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The Greeks have given the name of Libya1 to Africa, and have called the sea that lies in front of it the Libyan Sea. It has Egypt for its boundary, and no part of the earth is there that has fewer gulfs or inlets, its shores extending in a lengthened line from the west in an oblique direction. The names of its peoples, and its cities in especial, cannot possibly be pronounced with correctness, except by the aid of their own native tongues. Its population, too, for the most part dwells only in fortresses2.

(1.) On our entrance into Africa, we find the two Mauritanias, which, until the time of Caius Cæsar3, the son of Germanicus, were kingdoms; but, suffering under his cruelty, they were divided into two provinces. The extreme promontory of Africa, which projects into the ocean, is called Ampelusia4 by the Greeks. There were formerly two towns, Lissa and Cotte5, beyond the Pillars of Hercules; but, at the present day, we only find that of Tingi6, which was for- merly founded by Antæus, and afterwards received the name of Traducta Julia7, from Claudius Cæsar, when he established a colony there. It is thirty miles distant from Belon8, a town of Bætica, where the passage across is the shortest. At a distance of twenty-five miles from Tingi, upon the shores of the ocean9, we come to Julia Constantia Zilis10, a colony of Augustus. This place is exempt from all subjection to the kings of Mauritania, and is included in the legal jurisdiction of Bætica. Thirty-two miles distant from Julia Constantia is Lixos11, which was made a Roman colony by Claudius Cæsar, and which has been the subject of such wondrous fables, related by the writers of antiquity. At this place, according to the story, was the palace of Antaeus; this was the scene of his combat with Hercules, and here were the gardens of the Hesperides12. An arm of the sea flows into the land here, with a serpentine channel, and, from the nature of the locality, this is interpreted at the present day as having been what was really represented by the story of the dragon keeping guard there. This tract of water surrounds an island, the only spot which is never overflowed by the tides of the sea, although not quite so elevated as the rest of the land in its vicinity. Upon this island, also, there is still in existence the altar of Hercules; but of the grove that bore the golden fruit, there are no traces left, beyond some wild olive-trees. People will certainly be the less surprised at the marvellous falsehoods of the Greeks, which have been related about this place and the river Lixos13, when they reflect that some of our own14 countrymen as well, and that too very recently, have related stories in reference to them hardly less monstrous; how that this city is remarkable for its power and extensive influence, and how that it is even greater than Great Carthage ever was; how, too, that it is situate just opposite to Carthage, and at an almost immeasurable distance from Tingi, together with other details of a similar nature, all of which Cornelius Nepos has believed with the most insatiate credulity15.

In the interior, at a distance of forty miles from Lixos, is Babba16, surnamed Julia Campestris, another colony of Augustus; and, at a distance of seventy-five, a third, called Banasa17, with the surname of Valentia. At a distance of thirty-five miles from this last is the town of Volubilis, which is just that distance also from both18 seas. On the coast, at a distance of fifty miles from Lixos, is the river Subur19, which flows past the colony of Banasa, a fine river, and available for the purposes of navigation. At the same distance from it is the city of Sala20, situate on a river which bears the same name, a place which stands upon the very verge of the desert, and though infested by troops of elephants, is much more exposed to the attacks of the nation of the Autololes, through whose country lies the road to Mount Atlas, the most fabulous21 locality even in Africa.

It is from the midst of the sands, according to the story, that this mountain22 raises its head to the heavens; rugged and craggy on the side which looks toward the shores of the ocean to which it has given its name, while on that which faces the interior of Africa it is shaded by dense groves of trees, and refreshed by flowing streams; fruits of all kinds springing up there spontaneously to such an extent, as to more than satiate every possible desire. Throughout the daytime, no inhabitant is to be seen; all is silent, like that dreadful stillness which reigns in the desert. A religious horror steals imperceptibly over the feelings of those who approach, and they feel themselves smitten with awe at the stupendous aspect of its summit, which reaches beyond the clouds, and well nigh approaches the very orb of the moon. At night, they say, it gleams with fires innumerable lighted up; it is then the scene of the gambols of the Ægipans23 and the Satyr crew, while it re-echoes with the notes of the flute and the pipe, and the clash of drums and cymbals. All this is what authors of high character have stated, in addition to the labours which Hercules and Perseus there experienced. The space which intervenes before you arrive at this mountain is immense, and the country quite unknown.

There formerly existed some Commentaries written by Hanno24, a Carthaginian general, who was commanded, in the most flourishing times of the Punic state, to explore the sea-coast of Africa. The greater part of the Greek and Roman writers have followed him, and have related, among other fabulous stories, that many cities there were founded by him, of which no remembrance, nor yet the slightest vestige, now exists.

While Scipio Æmilianus held the command in Sicily, Polybius the historian received a fleet from him for the purpose of proceeding on a voyage of discovery in this part of the world. He relates, that beyond25 Mount Atlas, pro- ceeding in a westerly direction, there are forests filled with wild beasts, peculiar to the soil of Africa, as far as the river Anatis26, a distance of 485 miles, Lixos being distant from it 205 miles. Agrippa says, that Lixos is distant from the Straits of Gades 112 miles. After it we come to a gulf which is called the Gulf of Saguti27, a town situate on the Promontory of Mulelacha28, the rivers Subur and Salat29, and the port of Rutubis30, distant from Lixos 213 miles We then come to the Promontory of the Sun31, the port of Risardir32, the Gætulian Autololes, the river Cosenus33, the nations of the Selatiti and the Masati, the river Masathat34, and the river Darat35, in which crocodiles are found. After this we come to a large gulf, 61636 miles in extent, which is enclosed by a promontory of Mount Barce37, which runs out in a westerly direction, and is called Surrentium38. Next comes the river Salsus39, beyond which lie the Æthiopian Perorsi, at the back of whom are the Pharusii40, who are bordered upon by the Gætulian Daræ41, lying in the interior. Upon the coast again, we find the Æthiopian Daratitæ, and the river Bambotus42, teeming with crocodiles and hippopotami. From this river there is a continuous range43 of mountains till we come to the one which is known by the name of Theon Ochema44, from which to the Hesperian Promontory45 is a voyage of ten days and nights; and in the middle of this space he46 has placed Mount Atlas, which by all other writers has been stated to be in the extreme parts of Mauritania.

The Roman arms, for the first time, pursued their conquests into Mauritania, under the Emperor Claudius, when the freedman Ædemon took up arms to avenge the death of King Ptolemy47, who had been put to death by Caius Cæsar; and it is a well-known fact, that on the flight of the barbarians our troops reached Mount Atlas. It became a boast, not only among men of consular rank, and generals selected from the senate, who at that time held the command, but among persons of equestrian rank as well, who after that period held the government there, that they had penetrated as far as Mount Atlas. There are, as we have already stated, five Roman colonies in this province; and it may very possibly appear, if we listen only to what report says, that this mountain is easily accessible. Upon trial, however, it has been pretty generally shown, that all such statements are utterly fallacious; and it is too true, that men in high station, when they are disinclined to take the trouble of inquiring into the truth, through a feeling of shame at their ignorance arc not averse to be guilty of falsehood; and never is implicit credence more readily given, than when a falsehood is supported by the authority of some personage of high consideration. For my own part, I am far less surprised that there are still some facts remaining undiscovered by men of the equestrian order, and even those among them who have attained senatorial rank, than that the love of luxury has left anything unascertained; the impulse of which must be great indeed, and most powerfully felt, when the very forests are ransacked for their ivory and citron-wood48, and all the rocks of Gætulia are searched for the murex and the purple.

From the natives, however, we learn, that on the coast, at a distance of 150 miles from the Salat, the river Asana49 presents itself; its waters are salt, but it is remarkable for its fine harbour. They also say that after this we come to a river known by the name of Fut50, and then, after crossing another called Vior which lies on the road, at a distance of 200 miles we arrive at Dyris51, such being the name which in their language they give to Mount Atlas. According to their story there are still existing in its vicinity many vestiges which tend to prove that the locality was once inhabited; such as the remains of vineyards and plantations of palm-trees.

Suetonius Paulinus52, whom we have seen Consul in our own time, was the first Roman general who advanced a distance of some miles beyond Mount Atlas. He has given us the same information as we have received from other sources with reference to the extraordinary height of this mountain, and at the same time he has stated that all the lower parts about the foot of it are covered with dense and lofty forests composed of trees of species hitherto unknown. The height of these trees, he says, is remarkable; the trunks are without knots, and of a smooth and glossy surface; the foliage is like that of the cypress, and besides sending forth a powerful odour, they are covered with a flossy down, from which, by the aid of art, a fine cloth might easily be manufactured, similar to the textures made from the produce of the silk-worm. He informs us that the summit of this mountain is covered with snow even in summer, and says that having arrived there after a march of ten days, he proceeded some distance beyond it as far as a river which bears the name of Ger53; the road being through deserts covered with a black sand54, from which rocks that bore the appearance of having been exposed to the action of fire, projected every here and there; localities rendered quite uninhabitable by the intensity of the heat, as he himself experienced, although it was in the winter season that he visited them. We also learn from the same source that the people who inhabit the adjoining forests, which are full of all kinds of elephants, wild beasts, and serpents, have the name of Canarii; from the circumstance that they partake of their food in common with the canine race, and share with it the entrails of wild beasts.

It is a well-known fact, that adjoining to these localities is a nation of Æthiopians, which bears the name of Perorsi. Juba, the father of Ptolemy, who was the first king55 who reigned over both the Mauritanias, and who has been rendered even more famous by the brilliancy of his learning than by his kingly rank, has given us similar information relative to Mount Atlas, and states that a certain herb grows there, which has received the name of 'euphorbia'56 from that of his physician, who was the first to discover it. Juba extols with wondrous praises the milky juice of this plant as tending to improve the sight, and acting as a specific against the bites of serpents and all kinds of poison; and to this subject alone he has devoted an entire book. Thus much, if indeed not more than enough, about Mount Atlas.

