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1 In a great degree corresponding with modern Portugal, except that the latter includes the tract of country between the Minho and Douro.
2 To distinguish them from the nation of the same name sprung from them, and occupying the Farther Spain. (B. iii. c. 3.) The Pæsuri occupied the site of the present towns of Lamego and Arouca.
3 The modern Vouga, which runs below the town of Aveiro, raised from the ruins of ancient Talabrica.
4 Agueda, which, according to Hardouin, is the name of both the river and the town.
5 Coimbra, formerly Condeja la Veja.
6 Leiria is supposed to occupy its site.
7 According to Hardouin, the modern Ebora de Alcobaza, ten leagues from Leiria.
8 The modern Cabo de la Roca, seven leagues from Lisbon.
9 Pliny, in C. 34, places the Arrotrebæ, belonging to the Conventus of Lucus Augusti, about the Promontorium Celticum, which, if not the same as the Nerium (or Cape Finisterre) of the others, is evidently in its immediate neighbourhood; but he confuses the whole matter by a very curious error. He mentions a promontory called Artabrum as the headland at the N. W. extremity of Spain; the coast on the one side of it looking to the north and the Gallic Ocean, on the other to the west and the Atlantic Ocean. But he considers this promontory to be the west headland of the estuary of the Tagus, and adds, that some called it Magnum Promontorium, or the "Great Promontory," and others Olisiponense, from the city of Olisipo, or Lisbon. He assigns, in fact, all the west coast of Spain, down to the mouth of the Tagus, to the north coast, and, instead of being led to detect his error by the resemblance of name between his Artabrum Promontorium and his Arrotrebæ (the Artabri of his predecessors, Strabo and Mela), he perversely finds fault with those who had placed above the promontory Artabrum, a people of the same name who never were there.
10 On the site of which the present city of Lisbon stands.
11 See note 18 in the preceding page.
12 See note18.
13 See note13 in the preceding page.
14 Among these is Pomponius Mela, who confounds the river Limia, mentioned in the last chapter, with the Æminius, or Agueda.
15 Now the river Mondego.
16 See B. xxxiii. c. 21.
17 Now Cape St. Vincent.
18 Pliny continues his error here, in taking part of the western side of Spain for the north, and part of the southern coast for the western.
19 B. iii. c. 2.
20 With the Vettones, situate in the province of the Alentejo. See B. iii. c. 3.
21 In the present province of Algarve.
22 Now Lisbon. Both Strabo, Solinus, and Martianus Capella make mention of a story that Ulysses came to Spain and founded this city.
23 See B. viii. c. 67 of the present work.
24 According to Hardouin, followed by D'Anville and Uckert, this place gives name to Alcazar do Sal, nearly midway between Evora and the sea-shore. Mannert says Setuval, which D'Anville however supposes to be the ancient Cetobriga.
25 On its site stands Santiago de Cacem, nearly midway between Lisbon and Cape St. Vincent.
26 Or the "Wedge," generally supposed to be Cabo de Santa Maria. Ansart however thinks that it is the Punta de Sagres, near Cape St. Vincent. Pliny's words indeed seem to imply a closer proximity than that of Capes St. Vincent and Santa Maria.
27 According to Hardouin, the modern Estombar; according to D'Anville, in the vicinity of Faro; but ten leagues from that place, according to Mannert.
28 Hardouin and D'Anville are of opinion that Tavira occupies its site.
29 Now Mertola, on the river Guadiana.
30 Now Merida, on the Guadiana. A colony of veterans (Emeriti) was planted there by Augustus.
31 Now Medellin, in the province of Estremadura.
32 Pax Julia, or Pax Augusta, in the country of the Turduli, or Turdetani; now Beja, in the province of the Alentejo
33 Now Alcantara, in the province of Estremadura.
34 Now Truxillo, so called from Turis Julia.
35 Now Caceres.
36 Now called Santarem, from Saint Irene, the Virgin.
37 "The Garrison of Julius."
38 "The Success of Julius."
39 Evora, between the Guadiana and the Tagus.
40 "The Liberality of Julius."
41 B. iii. c. 3.
42 Hardouin takes Augustobriga to have stood on the site of Villar del Pedroso on the Tagus. Other writers think that it is represented by the present Ponte del Arcobispo.
43 From Ammia, now Portalegre, on the frontier of Portugal. The sites of Arabrica and Balsa do not appear to have been ascertained.
44 Capera stood on the site now called Las Ventas de Capara, between Alcantara and Coria. The site of Cæsarobrica has not been ascertained.
45 Coria, in Estremadura, probably occupies the site of Caura.
46 Hardouin suggests that the modern Tomar occupies the site of Concordia.
47 Mannert is of opinion that the city of Lancia was situate in the north of Lusitania, on the river Durius, or Douro, near the modern Zamora.
48 To distinguish them from the Mirobrigenses, surnamed Turduli, mentioned in B. iii. c. 3. Some writers think that this Mirobriga is the present Ciudad Rodrigo; but Ambrose Morales takes it to be the place called Malabriga, in the vicinity of that city.
49 The name of Medubriga was afterwards Aramenha, of which Hardouin says the ruins only were to be seen. They were probably called Plumbarii, from lead mines in their vicinity.
50 According to Hardouin, Ocelum was in the vicinity of the modern Capara.
51 From Cape de Creuz to the Promontory between the cities of Fontarabia and Saint Sebastian.
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