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The tide of the Hellespont now begins to run with greater violence, and the sea beats against the shore, undermining with its eddies the barriers that stand in its way, until it has succeeded in separating Asia from Europe. At this spot is the promontory which we have already mentioned as Trapeza1; ten miles distant from which is the city of Abydos2, where the straits are only seven stadia wide; then the town of Percote3; Lampsacus4, at first called Pityusa; the colony of Parium5, which Homer calls by the name of Adrastia; the town of Priapos6; the river Æsepus7; Zelia8; and then the Propontis9, that being the name given to the tract of sea where it enlarges. We then come to the river Granicus10, and the harbour of Artace11, where a town formerly stood. Beyond this is an island which Alexander joined to the continent, and upon which is Cyzicus12, a city of the Milesians, which was formerly called Arctonnesos13, Dolionis, and Dindymis; above it are the heights of Mount Dindymus14. We then come to the towns of Placia, Ariace15, and Scylace; in the rear of which places is Mount Olympus, known as the "Mysian Olympus," and the city of Olympena. There are also the rivers Horisius16 and Rhyndacus17, formerly called the Lycus; this last river rises in Lake Artynias, near Miletopolis, and receives the Macestos, and many other streams, dividing in its course Asia18 from Bithynia19.

This country was at first called by the name of Cronia, after that, Thessalis, and then Malianda and Strymonis. The people of it are by Homer called Halizones20, from the fact that it was a nation begirt by the sea. There was formerly a vast city here, Attussa by name; at present there are twelve cities in existence; among which is Gordiucome21, otherwise Juliopolis; and, on the coast, Dascylos22. We then come to the river Gelbes23; and, in the interior, the town of Helgas, or Germanicopolis, which has also the other name of Booseœte24 Apamea25, now more generally known as Myrlea of the Colophonians: the river Etheleus also. the ancient boundary of Troas, and the commencement of Mysia. Next to this comes the gulf26 into which the river Ascanius flows, the town of Bryllion27, and the rivers Hylas and Cios, with a town of the same name as the last- mentioned river; it was founded by the Milesians at a place which was called Aseania of Phrygia, as an entrepôt for the trade of the Phrygians who dwelt in the vicinity. We may therefore look upon this as a not ineligible opportunity for making further mention of Phrygia.

1 In C. 33 of the present Book.

2 Opposite to Sestos, made famous by the loves of Hero and Leander. Aidos, or Avido, a village on the Hellespont, is thought to occupy its site.

3 Now called Bergase, according to D'Anville.

4 Its ruins are still known as Lapsaki. This important city was celebrated for its wine, and was the chief seat of the worship of the god Priapus.

5 Its site is now called Camanar, according to D'Anville.

6 According to Ansart, the modern Caraboa marks its site.

7 Now called the Satal-dere, according to Ansart.

8 Its locality was not far from the modern Biga, according to Ansart.

9 Now the Sea of Marmora.

10 Mentioned in C. 33 of the present Book.

11 Now called Artaki, or Erdek, a town of Mysia, and a Milesian colony. A poor town now occupies its site.

12 Its ruins are called by the Turks Bal Kiz, probably meaning "Old Cyzicus." There are many subterraneous passages, and the ruins are of considerable extent. Its temples and storehouses appear to have been built on a scale of great magnificence. See Pliny, B. xxxvi. c. 15.

13 The "Island of the Bears," which animals frequented the mountain in its vicinity.

14 Called Dindymum by Herodotus; probably the modern Morad Dagh, in which the river Hermus rises.

15 Now called Saki, according to Ansart.

16 Now called the Lartaeho, according to Ansart.

17 Previously mentioned in C. 32 of the present Book.

18 In its limited sense; considered as a portion only of Asia Minor.

19 On the west it bordered on Mysia, and on the south on Phrygia and Galatia, while the eastern boundary seems to have been less definite.

20 Ephorus, as quoted by Stephanus Byzantinus, says, that the Halizones inhabited the district lying between Caria, Mysia, and Lydia. Hesyehius incorrectly places them in Paphlagonia.

21 Meaning the "Village of Gordius," one of its ancient kings. It was also called Gordium. After falling to decay, it was rebuilt by Augustus, and called Juliopolis. It is celebrated in history as the place where Alexander the Great cut the Gordian knot; the scene of the adventure being the Acropolis of the town, the former palace of King Gordius.

22 There were several Asiatic cities of the similar name of Dascylium. The site of the one here mentioned does not appear to have been ascertained.

23 More generally read "Gebes."

24 The "Bull's Bed," or "Den." It probably took its second name from the Roman general Germanicus.

25 Now called Medania, or Mutania. It received its name of Apamea from Prusias, king of Bithynia, in compliment to his wife. In the time of the first Cæsars, it was made a Roman colony.

26 The Bay of Cios. The river runs into a lake, formerly known as Lake Ascanius; probably that mentioned by Pliny in B. xxxi. c. 10.

27 Stephanus Byzantinus says that it was the same as the town of Cios, or Cius, here mentioned as near to it. It was on the shores of the Propontis.

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  • Cross-references to this page (14):
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), ATU´SA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), GERMANICO´POLIS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), GRANI´CUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), LA´MPSACUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), MACESTUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), MILETO´POLIS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), MILETOPOLI´TIS LACUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), OLYMPUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), PA´RIUM
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), PRIA´PUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), PROPONTIS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), RHY´NDACUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), SCYLACE
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), STRYMO´NII
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