(2.) The province of Tingitana is 170 miles in length57. Of the nations in this province the principal one was formerly that of the Mauri58, who have given to it the name of Mauritania, and have been by many writers called the Maurusii59. This nation has been greatly weakened by the disasters of war, and is now dwindled down to a few families only60. Next to the Mauri was formerly the nation of the Massæsyli61; they in a similar manner have become extinct. Their country is now occupied by the Gætulian nations62, the Baniuræ63, the Autololes64, by far the most powerful people among them all, and the Vesuni, who formerly were a part of the Autololes, but have now separated from them, and, turning their steps towards the Æthiopians65, have formed a distinct nation of their own. This province, in the mountainous district which lies on its eastern side produces elephants, as also on the heights of Mount Abyla66 and among those elevations which, from the similarity of their height, are called the Seven Brothers67. Joining the range of Abyla these mountains overlook the Straits of Gades. At the extremity of this chain begin the shores of the inland sea68 and we come to the Tamuda69, a navigable stream, with the site of a former town of the same name, and then the river Laud70, which is also navigable for vessels, the town and port of Rhysaddir71, and Malvane72, a navigable stream.

The city of Siga73, formerly the residence of King Syphax, lies opposite to that of Malaca74 in Spain: it now belongs to the second75 Mauritania. But these countries, I should remark, for a long time retained the names of their respective kings, the further Mauritania being called the "land of Bogud76," while that which is now called Cæsariensis was called the "country of Bocchus." After passing Siga we come to the haven called "Portus Magnus77" from its great extent, with a town whose people enjoy the rights of Roman citizens, and then the river Mulucha78, which served as the limit between the territory of Bocchus and that of the Massæsyli. Next to this is Quiza Xenitana79, a town founded by strangers, and Arsenaria80, a place with the ancient Latin rights, three miles distant from the sea. We then come to Cartenna81, a colony founded under Augustus by the second legion, and Gunugum82, another colony founded by the same emperor, a prætorian cohort being established there; the Promontory of Apollo83, and a most celebrated city, now called Cæsarea84, but formerly known by the name of Iol; this place was the residence of King Juba, and received the rights of a colony from the now deified Emperor Claudius. Oppidum Novum85 is the next place; a colony of veterans was established here by command of the same emperor. Next to it is Tipasa86, which has received Latin rights, as also Icasium87, which has been presented by the Emperor Vespasianus with similar rights; Rusconiæ88, a colony founded by Augustus; Rusucurium89, honoured by Claudius with the rights of Roman citizens; Ruzacus90, a colony founded by Augustus; Salde91, another colony founded by the same emperor; Igilgili92, another; and the town of Tucca93, situate on the sea-shore and upon the river Ampsaga. In the interior are the colony of Augusta, also called Succabar94, Tubusuptus95, the cities of Timici and Tigavæ96, the rivers Sardabal97, Aves98, and Nabar99, the nation of the Macurebi, the river Usar100, and the nation of the Nababes. The river Ampsaga is distant from Cæsarea 322101 miles. The length of the two Mauritanias is 1038, and their breadth 467 miles.

CHAP. 2. (3.)—NUMIDIA.

At the river Ampsaga Numidia begins, a country rendered illustrious by the fame of Masinissa. By the Greeks this region was called Metagonitis102; and the Numidians received the name of "Nomades" from their frequent changes of pasturage; upon which occasions they were accustomed to carry103 their mapalia, or in other words, their houses, upon waggons. The towns of this country are Cullu104 and Rusicade105; and at a distance of forty-eight miles from the latter, in the interior, is the colony of Cirta106, surnamed "of the Sitiani;" still more inland is another colony called Sicca107, with the free town of Bulla Regia108. On the coast are Tacatua109, Hippo Regius110, the river Armua111, and the town of Tabraca112, with the rights of Roman citizens. The river Tusca113 forms the boundary of Numidia. This country produces nothing remarkable except its marble114 and wild beasts.

CHAP. 3. (4.)—AFRICA.

Beyond the river Tusca begins the region of Zeugitana115, and that part which properly bears the name of Africa116. We here find three promontories; the White Promontory117, the Promontory of Apoll118, facing Sardinia, and that of Mercury119, opposite to Sicily. Projecting into the sea these headlands form two gulfs, the first of which bears the name of "Hipponensis" from its proximity to the city called Hippo Dirutus120, a corruption of the Greek name Diarrhytus, which it has received from the channels made for irrigation. Adjacent to this place, but at a greater distance from the sea-shore, is Theudalis121, a town exempt from tribute. We then come to the Promontory of Apollo, and upon the second gulf, we find Utica122, a place enjoying the rights of Roman citizens, and famous for the death of Cato; the river Bagrada123, the place called Castra Cornelia124, the co- lony125 of Carthage, founded upon the remains of Great Carthage126, the colony of Maxula127, the towns of Carpi128, Misua, and Clypea129, the last a free town, on the Promontory of Mercury; also Curubis, a free town130, and Neapolis131.

Here commences the second division132 of Africa properly so called. Those who inhabit Byzacium have the name of Libyphœnices133. Byzacium is the name of a district which is 250 miles in circumference, and is remarkable for its extreme fertility, as the ground returns the seed sown by the husbandman with interest a hundred-fold134. Here are the free towns of Leptis135, Adrumetum136, Ruspina137, and Thapsus138; and then Thenæ139, Macomades140, Tacape141, and Sabrata142 which touches on the Lesser Syrtis; to which spot, from the Ampsaga, the length of Numidia and Africa is 580 miles, and the breadth, so far as it has been ascertained, 200. That portion which we have called Africa is divided into two provinces, the Old and the New; these are separated by a dyke which was made by order of the second Scipio Africanus143 and the kings144, and extended to Thenæ, which town is distant from Carthage 216 miles.


A third Gulf is divided into two smaller ones, those of the two Syrtes145, which are rendered perilous by the shallows of their quicksands and the ebb and flow of the sea. Polybius states the distance from Carthage to the Lesser Syrtis, the one which is nearest to it, to be 300 miles. The inlet to it he also states to be 100 miles across, and its circumference 300. There is also a way146 to it by land, to find which we must employ the guidance of the stars and cross deserts which present nothing but sand and serpents. After passing these we come to forests filled with vast multitudes of wild beasts and elephants, then desert wastes147, and beyond them the Garamantes148, distant twelve days' journey from the Augylæ149. Above the Garamantes was formerly the na- tion of the Psylli150, and above them again the Lake of Lycomedes151, surrounded with deserts. The Augylæ themselves are situate almost midway between Æthiopia which faces the west152, and the region which lies between153 the two Syrtes, at an equal distance from both. The distance along the coast that lies between the two Syrtes is 250 miles. On it are found the city of Œa154, the river Cinyps155, and the country of that name, the towns of Neapolis156, Graphara157, and Abrotonum158, and the second, surnamed the Greater, Leptis159.

We next come to the Greater Syrtis, 625 miles in circumference, and at the entrance 312 miles in width; next after which dwells the nation of the Cisippades. At the bottom of this gulf was the coast of the Lotophagi, whom some writers have called the Alachroæ160, extending as far as the Altars of the Philæni161; these Altars are formed of heaps of sand. On passing these, not far from the shore there is a vast swamp162 which receives the river Triton163 and from it takes its name: by Callimachus it is called Pallantias164, and is said by him to be on the nearer side of the Lesser Syrtis; many other writers however place it between the two Syrtes. The promontory which bounds the Greater Syrtis has the name of Borion165; beyond it is the province of Cyrene.

Africa, from the river Ampsaga to this limit, includes 516 peoples, who are subject to the Roman sway, of which six are colonies; among them Uthina166 and Tuburbi167, besides those already mentioned. The towns enjoying the rights of Roman citizens are fifteen in number, of which I shall mention, as lying in the interior, those of Assuræ168, Abutucum, Aborium, Canopicum169, Cilma170, Simithium, Thunusidium, Tuburnicum, Tynidrumum, Tibiga, the two towns called Ucita, the Greater and the Lesser, and vaga. There is also one town with Latin rights, Uzalita by name, and one town of tributaries, Castra Cornelia171. The free towns are thirty in number, among which we may mention, in the interior, those of Acholla172, Aggarita, Avina, Abzirita, Cano- pita, Melizita, Matera, Salaphita, Tusdrita173, Tiphica, Tunica174, Theuda, Tagasta175, Tiga176, Ulusubrita, a second Vaga, Visa, and Zama177. Of the remaining number, most of them should be called, in strictness, not only cities, but nations even; such for instance as the Natabudes, the Capsitani178, the Musulami, the Sabarbares, the Massyli179, the Nisives, the Vamacures, the Cinithi, the Musuni, the Marchubii180, and the whole of Gætulia181, as far as the river Nigris182, which separates Africa proper from Æthiopia.


The region of Cyrenaica, also called Pentapolis183, is rendered famous by the oracle of Hammon184, which is distant 400 miles from the city of Cyrene; also by the Fountain of the Sun185 there, and five cities in especial, those of Berenice186, Arsinoë187, Ptolemais188, Apollonia189, and Cyrene190 itself. Berenice is situate upon the outer promontory that bounds the Syrtis; it was formerly called the city of the Hesperides (previously mentioned191), according to the fables of the Greeks, which very often change their localities. Not far from the city, and running before it, is the river Lethon, and with it a sacred grove, where the gardens of the Hesperides are said to have formerly stood; this city is distant from Leptis 375 miles. From Berenice to Arsinoë, commonly called Teuchira, is forty-three miles; after which, at a distance of twenty-two, we come to Ptolemais, the ancient name of which was Barce; and at a distance of forty miles from this last the Promontory of Phycus192, which extends far away into the Cretan Sea, being 350 miles distant from Tænarum193, the promontory of Laconia, and from Crete 225. After passing this promontory we come to Cyrene, which stands at a distance of eleven miles from the sea. From Phycus to Apollonia194 is twenty-four miles, and from thence to the Chersonesus195 eighty-eight; from which to Catabathmos196 is a distance of 216 miles. The Marmaridæ197 inhabit this coast, extending from almost the region of Parætonium198 to the Greater Syrtis; after them the Ararauceles, and then, upon the coasts of the Syrtis, the Nasamones199, whom the Greeks formerly called Mesammones, from the circumstance of their being located in the very midst of sands200. The territory of Cyrene, to a distance of fifteen miles from the shore, is said to abound in trees, while for the same distance beyond that district it is only suitable for the cultivation of corn: after which, a tract of land, thirty miles in breadth and 250 in length, is productive of nothing but laser [or silphium201].

