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At the Promontory of the Pyrenees Spain begins, more narrow, not only than Gaul, but even than itself1 in its other parts, as we have previously mentioned2, seeing to what an immense extent it is here hemmed in by the ocean on the one side, and by the Iberian Sea on the other. A chain of the Pyrenees, extending from due east to south-west3, divides Spain into two parts, the smaller one to the north, the larger to the south. The first coast that presents itself is that of the Nearer Spain, otherwise called Tarraconensis. On leaving the Pyrenees and proceeding along the coast, we meet with the forest ranges of the Vascones4, Olarso5, the towns of the Varduli6, the Morosgi7, Menosca8, Vesperies9, and the Port of Amanus10, where now stands the colony of Flaviobriga. We then come to the district of the nine states of the Cantabri11, the river Sauga12, and the Port of Victoria of the Juliobrigenses13, from which place the sources of the Iberus14 are distant forty miles. We next come to the Port of Blendium15, the Orgenomesci16, a people of the Cantabri, Vereasueca17 their port, the country of the As- tures18, the town of Noega19, and on a peninsula20, the Pæsici. Next to these we have, belonging to the jurisdiction of Lucus21, after passing the river Navilubio22, the Cibarci23, the Egovarri, surnamed Namarini, the Iadoni, the Arrotrebæ24, the Celtic Promontory, the rivers Florius25 and Nelo, the Celtici26, surnamed Neri, and above them the Tamarici27, in whose peninsula28 are the three altars called Sestianæ, and dedicated29 to Augustus; the Capori30, the town of Noela31, the Celtici surnamed Præsamarci, and the Cilen32: of the islands, those worthy of mention are Corticata33 and Aunios. After passing the Cileni, belonging to the jurisdiction of the Bracari34, we have the Heleni35, the Gravii36, and the fortress of Tyde, all of them deriving their origin from the Greeks. Also, the islands called Cicæ37, the famous city of Abobrica38, the river Minius39, four miles wide at its mouth, the Leuni, the Seurbi40, and Augusta41, a town of the Bracari, above whom lies Gallæcia. We then come to the river Limia42, and the river Durius43, one of the largest in Spain, and which rises in the district of the Pelendones44, passes near Numantia, and through the Arevaci and the Vaccæi, dividing the Vettones from Asturia, the Gallæci from Lusitania, and separating the Turduli from the Bracari. The whole of the region here mentioned from the Pyrenees is full of mines of gold, silver, iron, and lead, both black and white45.

1 He means to say that it gradually increases in breadth after leaving the narrow neck of the Pyrenees and approaching the confines of Lusitania.

2 B. iii. c. 3.

3 From Ruscino to Gades.

4 In the province now known as Guipuzcoa.

5 Supposed to be the present Cabo do la Higuera.

6 Probably inhabiting the eastern part of the provinces of Biscay and Alava, the eastern portion of Navarre, and, perhaps, a part of the province of Guipuzcoa.

7 According to Hardouin the modern San Sebastian occupies the site of their town.

8 On the same site as the modern Bermeo, according to Mannert. Hardouin thinks, however, and with greater probability, that it was situate at the mouth of the river Orio.

9 D'Anville considers this to be the site of the city of Bermeo.

10 Poinsinet thinks that this is Flavio in Bilbao, D'Anville calls it Portugalette, and Mannert thinks that it is the same as Santander, with which opinion Ansart agrees.

11 According to Ptolemy, the Cantabri possessed the western part of the province of La Montana, and the northern parts of the provinces of Palencia and Toro.

12 Most probably the present Rio de Suancès, by Mannert called the Saya, into which the Besanga flows. Hardouin however calls it the Nervio.

13 Ansart suggests that this is the modern San Vicente de la Barquera. If the river Sauga is the same with the Suancès, this cannot be the port of Santander, as has been suggested.

14 Or Ebro.

15 According to Ansart, this is either the modern Ensenada de Ballota or else the Puerta de Pô

16 According to Ansart, the Orgenomesci occupied the same territory which Ptolemy has assigned to the Cantabri in general. See Note 10 above.

17 Hardouin takes this to be Villaviciosa. Ansart thinks that Ria de Cella occupies its site.

18 They are supposed to have occupied the greater part of the principality of the Asturias and the province of Leon.

19 Hardouin and Mannert consider this to be identical with Navia or Nava, six miles to the east of Oviedo, an obscure place in the interior. Ansart however would identify it with Villaviciosa.

20 No doubt the headland now known as the Cabo de Penas.

21 Now Lugo in Gallicia.

22 Supposed by Ansart to be the Rio Caneiro, into which the Rio Labio discharges itself.

23 Supposed by Ansart to have dwelt in the vicinity of the Celtic promontory, now Cabo de Finisterra or Cape Finisterre. Of the Egovarri and Iadoni nothing whatever is known.

24 Their towns are mentioned by Ptolemy as being situate on a bay near Nerium or the promontory of Cape Finisterre.

25 Mannert thinks that the Nelo is the same as the Rio Allones; the Florius seems not to have been identified.

26 The inhabitants of Cape Finisterre.

27 Dwelling on the banks of the river which from them takes its modern name of Tambre.

28 Mannert and Ansart are of opinion that this peninsula was probably the modern Cabo Taurinan or Cabo Villano, most probably the latter.

29 On the occasion probably of his expedition against the Cantabri.

30 Their towns, Iria Flavia and Lacus Augusti, lay in the interior, on the sites of the present Santiago de Compostella and Lugo.

31 Probably the modern Noya.

32 They are supposed to have occupied the district in which the warm springs are found, which are known as Caldas de Contis and Caldas deRey.

33 It is suggested by Ansart that the islands here meant are those called Carreira, at the mouth of the river Ulla, and the Islas de Ons, at the mouth of the Tenario.

34 See B. iii. c. 4.

35 Inhabiting the vicinity of the modern Pontevedra.

36 According to Ptolemy also their town was Tudse, the modern Tuy.

37 The modern Islas de Scyas or of Bayona.

38 The town of Bayona, about six leagues from the mouth of the river Minho.

39 The Minho.

40 They occupied the tract of country lying between the rivers, and known as Entre Douro y Minho.

41 Now Braga on the Cavado.

42 The Lima.

43 The river Douro.

44 See B. iii. c. 3.

45 Both lead, properly so called, and tin.

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