonesus, to distinguish it from the larger one, of which it formed a part. It was founded by the inhabitants of the Pontic Heraclea, or Heracleium, the site of which is unknown. See note9 to p. 333.
9 Now Kertsch, in the Crimea. It derived its name from the river Panticapes; and was founded by the Milesians about B.C. 541. It was the residence of the Greek kings of Bosporus, and hence it was sometimes so called.
10 "Thirty-six" properly.
11 The Tanais or Don does not rise in the Riphæan Mountains, or western branch of the Uralian chain, but on slightly elevated ground in the centre of European Russia.
12 Chap. 18 of the present Book. Istropolis is supposed to be the present Istere, though some would make it to have stood on the site of the present Kostendsje, and Brotier identifies it with Kara-Kerman.
13 Now called the Schwarzwald or Black Forest. The Danube or Ister rises on the eastern side at the spot called Donaueschingen.
14 So called from the Raurici, a powerful people of Gallia Belgica, who possessed several towns, of which the most important were Augusta, now Augst, and Basilia, now Bâle.
15 Only three of these are now considered of importance, as being the main branches of the river. It is looked upon as impossible by modern geographers to identify the accounts given by the ancients with the present channels, by name, as the Danube has undergone in lapse of time, very considerable changes at its mouth. Strabo mentions seven mouths, three being lesser ones.
16 So called, as stated by Pliny, from the island of Peuce, now Piczina. Peuce appears to have been the most southerly of the mouths.
17 Now called Kara-Sou, according to Brotier. Also called Rassefu in the maps.
18 Now called Hazrali Bogasi, according to Brotier. It is called by Ptolemy the Narakian Mouth.
19 Or the "Beautiful Mouth." Now Susie Bogasi, according to Brotier.
20 Or the "False Mouth": now the Sulina Bogasi, the principal mouth of the Danube, so maltreated by its Russian guardians.
21 Or the "Passage of the Gnats," so called from being the resort of swarms of mosquitoes, which were said at a certain time of the year to migrate to the Palus Mæotis. According to Brotier the present name of this island is Ilan Adasi, or Serpent Island.
22 The "Northern Mouth ": near the town of Kilia.
23 Or the "Narrow Mouth."
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