After the Nasamones we come to the dwellings of the Asbystæ and the Macæ202, and beyond them, at eleven days' journey to the west of the Greater Syrtis, the Amantes203, a people also surrounded by sands in every direction. They find water however without any difficulty at a depth mostly of about two cubits, as their district receives the overflow of the waters of Mauritania. They build houses with blocks of salt204, which they cut out of their mountains just as we do stone. From this nation to the Troglodytæ205 the distance is seven days' journey in a south-westerly direction, a people with whom our only intercourse is for the purpose of procuring from them the precious stone which we call the carbuncle, and which is brought from the interior of Æthiopia. Upon the road to this last people, but turning off towards the deserts of Africa, of which we have previously206 made mention as lying beyond the Lesser Syrtis, is the region of Phazania207; the nation of Phazanii, belonging to which, as well as the cities of Alele208 and Cilliba209, we have subdued by force of arms, as also Cydamus210, which lies over against Sabrata. After passing these places a range of mountains extends in a prolonged chain from east to west: these have received from our people the name of the Black Mountains211, either from the appearance which they naturally bear of having been exposed to the action of fire, or else from the fact that they have been scorched by the reflection of the sun's rays. Beyond it212 is the desert, and then Talgæ, a city of the Garamantes, and Debris, at which place there is a spring213, the waters of which, from noon to midnight, are at boiling heat, and then freeze for as many hours until the following noon; Garama too, that most famous capital of the Garamantes; all which places have been subdued by the Roman arms. It was on this occasion that Cornelius Balbus214 was honoured with a triumph, the only foreigner indeed that was ever honoured with the triumphal chariot, and presented with the rights of a Roman citizen; for, although by birth a native of Gades, the Roman citizenship was granted to him as well as to the elder Balbus215, his uncle by the father's side. There is also this remarkable circumstance, that our writers have handed down to us the names of the cities above-men- tioned as having been taken by Balbus, and have informed us that on the occasion of his triumph216, besides Cydamus and Garama217, there were carried in the procession the names and models of all the other nations and cities, in the following order: the town of Tabudium218, the nation of Niteris, the town of Nigligemella, the nation or town of Bubeium219, the nation of Enipi, the town of Thuben, the mountain known as the Black Mountain, Nitibrum, the towns called Rapsa, the nation of Discera220, the town of Debris221, the river Nathabur222, the town of Thapsagum223, the nation of Nannagi, the town of Boin, the town of Pege224, the river Dasibari; and then the towns, in the following order, of Baracum, Buluba, Alasit, Galia, Balla, Maxalla225, Zizama, and Mount Gyri226, which was preceded by an inscription stating that this was the place where precious stones were produced.

Up to the present time it has been found impracticable to keep open the road that leads to the country of the Garamantes, as the predatory bands of that nation have filled up the wells with sand, which do not require to be dug for to any great depth, if you only have a knowledge of the locality. In the late war227 however, which, at the beginning of the reign of the Emperor Vespasian, the Romans carried on with the people of Œa, a short cut of only four days' journey was discovered; this road is known as the "Pæter Caput Saxi228." The last place in the territory of Cyrenaica is Catabathmos, consisting of a town, and a valley with a sudden and steep descent. The length of Cyrenean Africa, up to this boundary from the Lesser Syrtis, is 1060 miles; and, so far as has been ascertained, it is 800229 in breadth.


The region that follows is called Libya Mareotis230, and borders upon Egypt. It is held by the Marmaridæ, the Adyrmachidæ, and, after them, the Mareotœ. The distance from Catabathmos to Parætonium is eighty-six miles. In this district is Apis231, a place rendered famous by the religious belief of Egypt. From this town Parætonium is distant sixty-two miles, and from thence to Alexandria the distance is 200 miles, the breadth of the district being 169. Eratosthenes says that it is 525 miles by land from Cyrene to Alexandria; while Agrippa gives the length of the whole of Africa from the Atlantic Sea, and including Lower Egypt, as 3040 miles. Polybius and Eratosthenes, who are generally considered as remarkable for their extreme correctness, state the length to be, from the ocean to Great Carthage 1100 miles, and from Carthage to Canopus, the nearest mouth of the Nile, 1628 miles; while Isidorus speaks of the distance from Tingi to Canopus as being 3599 miles. Artemidorus makes this last distance forty miles less than Isidorus.


These seas contain not so very many islands. The most famous among them is Meninx232, twenty-five miles in length and twenty-two in breadth: by Eratosthenes it is called Lotophagitis. This island has two towns, Meninx on the side which faces Africa, and Troas on the other; it is situate off the promontory which lies on the right-hand side of the Lesser Syrtis, at a distance of a mile and a half. One hundred miles from this island, and opposite the promontory that lies on the left, is the free island of Cercina233, with a city of the same name. It is twenty-five miles long, and half that breadth at the place where it is the widest, but not more than five miles across at the extremity: the diminutive island of Cercinitis234, which looks towards Carthage, is united to it by a bridge. At a distance of nearly fifty miles from these is the island of Lopadusa235, six miles in length; and beyond it Gaulos and Galata, the soil of which kills the scorpion, that noxious reptile of Africa. It is also said that the scorpion will not live at Clypea; opposite to which place lies the island of Cosyra236, with a town of the same name. Opposite to the Gulf of Carthage are the two islands known as the Ægimuri237; the Altars238, which are rather rocks than islands, lie more between Sicily and Sardinia. There are some authors who state that these rocks were once inhabited, but that they have gradually subsided in the sea.


If we pass through the interior of Africa in a southerly direction, beyond the Gætuli, after having traversed the intervening deserts, we shall find, first of all the Liby- Egyptians239, and then the country where the Leucæthio- pians240 dwell. Beyond241 these are the Nigritæ242, nations of Æthiopia, so called from the river Nigris243, which has been previously mentioned, the Gymnetes244, surnamed Pharusii, and, on the very margin of the ocean, the Perorsi245, whom we have already spoken of as lying on the boundaries of Mauritania. After passing all these peoples, there are vast deserts towards the east until we come to the Garamantes, the Augylæ, and the Troglodytæ; the opinion of those being exceedingly well founded who place two Æthiopias beyond the deserts of Africa, and more particularly that expressed by Homer246, who tells us that the Æthiopians are divided into two nations, those of the east and those of the west. The river Nigris has the same characteristics as the Nile; it produces the calamus, the papyrus, and just the same animals, and it rises at the same seasons of the year. Its source is between the Tarrælian Æthiopians and the Œcalicæ. Magium, the city of the latter people, has been placed by some writers amid the deserts, and, next to them the Atlantes; then the Ægipani, half men, half beasts, the Blemmyæ247, the Gamphasantes, the Satyri, and the Himantopodes.

The Atlantes248, if we believe what is said, have lost all characteristics of humanity; for there is no mode of distinguishing each other among them by names, and as they look upon the rising and the setting sun, they give utterance to direful imprecations against it, as being deadly to themselves and their lands; nor are they visited with dreams249, like the rest of mortals. The Troglodytæ make excavations in the earth, which serve them for dwellings; the flesh of serpents is their food; they have no articulate voice, but only utter a kind of squeaking noise250; and thus are they utterly destitute of all means of communication by language. The Garamantes have no institution of marriage among them, and live in promiscuous concubinage with their women. The Augylæ worship no deities251 but the gods of the infernal regions. The Gamphasantes, who go naked, and are unacquainted with war252, hold no intercourse whatever with strangers. The Blemmyæ are said to have no heads, their mouths and eyes being seated in their breasts. The Satyri253, beyond their figure, have nothing in common with the manners of the human race, and the form of the Ægipani254 is such as is commonly represented in paintings. The Himantopodes255 are a race of people with feet resembling thongs, upon which they move along by nature with a serpentine, crawling kind of gait. The Pharusii, descended from the ancient Persians, are said to have been the companions of Hercules when on his expedition to the Hesperides. Beyond the above, I have met with nothing relative to Africa256 worthy of mention.


Joining on to Africa is Asia, the extent of which, according to Timosthenes, from the Canopic mouth of the Nile to the mouth of the Euxine, is 2639 miles. From the mouth of the Euxine to that of Lake Mæotis is, according to Eratosthenes, 1545 miles. The whole distance to the Tanais, including Egypt, is, according to Artemidorus and Isidorus, 6375257 miles. The seas of Egypt, which are several in number, have received their names from those who dwell upon their shores, for which reason they will be mentioned together.

Egypt is the country which lies next to Africa; in the interior it runs in a southerly direction, as far as the territory of the Æthiopians, who lie extended at the back of it. The river Nile, dividing itself, forms on the right and left the boundary of its lower part, which it embraces on every side258. By the Canopic mouth of that river it is separated from Africa, and by the Pelusiac from Asia, there being a distance between the two of 170 miles. For this reason it is that some persons have reckoned Egypt among the islands, the Nile so dividing itself as to give a triangular form to the land which it encloses: from which circumstance also many persons have named Egypt the Delta259, after that of the Greek letter so called. The distance from the spot where the channel of the river first divides into branches, to the Canopic mouth, is 146 miles, and to the Pelusiac, 166.

The upper part of Egypt, which borders on Æthiopia, is known as Thebais. This district is divided into prefectures of towns, which are generally designated as "Nomes." These are Ombites260, Apollopolites261, Hermonthites262, Thinites263, Phaturites264, Coptites265, Tentyrites266, Diopolites267, An- tæopolites268, Aphroditopolites269, and Lycopolites270. The district which lies in the vicinity of Pelusium contains the following Nomes, Pharbæthites, Bubastites271, Sethroites, and Tanites272. The remaining Nomes are those called the Arabian; the Hammonian, which lies on the road to the oracle of Jupiter Hammon; and those known by the names of Oxyrynchites, Leontopolites, Athribites273, Cynopolites274, Hermopolites275, Xoites, Mendesim, Sebennytes276, Cabasites, Latopolites, Heliopolites, Prosopites, Panopolites, Busirites277, Onuphites278, Saïtes279, Ptenethu, Phthemphu280, Naucratites281, Metelites, Gynæcopolites, Menelaites,—all in the region of Alexandria, besides Mareotis in Libya.

Heracleopolites282 is a Nome on an island283 of the Nile, fifty miles in length, upon which there is a city, called the 'City of Hercules.' There are two places called Arsinoïtes284: these and Memphites285 extend to the apex286 of the Delta; adjoining to which, on the side of Africa, are the two Nomes of Oasites287. Some writers vary in some of these names and substitute for them other Nomes, such as Heroöpolites288 and Crocodilopolites289. Between Arsinoïtes and Memphites, a lake290, 250 miles, or, according to what Mucianus says, 450 miles in circumference and fifty paces deep, has been formed by artificial means: after the king by whose orders it was made, it is called by the name of Mœris. The distance from thence to Memphis is nearly sixty-two miles, a place which was formerly the citadel of the kings of Egypt; from thence to the oracle of Hammon it is twelve days' journey. Memphis is fifteen miles from the spot where the river Nile divides into the different channels which we have mentioned as forming the Delta.


The sources of the Nile291 are unascertained, and, travelling as it does for an immense distance through deserts and burning sands, it is only known to us by common report, having neither experienced the vicissitudes of warfare, nor been visited by those arms which have so effectually explored all other regions. It rises, so far indeed as King Juba was enabled to ascertain, in a mountain292 of Lower Mauritania, not far from the ocean; immediately after which it forms a lake of standing water, which bears the name of Nilides293. In this lake are found the several kinds of fish known by the names of alabeta294, coracinus, and silurus; a crocodile also was brought thence as a proof that this really is the Nile, and was consecrated by Juba himself in the temple of Isis at Cæsarea295, where it may be seen at the present day. In addition to these facts, it has been observed that the waters of the Nile rise in the same proportion in which the snows and rains of Mauritania increase. Pouring forth from this lake, the river disdains to flow through arid and sandy deserts, and for a distance of several days' journey conceals itself; after which it bursts forth at another lake of greater magnitude in the country of the Massæsyli296, a people of Mauritania Cæsariensis, and thence casts a glance around, as it were, upon the communities of men in its vicinity, giving proofs of its identity in the same peculiarities of the animals which it produces. It then buries itself once again in the sands of the desert, and remains concealed for a distance of twenty days' journey, till it has reached the confines of Æthiopia. Here, when it has once more become sensible of the presence of man, it again emerges, at the same source, in all probability, to which writers have given the name of Niger, or Black. After this, forming the boundary-line between Africa and Æthiopia, its banks, though not immediately peopled by man, are the resort of numbers of wild beasts and animals of various kinds. Giving birth in its course to dense forests of trees, it travels through the middle of Æthiopia, under the name of Astapus, a word which signifies, in the language of the nations who dwell in those regions, "water issuing from the shades below." Proceeding onwards, it divides297 innumerable islands in its course, and some of them of such vast magnitude, that although its tide runs with the greatest rapidity, it is not less than five days in passing them. When making the circuit of Meroë, the most famous of these islands, the left branch of the river is called Astobores298, or, in other words, "an arm of the water that issues from the shades," while the right arm has the name of Astosapes299, which adds to its original signification the meaning of "side300." It does not obtain the name of "Nile" until its waters have again met and are united in a single stream; and even then, for some miles both above and below the point of confluence, it has the name of Siris. Homer has given to the whole of this river the name of Ægyptus, while other writers again have called it Triton301. Every now and then its course is interrupted by islands which intervene, and which only serve as so many incentives to add to the impetuosity of its torrent; and though at last it is hemmed in by mountains on either side, in no part is the tide more rapid and precipitate. Its waters then hastening onwards, it is borne along to the spot in the country of the Æthiopians which is known by the name of "Catadupi302;" where, at the last Cataract303, the complaint is, not that it flows, but that it rushes, with an immense noise between the rocks that lie in its way: after which it becomes more smooth, the violence of its waters is broken and subdued, and, wearied out as it were by the length of the distance it has travelled, it discharges itself, though by many mouths304, into the Egyptian sea. During certain days of the year, however, the volume of its waters is greatly increased, and as it traverses the whole of Egypt, it inundates the earth, and, by so doing, greatly promotes its fertility.

There have been various reasons suggested for this increase of the river. Of these, however, the most probable are, either that its waters are driven back by the Etesian winds305, which are blowing at this season of the year from an opposite direction, and that the sea which lies beyond is driven into the mouths of the river; or else that its waters are swollen by the summer rains of Æthiopia306, which fall from the clouds conveyed thither by the Etesian winds from other parts of the earth. Timæus the mathematician has alleged a reason of an occult nature: he says that the source of the river is known by the name of Phiala, and that the stream buries itself in channels underground, where it sends forth vapours generated by the heat among the steaming rocks amid which it conceals itself; but that, during the days of the inundation, in consequence of the sun approaching nearer to the earth, the waters are drawn forth by the influence of his heat, and on being thus exposed to the air, overflow; after which, in order that it may not be utterly dried up, the stream hides itself once more. He says that this takes place at the rising of the Dog-Star, when the sun enters the sign of Leo, and stands in a vertical position over the source of the river, at which time at that spot there is no shadow thrown. Most authors, however, are of opinion, on the contrary, that the river flows in greater volume when the sun takes his departure for the north, which he does when he enters the signs of Cancer and Leo, because its waters then are not dried up to so great an extent; while on the other hand, when he returns towards the south pole and re-enters Capricorn, its waters are absorbed by the heat, and consequently flow in less abundance. If there is any one inclined to be of opinion, with Timæus, that the waters of the river may be drawn out of the earth by the heat, it will be as well for him to bear in mind the fact, that the absence of shadow is a phænomenon which lasts continuously307 in these regions.

The Nile begins to increase at the next new moon after the summer solstice, and rises slowly and gradually as the sun passes through the sign of Cancer; it is at its greatest height while the sun is passing through Leo, and it falls as slowly and gradually as it arose while he is passing through the sign of Virgo. It has totally subsided between its banks, as we learn from Herodotus, on the hundredth day, when the sun has entered Libra. While it is rising it has been pronounced criminal for kings or prefects even to sail upon its waters. The measure of its increase is ascertained by means of wells308. Its most desirable height is sixteen cubits309; if the waters do not attain that height, the overflow is not universal; but if they exceed that measure, by their slowness in receding they tend to retard the process of cultivation. In the latter case the time for sowing is lost, in consequence of the moisture of the soil; in the former, the ground is so parched that the seed-time comes to no purpose. The country has reason to make careful note of either extreme. When the water rises to only twelve cubits, it experiences the horrors of famine; when it attains thirteen, hunger is still the result; a rise of fourteen cubits is productive of gladness; a rise of fifteen sets all anxieties at rest; while an increase of sixteen is productive of unbounded transports of joy. The greatest increase known, up to the present time, is that of eighteen cubits, which took place in the time of the Emperor Claudius; the smallest rise was that of five, in the year of the battle of Pharsalia310, the river by this prodigy testifying its horror, as it were, at the murder of Pompeius Magnus. When the waters have reached their greatest height, the people open the embankments and admit them to the lands. As each district is left by the waters, the business of sowing commences. This is the only river in existence that emits no vapours311.

The Nile first enters the Egyptian territory at Syene312, on the frontiers of Æthiopia; that is the name of a peninsula a mile in circumference, upon which Castra313 is situate, on the side of Arabia. Opposite to it are the four islands of Philæ314, at a distance of 600 miles from the place where the Nile divides into two channels; at which spot, as we have already stated, the Delta, as it is called, begins. This, at least, is the distance, according to Artemidorus, who also informs us that there were in it 250 towns; Juba says, however, that the distance between these places is 400 miles. Aristocreon says that the distance from Elephantis to the sea is 750 miles; Elephantis315 being an inhabited island four miles below the last Cataract, sixteen316 beyond Syene, 585 from Alexandria, and the extreme limit of the navigation of Egypt. To such an extent as this have the above-named authors317 been mistaken! This island is the place of rendezvous for the vessels of the Æthiopians: they are made to fold up318, and the people carry them on their shoulders whenever they come to the Cataracts.


Egypt, besides its boast of extreme antiquity, asserts that it contained, in the reign of King Amasis319, 20,000 inhabited cities: in our day they are still very numerous, though no longer of any particular note. Still however we find the following ones mentioned as of great renown—the city of Apollo320; next, that of Leucothea321; then Great Diospolis322, otherwise Thebes, known to fame for its hundred gates; Coptos323, which from its proximity to the Nile, forms its nearest emporium for the merchandise of India and Arabia; then the town of Venus324, and then another town of Jupi- ter325. After this comes Tentyris326, below which is Abydus327, the royal abode of Memnon, and famous for a temple of Osiris328, which is situate in Libya329, at a distance from the river of seven miles and a half. Next to it comes Ptolemais330, then Panopolis331, and then another town of Venus332, and, on the Libyan side, Lycon333, where the mountains form the boundary of the province of Thebais. On passing these, we come to the towns of Mercury334, Alabastron335, the town of Dogs336, and that of Hercules already mentioned337. We next come to Arsinoë338, and Memphis339, which has been previously mentioned; between which last and the Nome of Arsinoïtes, upon the Libyan side, are the towers known as the Pyramids, the Labyrinth340 on Lake Mœris, in the construction of which no wood was employed, and the town of Crialon341. Besides these, there is one place in the interior, on the confines of Arabia, of great celebrity, the City of the Sun342.

(10.) With the greatest justice, however, we may lavish our praises upon Alexandria, built by Alexander the Great on the shores of the Egyptian Sea, upon the soil of Africa, at twelve miles' distance from the Canopic Mouth and near Lake Mareotis343; the spot having previously borne the name of Rhacotes. The plan of this city was designed by the architect Dinochares344, who is memorable for the genius which he displayed in many ways. Building the city upon a wide space345 of ground fifteen miles in circumference, he formed it in the circular shape of a Macedonian chlamys346, uneven at the edge, giving it an angular projection on the right and left; while at the same time he devoted one-fifth part of the site to the royal palace.

Lake Mareotis, which lies on the south side of the city, is connected by a canal which joins it to the Canopic mouth, and serves for the purposes of communication with the interior. It has also a great number of islands, and is thirty miles across, and 150 in circumference, according to Claudius Cæsar. Other writers say that it is forty schœni in length, making the schœnum to be thirty stadia; hence, according to them, it is 150 miles347 in length and the same in breadth.

There are also, in the latter part of the course of the Nile, many towns of considerable celebrity, and more especially those which have given their names to the mouths of the river—I do not mean, all the mouths, for there are no less than twelve of them, as well as four others, which the people call the False Mouths348. I allude to the seven more famous ones, the Canopic349 Mouth, next to Alexandria, those of Bolbitine350, Sebennys351, Phatnis352, Mendes353, Tanis354, and, last of all, Pelusium355. Besides the above there are the towns of Butos356, Pharbæthos357, Leontopolis358, Athribis359, the town of Isis360, Busiris361, Cynopolis362, Aphrodites363, Sais364, and Naucratis365, from which last some writers call that the Naucratitic Mouth, which is by others called the Heracleotic, and mention it instead366 of the Canopic Mouth, which is the next to it.


Beyond the Pelusiac Mouth is Arabia367, which extends to the Red Sea, and joins the Arabia known by the surname of Happy368, so famous for its perfumes and its wealth. This369 is called Arabia of the Catabanes370, the Esbonitæ371, and the Scenitæ372; it is remarkable for its sterility, except in the parts where it joins up to Syria, and it has nothing remarkable in it except Mount Casius373. The Arabian nations of the Canchlæi374 join these on the east, and, on the south the Cedrei375, both of which peoples are adjoining to the Nabatæi376. The two gulfs of the Red Sea, where it borders upon Egypt, are called the Heroöpolitic377 and the Ælanitic378. Between the two towns of Ælana379 and Gaza380 upon our sea381 there is a distance of 150 miles. Agrippa says that Arsinoë382, a town on the Red Sea, is, by way of the desert, 125 miles from Pelusium. How different the characteristics impressed by nature upon two places separated by so small a distance!

CHAP. 13. (12.)—SYRIA.

Next to these countries Syria occupies the coast, once the greatest of lands, and distinguished by many names; for the part which joins up to Arabia was formerly called Palæstina, Judæa, Cœle383, and Phœnice. The country in the interior was called Damascena, and that further on and more to the south, Babylonia. The part that lies between the Euphrates and the Tigris was called Mesopotamia, that beyond Taurus Sophene, and that on this side of the same chain Comagene. Beyond Armenia was the country of Adiabene, anciently called Assyria, and at the part where it joins up to Cilicia, it was called Antiochia. Its length, between Cilicia and Arabia384, is 470 miles, and its breadth, from Seleucia Pieria385 to Zeugma386, a town on the Euphrates, 175. Those who make a still more minute division of this country will have it that Phœnice is surrounded by Syria, and that first comes the maritime coast of Syria, part of which is Idumæa and Judæa, after that Phœnice, and then Syria. The whole of the tract of sea that lies in front of these shores is called the Phœnician Sea. The Phœnician people enjoy the glory of having been the inventors of letters387, and the first discoverers of the sciences of astronomy, navigation, and the art of war.


On leaving Pelusium we come to the Camp of Chabrias388, Mount Casius389, the temple of Jupiter Casius, and the tomb of Pompeius Magnus. Ostracine390, at a distance of sixty-five miles from Pelusium, is the frontier town of Ara- bia. (13.) After this, at the point where the Sirbonian Lake391 becomes visible, Idumæa and Palæstina begin. This lake, which some writers have made to be 150 miles in circumference, Herodotus has placed at the foot of Mount Casius; it is now an inconsiderable fen. The towns are Rhinocolura392, and, in the interior, Rhaphea393, Gaza, and, still more inland, Anthedon394: there is also Mount Argaris395. Proceeding along the coast we come to the region of Samaria; Ascalo396, a free town, Azotus397, the two Jamniæ398, one of them in the in- terior; and Joppe399, a city of the Phœnicians, which existed, it is said, before the deluge of the earth. It is situate on the slope of a hill, and in front of it lies a rock, upon which they point out the vestiges of the chains by which Andromeda was bound400. Here the fabulous goddess Ceto401 is worshipped. Next to this place comes Apollonia402, and then the Tower of Strato403, otherwise Cæsarea, built by King Herod, but now the Colony of Prima Flavia, established by the Emperor Vespasianus: this place is the frontier town of Palæstina, at a distance of 188 miles from the confines of Arabia; after which comes Phœnice404. In the interior of Samaria are the towns of Neapolis405, formerly called Mamortha, Sebaste406, situate on a mountain, and, on a still more lofty one, Gamala407.

CHAP. 15. (14.)—JUDÆA.

Beyond Idumæa and Samaria, Judæa extends far and wide. That part of it which joins up to Syria408 is called Galilæa, while that which is nearest to Arabia and Egypt bears the name of Peræa409. This last is thickly covered with rugged mountains, and is separated from the rest of Judæa by the river Jordanes. The remaining part of Judæa is divided into ten Toparchies, which we will mention in the following order:—That of Hiericus410, covered with groves of palm-trees, and watered by numerous springs, and those of Emmaüs411, Lydda412, Joppe, Acrabatena413, Gophna414, Thamna415, Bethleptephene416, Orina417, in which formerly stood Hierosolyma418, by far the most famous city, not of Judæa only, but of the East, and Herodium419, with a celebrated town of the same name.

(15.) The river Jordanes420 rises from the spring of Panias421, which has given its surname to Cæsarea, of which we shall have occasion to speak422. This is a delightful stream, and, so far as the situation of the localities will allow of, winds along423 in its course and lingers among the dwellers upon its banks. With the greatest reluctance, as it were, it moves onward towards Asphaltites424, a lake of a gloomy and unpropitious nature, by which it is at last swallowed up, and its be praised waters are lost sight of on being mingled with the pestilential streams of the lake. For this reason it is that, as soon as ever the valleys through which it runs afford it the opportunity, it discharges itself into a lake, by many writers known as Genesara425, sixteen miles in length and six wide; which is skirted by the pleasant towns of Julias426 and Hippo427 on the east, of Tarichea428 on the south (a name which is by many persons given to the lake itself), and of Tiberias429 on the west, the hot springs430 of which are so conducive to the restoration of health.

(16.) Asphaltites431 produces nothing whatever except bitu- men, to which indeed it owes its name. The bodies of animals will not sink432 in its waters, and even those of bulls and camels float there. In length it exceeds 100 miles being at its greatest breadth twenty-five, and at its smallest six. Arabia of the Nomades433 faces it on the east, and Machærus on the south434, at one time, next to Hierosolyma, the most strongly fortified place in Judæa. On the same side lies Callirrhoë435, a warm spring, remarkable for its medicinal qualities, and which, by its name, indicates the celebrity its waters have gained.

(17.) Lying on the west of Asphaltites, and sufficiently distant to escape its noxious exhalations, are the Esseni436, a people that live apart from the world, and marvellous beyond all others throughout the whole earth, for they have no women among them; to sexual desire they are strangers; money they have none; the palm-trees are their only companions. Day after day, however, their numbers are fully recruited by multitudes of strangers that resort to them, driven thither to adopt their usages by the tempests of fortune, and wearied with the miseries of life. Thus it is, that through thousands of ages, incredible to relate, this people eternally prolongs its existence, without a single birth taking place there; so fruitful a source of population to it is that weariness of life which is felt by others. Below this people was formerly the town of Engadda437, second only to Hierosolyma in the fertility of its soil and its groves of palm-trees; now, like it, it is another heap of ashes. Next to it we come to Masada438, a fortress on a rock, not far from Lake Asphaltites. Thus much concerning Judæa.

CHAP. 16. (18.)—DECAPOLIS.

On the side of Syria, joining up to Judæa, is the region of Decapolis439, so called from the number of its cities; as to which all writers are not agreed. Most of them, however, agree in speaking of Damascus440 as one, a place fertilized by the river Chrysorroös441, which is drawn off into its meadows and eagerly imbibed; Philadelphia442, and Rhaphana443, all which cities fall back towards Arabia; Scythopolis444 (formerly called Nysa by Father Liber, from his nurse having been buried there), its present name being derived from a Scythian colony which was established there; Gadara445, before which the river Hieromix446 flows; Hippo, which has been previously mentioned; Dion447, Pella448, rich with its waters; Galasa449, and Canatha450. The Tetrar- chies451 lie between and around these cities, equal, each of them, to a kingdom, and occupying the same rank as so many kingdoms. Their names are, Trachonitis452, Panias453, in which is Cæsarea, with the spring previously mentioned454, Abila455, Arca456, Ampeloëssa457, and Gabe458.

CHAP. 17. (19.)—PUŒNICE.

We must now return to the coast and to Phœnice. There was formerly a town here known as Crocodilon; there is still a river459 of that name: Dorum460 and Sycaminon461 are the names of cities of which the remembrance only exists. We then come to the Promontory of Carmelus462, and, upon the mountain, a town463 of that name, formerly called Acbatana. Next to this are Getta464, Jeba, and the river Pacida, or Belus465, which throws up on its narrow banks a kind of sand from which glass466 is made: this river flows from the marshes of Cendebia, at the foot of Mount Carmelus. Close to this river is Ptolemais, formerly called Ace467, a colony of Claudius Cæsar; and then the town of Ecdippa468, and the promontory known as the White Promontory469. We next come to the city of Tyre470, formerly an island, separated from the mainland by a channel of the sea, of great depth, 700 paces in width, but now joined to it by the works which were thrown up by Alexander when besieging it,—the Tyre so famous in ancient times for its offspring, the cities to which it gave birth, Leptis, Utica, and Carthage471,— that rival of the Roman sway, that thirsted so eagerly for the conquest of the whole earth; Gades, too, which she founded beyond the limits of the world. At the present day, all her fame is confined to the production of the murex and the purple472. Its circumference, including therein Palætyrus473, is nineteen miles, the place itself extending twenty-two stadia. The next towns are Sarepta474 and Ornithon475, and then Sidon476, famous for its manufacture of glass, and the parent of Thebes477 in Bœotia.

(20.) In the rear of this spot begins the chain of Libanus, which extends 1500 stadia, as far as Simyra; this district has the name of Cœle Syria. Opposite to this chain, and separated from it by an intervening valley, stretches away the range of Antilibanus, which was formerly connected with Libanus478 by a wall. Beyond it, and lying in the interior, is the region of Decapolis, and, with it, the Tetrarchies already mentioned, and the whole expanse of Palæstina. On the coast, again, and lying beneath Libanus, is the river Magoras479, the colony of Berytus480, which bears the name of Felix Julia, the town of Leontos481, the river Lycos482, Palæbyblos483, the river Adonis484, and the towns of Byblos485, Botrys486, Gigarta487, Trieris488, Calamos489, Tripolis490, inhabited by the Tyrians, Sidonians, and Aradians; Orthosia491, the river Eleutheros492 the towns of Simyra and Marathos493; and opposite, Arados494, a town seven stadia long, on an island, distant 200 paces from the mainland. After passing through the country in which the before-named mountains end and the plains that lie between, Mount Bargylus495 is seen to rise.


Here Phœnicia ends, and Syria recommences. The towns are, Carne496, Balanea497, Paltos498, and Gabale499; then the promontory upon which is situate the free town of Laodicea500; and then Diospolis501, Heraclea502, Charadrus503, and Posidium504.

(21.) We then come to the Promontory of Syria Antiochia. In the interior is the free city of Antiochia505 itself, surnamed Epidaphnes506, and divided by the river Orontes507. On the promontory is Seleucia508, called Pieria, a free city. (22.) Beyond it lies Mount Casius509, a different one from the mountain of the same name510 which we have already mentioned. The height of this mountain is so vast, that, at the fourth watch511 of the night, you can see from it, in the midst of the darkness, the sun rising on the east; and thus, by merely turning round, we may at one and the same time behold both day and night. The winding road which leads to its summit is nineteen miles in length, its perpendicular height four. Upon this coast there is the river Orontes, which takes its rise near Heliopolis512, between the range of Libanus and Antilibanus. The towns are, Rhosos513, and, behind it, the Gates of Syria514, lying in the space between the chain of the Rhosian mountains and that of Taurus. On the coast there is the town of Myriandros515, and Mount Amanus516, upon which is the town of Bomitæ517. This mountain separates Cilicia from Syria.


We must now speak of the interior of Syria. Cœle Syria has the town of Apamea518, divided by the river Marsyas from the Tetrarchy of the Nazerini519; Bambyx, the other name of which is Hierapolis520, but by the Syrians called Mabog521, (here the monster Atargatis522, called Derceto by the Greeks, is worshipped); and the place called Chalcis523 on the Belus524, from which the region of Chalcidene, the most fertile part of Syria, takes its name. We here find also Cyrrhestice, with Cyrrhum525, the Gazatæ, the Gindareni, the Gabeni, the two Tetrarchies called Granucomatæ526, the Emeseni527, the Hyla- tæ528, the nation of the Ituræi, and a branch of them, the people called the Bætarreni; the Mariamitani529, the Tetrarchy known as Marnmisea, Paradisus530, Pagræ531, the Pinaritæ532, two cities called Seleucia, besides the one already mentioned, the one Seleucia on the Euphrates533, and the other Seleucia534 on the Belus, and the Cardytenses. The remaining part of Syria (except those parts which will be spoken of in conjunction with the Euphrates) contains the Arethusii535, the Berœenses536, and the Epiphanæenses537; and on the east, the Laodiceni538, who are called the Laodiceni on the Libanus, the Leucadii539, and the Larissæi, besides seventeen other Tetrarchies, divided into kingdoms and bearing barbarous names.


This place, too, will be the most appropriate one for making some mention of the Euphrates. This river rises in Caranitis540, a præfecture of Greater Armenia, according to the statement of those who have approached the nearest to its source. Domitius Corbulo says, that it rises in Mount Aba; Licinius Mucianus, at the foot of a mountain which he calls Capotes541, twelve miles above Zimara, and that at its source it has the name of Pyxurates. It first flows past Derxene542, and then Anaitica543, shutting out544 the regions of Armenia from Cappadocia. Dascusa545 is distant from Zimara seventy-five miles; from this spot it is navigable as far as Sartona546, a distance of fifty miles, thence to Melitene547, in Cappadocia, distant seventy-four548 miles, and thence to Elegia549, in Armenia, distant ten miles ; receiving in its course the rivers Lycus550, Arsanias551, and Arsanus. At Elegia it meets the range of Mount Taurus, but no effectual resistance is offered to its course, although the chain is here twelve miles in width. At its passage552 between the mountains, the river bears the name of Omma553; but afterwards, when it has passed through, it receives that of Euphrates. Beyond this spot it is full of rocks, and runs with an impetuous tide. It then divides that part of Arabia which is called the country of the Orei554, on the left, by a channel three schœni555 in width, from the territory of the Commageni556 on the right, and it admits of a bridge being thrown across it, even where it forces a passage through the range of Taurus. At Claudiopolis557, in Cappadocia, it takes an easterly direction; and here, for the first time in this contest, Taurus turns it out of its course; though conquered before, and rent asunder by its channel, the mountain-chain now gains the victory in another way, and, breaking its career, compels it to take a southerly direction. Thus is this warfare of nature equally waged,—the river proceeding onward to the destination which it intends to reach, and the mountains forbidding it to proceed by the path which it originally intended. After passing the Cataracts558, the river again becomes navigable; and, at a distance of forty miles from thence, is Samosata559, the capital of Commagene.


Arabia, above mentioned, has the cities of Edessa560, formerly called Antiochia, and, from the name of its fountain, Callirhoë561, and Carrhæ562, memorable for the defeat of Crassus there. Adjoining to this is the præfecture of Mesopotamia, which derives its origin from the Assyrians, and in which are the towns of Anthemusia563 and Nicephorium564; after which come the Arabians, known by the name of Prætavi, with Singara565 for their capital. Below Samosata, on the side of Syria, the river Marsyas566 flows into the Euphrates. At Cingilla ends the territory of Commagene, and the state of the Immei begins. The cities which are here washed by the river are those of Epiphania567 and Antiochia568, generally known as Epiphania and Antiochia on the Euphrates; also Zeugma, seventy-two miles distant from Samosata, famous for the passage there across the Euphrates. Opposite to it is Apamia569, which Seleucus, the founder of both cities, united by a bridge. The people who join up to Mesopotamia are called the Rhoali. Other towns in Syria are those of Europus570, and what was formerly Thapsa- cus571, now Amphipolis. We then come to the Arabian Scenitæ572. The Euphrates then proceeds in its course till it reaches the place called Ura573, at which, taking a turn to the east, it leaves the Syrian Deserts of Palmyra574, which extend as far as the city of Petra575 and the regions of Arabia Felix.

(25.) Palmyra is a city famous for the beauty of its site, the riches of its soil, and the delicious quality and abundance of its water. Its fields are surrounded by sands on every side, and are thus separated, as it were, by nature from the rest of the world. Though placed between the two great empires of Rome and Parthia, it still maintains576 its independence; never failing, at the very first moment that a rupture between them is threatened, to attract the careful attention of both. It is distant 337 miles from Seleucia577 of the Parthians, generally known as Seleucia on the Tigris, 203 from the nearest part of the Syrian coast, and twenty-seven less from Damascus.

(26.) Below the deserts of Palmyra is the region of Stelendene578, and Hierapolis, Berœa, and Chalcis, already mentioned579. Beyond Palmyra, Emesa580 takes to itself a portion of these deserts; also Elatium, nearer to Petra by one-half than Damascus. At no great distance from Sura581 is Philiscum, a town of the Parthians, on the Euphrates. From this place it is ten days' sail to Seleucia, and nearly as many to Babylon. At a distance of 594 miles beyond Zeugma, near the village of Massice, the Euphrates divides into two channels, the left one of which runs through Mesopotamia, past Seleucia, and falls into the Tigris as it flows around that city. Its channel on the right runs towards Babylon, the former capital of Chaldæa, and flows through the middle of it; and then through another city, the name of which is Otris582, after which it becomes lost in the marshes. Like the Nile, this river increases at stated times, and at much about the same period. When the sun has reached the twentieth degree of Cancer, it inundates583 Mesopotamia; and, after he has passed through Leo and entered Virgo, its waters begin to subside. By the time the sun has entered the twenty-ninth degree of Virgo, the river has fully regained its usual height.


But let us now return to the coast of Syria, joining up to which is Cilicia. We here find the river Diaphanes584, Mount Crocodilus, the Gates585 of Mount Amanus, the rivers Androcus586, Pinarus587, and Lycus588, the Gulf of Issos589, and the town of that name; then Alexandria590, the river Chlorus591, the free town of Ægæ592, the river Pyramus593, the Gates594 of Cilicia, the towns of Mallos595 and Magarsos596, and, in the interior, Tarsus597. We then come to the Aleian Plains598, the town of Cassipolis, Mopsos599, a free town on the river Pyramus, Thynos, Zephyrium, and Anchiale600. Next to these are the rivers Saros601 and Cydnus602, the latter of which, at some distance from the sea, runs through the free city of Tarsus, the region of Celenderitis with a town603 of similar name, the place where Nymphæum604 stood, Soli of Cilicia605, now called Pompeiopolis, Adana606, Cibyra607, Pinare608, Pedalie609, Ale, Selinus610, Arsinoë611, Iotape612, Doron, and, near the sea, Corycos, there being a town613, port, and cave614 all of the same name. Passing these, we come to the river Calycadnus615, the Promontory of Sarpedon616, the towns of Holmœ617 and Myle, and the Promontory and town of Venus618, at a short distance from the island of Cyprus. On the mainland there are the towns of Myanda, Anemurium619, and Coracesium620, and the river Melas621, the ancient boundary of Cilicia. In the interior the places more especially worthy of mention are Anazarbus622, now called Cæsarea, Augusta, Castabala623, Epiphania624, formerly called Œniandos, Eleusa625, Iconium626, Seleucia627 upon the river Calycadnus, surnamed Tracheotis, a city removed628 from the sea-shore, where it had the name of Holmia. Besides those already mentioned, there are in the interior the rivers Liparis629, Bombos, Paradisus, and Mount Imbarus630.


All the geographers have mentioned Pamphylia as joining up to Cilicia, without taking any notice of the people of Isauria631. Its cities are, in the interior, Isaura632, Clibanus, and Lalasis; it runs down towards the sea by the side of Anemurium633 already mentioned. In a similar manner also, all who have treated of this subject have been ignorant of the existence of the nation of the Homonades bordering upon Isauria, and their town of Homona634 in the interior. There are forty-four other fortresses, which lie concealed amid rugged crags and valleys.


The Pisidæ635, formerly called the Solymi, occupy the higher parts of the mountains. In their country there is the colony of Cæsarea, also called Antiochia636, and the towns of Oroanda637 and Sagalessos.


These people are bounded by Lycaonia638, which belongs to the jurisdiction of the province of Asia639, to which also resort the people of Philomelium640, Tymbrium641, Leucolithium642, Pelta, and Tyrium. To this jurisdiction is also added a Tetrarchy of Lycaonia in that part which joins up to Galatia, containing fourteen states, with the famous city of Iconium643. In Lycaonia itself the most noted places are Thebasa644 on Taurus, and Hyde, on the confines of Galatia and Cappadocia. On the [western] side of Lycaonia, and above Pamphylia, come the Milyæ645, a people descended from the Thracians; their city is Arycanda.


The former name of Pamphylia646 was Mopsopia647. The Pamphylian Sea648 joins up to that of Cilicia. The towns of Pamphylia are Side649, Aspendum650, situate on the side of a mountain, Pletenissum651, and Perga652. There is also the Promontory of Leucolla, the mountain of Sardemisus, and the rivers Eurymedon653, which flows past Aspendus, and Catarractes654, near to which is Lyrnesus: also the towns of Olbia655, and Phaselis656, the last on this coast.


Adjoining to Pamphylia is the Sea of Lycia and the country of Lycia657 itself, where the chain of Taurus, coming from the eastern shores, terminates the vast Gulf658 by the Promontory of Chelidonium659. Of immense extent, and separating nations innumerable, after taking its first rise at the Indian Sea660, it branches off to the north on the right-hand side, and on the left towards the south. Then taking a direction towards the west, it would cut through the middle of Asia, were it not that the seas check it in its triumphant career along the land. It accordingly strikes off in a northerly direction, and forming an arc, occupies an immense tract of country, nature, designedly as it were, every now and then throwing seas in the way to oppose its career; here the Sea of Phœnicia, there the Sea of Pontus, in this direction the Caspian and Hyrcanian661, and then, opposite to them, the Lake Mæotis. Although somewhat curtailed by these obstacles, it still winds along between them, and makes its way even amidst these barriers; and victorious after all, it then escapes with its sinuous course to the kindred chain of the Riphæan mountains. Numerous are the names which it bears, as it is continuously designated by new ones throughout the whole of its course. In the first part of its career it has the name of Imaüs662, after which it is known successively by the names of Emodus, Paropanisus, Circius, Cambades, Paryadres, Choatras, Oreges, Oroandes, Niphates, Taurus, and, where it even out-tops itself, Caucasus. Where it throws forth its arms as though every now and then it would attempt to invade the sea, it bears the names of Sarpedon, Coracesius, Cragus, and then again Taurus. Where also it opens and makes a passage to admit mankind, it still claims the credit of an unbroken continuity by giving the name of "Gates" to these passes, which in one place are called the "Gates of Armenia663," in another the "Gates of the Caspian," and in another the "Gates of Cilicia." In addition to this, when it has been cut short in its onward career, it retires to a distance from the seas, and covers itself on the one side and the other with the names of numerous nations, being called, on the right-hand side the Hyrcanian and the Caspian, and on the left the Parvadrian664, the Moschian, the Amazonian, the Coraxican, and the Scythian chain. Among the Greeks it bears the one general name of Ceraunian665.


In Lycia, after leaving its promontory666, we come to the town of Simena, Mount Chimæra667, which sends forth flames by night, and the city of Hephæstium668, the heights above which are also frequently on fire. Here too formerly stood the city of Olympus669; now we find the mountain places known as Gagæ670, Corydalla671, and Rhodiopolis672. Near the sea is Limyra673 with a river of like name, into which the Arycandus flows, Mount Masycites674, the state of Andriaca675, Myra676, the towns of Aperræ677 and Antiphellos678, formerly called Habessus, and in a corner Phellos679, after which comes Pyrra, and then the city of Xanthus680, fifteen miles from the sea, as also a river known by the same name. We then come to Patara681, formerly Pataros, and Sidyma, situate on a moun- tain. Next comes the Promontory of Cragus682, and beyond it a gulf683, equal to the one that comes before it; upon it are Pinara684, and Telmessus685, the frontier town of Lycia.

Lycia formerly contained seventy towns, now it has but thirty-six. Of these, the most celebrated, besides those already mentioned, are Canas686, Candyba, so celebrated for the Œnian Grove, Podalia, Choma, past which the river Ædesa flows, Cyaneæ687, Ascandalis, Amelas, Noscopium, Tlos688, and Telandrus689. It includes also in the interior the district of Cabalia, the three cities of which are Œnianda, Balbura690, and Bubon691.

On passing Telmessus we come to the Asiatic or Carpathian Sea, and the district which is properly called Asia. Agrippa has divided this region into two parts; one of which he has bounded on the east by Phrygia and Lycaonia, on the west by the Ægean Sea, on the south by the Egyptian Sea, and on the north by Paphlagonia, making its length to be 473 miles and its breadth 320. The other part he has bounded by the Lesser Armenia on the east, Phrygia, Lycaonia, and Pamphylia on the west, the province of Pontus on the north, and the Sea of Pamphylia on the south, making it 575 miles in length and 325 in breadth.


Upon the adjoining coast is Caria692, then Ionia, and beyond it Æolis. Caria surrounds Doris, which lies in the middle, and runs down on both sides of it to the sea. In it693 is the Promontory of Pedalium694, the river Glaucus695, into which the Telmedium696 discharges itself, the towns of Dædala697, Crya698, peopled by fugitives, the river Axon699, and the town of Calynda700.

(28.) The river Indus701, which rises in the mountains of the Cibyratæ702, receives sixty-five rivers which are constantly flowing, besides upwards of 100 mountain torrents. Here is the free town of Caunos703, then the town of Pyrnos704, the port of Cressa705, from which the island of Rhodes is distant twenty miles; the place where Loryma formerly stood, the towns of Tisanusa706, Paridion707, and Larymna708, the Gulf of Thymnias709, the Promontory of Aphrodisias710, the town of Hyda, the Gulf of Schœnus, and the district of Bubasus711. There was formerly the town of Acanthus here, another name of which was Dulopolis. We then come to Cnidos712, a free town, situate on a promontory, Triopia713, and after that the towns of Pegusa and Stadia.

At this last town Doris begins; but, first, it may be as well to describe the districts that lie to the back of Caria and the several jurisdictions in the interior. The first of these714 is called Cibyratica; Cibyra being a town of Phrygia. Twenty-five states resort to it for legal purposes, together with the most famous city of Laodicea715.

(29.) This place at first bore the name of Diospolis, and after that of Rhoas, and is situate on the river Lycus, the Asopus and the Caprus716 washing its sides. The other people belonging to the same jurisdiction, whom it may be not amiss to mention, are the Hydrelitæ717, the Themisones718, and the Hierapolitæ719. The second jurisdiction receives its title from Synnas720; to it resort the Lycaones721, the Appiani722, the Eucarpeni723, the Dorylæi724, the Midæi, the Julienses725, and fifteen other peoples of no note. The third jurisdiction has its seat at Apamea726, formerly called Celænæ727, and after that Cibotos. This place is situate at the foot of Mount Signia, the Marsyas, the Obrima, and the Orga, rivers which fall into the Mæander, flowing past it. Here the Marsyas, rising from the earth, again makes its appearance, but soon after buries itself once more at Aulocreneæ728, the spot where Marsyas had the musical contest with Apollo as to superiority of skill in playing on the flute. Aulocrenæ is the name given to a valley which lies ten miles on the road towards Phrygia from Apamea. As belonging to this jurisdiction, it may be as well to mention the Metropolitæ729, the Dionysopolitæ730, th>e Euphorbeni731, the Aemonenses732, the Pelteni733, and the Silbiani734, besides nine other nations of no note.

Upon the Gulf of Doris735 we have Leucopolis, Hamaxitos, Eleus, and Euthene736. We then come to Pitaium, Eutane737, and Halicarnassus738, towns of Caria. To the jurisdiction of this last place six towns were appended by Alexander the Great, Theangela739, Sibde, Medmasa, Euralium, Pedasus, and Telmissus740. Halicarnassus lies between two gulfs, those of Ceramus741 and Iasus742. We then come to Myn- dos743, and the former site of Palæomyndos; also Nariandos, Neapolis744, Caryanda745, the free town of Termera746, Bargyla747, and the town of Iasus748, from which the Iasian Gulf takes its name.

Caria is especially distinguished for the fame of its places in the interior; for here are Mylasa749, a free town, and that of Antiochia750, on the site of the former towns of Symmæthos and Cranaos: it is now surrounded by the rivers Mæander751 and Orsinus752. In this district also was formerly Mæandropolis753; we find also Eumenia754, situate on the river Cludros, the river Glaucus755, the town of Lysias and Orthosa756, the district of Berecynthus757, Nysa758, and Tralles759, also called Euanthia760, Seleucia, and Antiochia: it is washed by the river Eudon, while the Thebais runs through it. Some authors say that a nation of Pygmies formerly dwelt here. Besides the preceding towns, there are Thydonos, Pyrrha761, Eurome762, Heraclea763, Amyzon764, the free town of Alabanda765, which has given name to that jurisdiction, the free town of Stratonicea766, Hynidos, Ceramus767, Trœzene768, and Phorontis. At a greater distance769, but resorting to the same place of jurisdiction, are the Orthronienses, the Alindienses770 or Hippini, the Xystiani771, the Hydissenses, the Apolloniataæ772, the Trapezopolitæ773, and the Aphrodisienses774, a free people. Besides the above, there are the towns of Coscinus775, and Harpasa776, situate on the river Harpasus777, which also passed the town of Trallicon when it was in existence.


Lydia, bathed by the sinuous and ever-recurring windings of the river Mæander, lies extended above Ionia; it is joined by Phrygia on the east and Mysia on the north, while on the south it runs up to Caria: it formerly had the name of Mæonia778. Its place of the greatest celebrity is Sardes779, which lies on the side of Mount Tmolus780, formerly called Timolus. From this mountain, which is covered with vineyards, flows the river Pactolus781, also called the Chrysorroas, and the sources of the Tarnus: this famous city, which is situate upon the Gygæan Lake782, used to be called Hyde783 by the people of Mæonia. This jurisdiction is now called that of Sardes, and besides the people of the places already mentioned, the following now resort to it—the Macedonian Cadueni784, the Loreni, the Philadelpheni785, the Mæonii, situate on the river Cogamus at the foot of Mount Tmolus, the Tripolitani, who are also called the Antoniopolitæ, situate on the banks of the Mæander, the Apollonihieritæ786, the Mesotimolitæ787, and some others of no note.


Ionia begins at the Gulf of Iasos, and has a long winding coast with numerous bays. First comes the Gulf of Basilicum788, then the Promontory789 and town of Posideum, and the oracle once called the oracle of the Branchidæ790, but now of Didymæan Apollo, a distance of twenty stadia from the seashore. One hundred and eighty stadia thence is Miletus791, the capital of Ionia, which formerly had the names of Lelegëis, Pityusa, and Anactoria, the mother of more than ninety cities, founded upon all seas; nor must she be deprived of the honour of having Cadmus792 for her citizen, who was the first to write in prose. The river Mæander, rising from a lake in Mount Aulocrene, waters many cities and receives numerous tributary streams. It is so serpentine in its course, that it is often thought to turn back to the very spot from which it came. It first runs through the district of Apamea, then that of Eumenia, and then the plains of Bargyla; after which, with a placid stream it passes through Caria, watering all that territory with a slime of a most fertilizing quality, and then at a distance of ten stadia from Miletus with a gentle current enters the sea. We then come to Mount Latmus793, the towns of Heraclea794, also called by the same name as the mountain, Carice, Myus795, said to have been first built by Ionians who came from Athens, Naulochum796, and Priene797. Upon that part of the coast which bears the name of Trogilia798 is the river Gessus. This district is held sacred by all the Ionians, and thence receives the name of Panionia. Near to it was formerly the town of Phygela, built by fugitives, as its name implies799, and that of Marathesium800. Above these places is Magnesia801, distinguished by the surname of the "Mæandrian," and sprung from Magnesia in Thessaly: it is distant from Ephesus fifteen miles, and three more from Tralles. It formerly had the names of Thessaloche and Androlitia, and, lying on the sea-shore, it has withdrawn from the sea the islands known as the Derasidæ802 and joined them to the mainland. In the interior also is Thyatira803, washed by the Lycus; for some time it was also called Pelopia and Euhippia804.

Upon the coast again is Mantium, and Ephesus805, which was founded by the Amazons806, and formerly called by so many names: Alopes at the time of the Trojan war, after that Ortygia and Morges, and then Smyrna, with the surname of Trachia, as also Samornion and Ptelea. This city is built on Mount Pion, and is washed by the Caÿster807, a river which rises in the Cilbian range and brings down the waters of many streams808, as also of Lake Pegasæus809, which receives those discharged by the river Phyrites810. From these streams there accumulates a large quantity of slime, which vastly increases the soil, and has added to the mainland the island of Syrie811, which now lies in the midst of its plains. In this city is the fountain of Calippia812 and the temple of Diana, which last is surrounded by two streams, each known by the name of Selenus, and flowing from opposite directions.

After leaving Ephesus there is another Mantium, belonging to the Colophonians, and in the interior Colophon813 itself, past which the river Halesus814 flows. After this we come to the temple815 of the Clarian Apollo, and Lebedos816: the city of Notium817 once stood here. Next comes the Promontory of Coryceium818, and then Mount Mimas, which projects 150 miles into the sea, and as it approaches the mainland sinks down into extensive plains. It was at this place that Alexander the Great gave orders for the plain to be cut through, a distance of seven miles and a half, for the purpose of joining the two gulfs and making an island of Erythræ819 and Mimas. Near Erythræ formerly stood the towns of Pteleon, Helos, and Dorion; we now find the river Aleon, Corynæum, a Promontory of Mount Mimas, Clazomenæ820, Parthenie821, and Hippi822, known by the name of Chytrophoria, when it formed a group of islands; these were united to the continent by the same Alexander, by means of a causeway823 two stadia in length. In the interior, the cities of Daphnus, Hermesia, and Sipylum824, formerly called Tantalis, and the capital of Mæonia, where Lake Sale now stands, are now no longer in existence: Archæopolis too, which succeeded Sipylum, has perished, and in their turns Colpe and Libade, which succeeded it.

On returning thence825 towards the coast, at a distance of twelve miles we find Smyrna826, originally founded by an Amazon [of that name], and rebuilt by Alexander; it is refreshed by the river Meles, which rises not far off. Through this district run what may almost be called the most famous mountains of Asia, Mastusia in the rear of Smyrna, and Termetis827, joining the foot of Olympus. Termetis is joined by Draco, Draco running into Tmolus, Tmolus into Cadmus828, and Cadmus into Taurus. Leaving Smyrna, the river Hermus forms a tract of plains, and gives them its own name. It rises near Dorylæum829, a city of Phrygia, and in its course receives several rivers, among them the one called the Phryx, which divides Caria from the nation to which it gives name; also the Hyllus830 and the Cryos, themselves swollen by the rivers of Phrygia, Mysia, and Lydia. At the mouth of the Hermus formerly stood the town of Temnos831: we now see at the extremity of the gulf832 the rocks called Myrmeces833, the town of Leuce834 on a promontory which was once an island, and Phocæa835, the frontier town of Ionia.

A great part also of Æolia, of which we shall have presently to speak, has recourse to the jurisdiction of Smyrna; as well as the Macedones, surnamed Hyrcani836, and the Magnetes837 from Sipylus. But to Ephesus, that other great luminary of Asia, resort the more distant peoples known as the Cæsarienses838, the Metropolitæ839, the Cilbiani840, both the Lower and Upper, the Mysomacedones841, the Mastaurenses842, the Briulitæ843, the Hypæpeni844, and the Dioshïeritæ845.

CHAP. 32. (30.)—ÆOLIS.

Æolis846 comes next, formerly known as Mysia, and Troas which is adjacent to the Hellespont. Here, after passing Phocæa, we come to the Ascanian Port, then the spot where Larissa847 stood, and then Cyme848, Myrina, also called Sebastopolis849, and in the interior, Ægæ850, Attalia851, Posidea, Neon- tichos852, and Temnos853. Upon the shore we come to the river Titanus, and the city which from it derives its name. Grynia854 also stood here on an island reclaimed from the sea and joined to the land: now only its harbours are left855. We then come to the town of Elæa856, the river Caïcus857, which flows from Mysia, the town of Pitane858, and the river Canaïus. The following towns no longer exist—Canæ859, Lysimachia860, Atarnea861, Carene862, Cisthene863, Cilla864, Cocylium865, Theba866, Astyre867, Chrysa868, Palæscepsis869, Gergitha870, and Neandros871. We then come to the city of Perperene872, which still survives, the district of Heracleotes, the town of Coryphas873, the rivers Grylios and Ollius, the region of Aphrodisias874, which formerly had the name of Politice Orgas, the district of Scepsis875, and the river Evenus876, on whose banks the towns of Lyrnesos877 and Miletos have fallen to decay. In this district also is Mount Ida878, and on the coast Adramytteos879, formerly called Pedasus, which gives its name to the gulf and the jurisdiction so called. The other rivers are the Astron, Cormalos, Crianos, Alabastros, and Hieros, flowing from Mount Ida: in the interior is Mount Gargara880, with a town of the same name. Again, on the coast we meet with Antandros881, formerly called Edonis, and after that Cimmeris and Assos, also called Apollonia. The town of Palamedium also formerly stood here. The Promontory of Lecton882 separates Æolis from Troas. In Æolis there was formerly the city of Polymedia, as also Chrysa, and a second Larissa. The temple of Smintheus883 is still standing; Colone884 in the interior has perished. To Adramyttium resort upon matters of legal business the Apolloniatæ885, whose town is on the river Rhyndacus886, the Erizii887, the Miletopolitæ888, the Pœmaneni889, the Macedonian Asculacæ, the Polichnæi890, the Pionitæ891, the Cilician Mandacadeni, and, in Mysia, the Abrettini892, the people known as the Hellespontii893, and others of less note.


The first place in Troas is Hamaxitus894, then Cebrenia895, and then Troas896 itself, formerly called Antigonia, and now Alexandria, a Roman colony. We then come to the town of Nee897, the Scamander898, a navigable river, and the spot where in former times the town of Sigeum899 stood, upon a promontory. We next come to the Port of the Achæans900, into which the Xanthus901 flows after its union with the Simois902, and forms the Palæscamander903, which was formerly a lake. The other rivers, rendered famous by Homer, namely, the Rhesus, the Heptaporus, the Caresus, and the Rhodius, have left no vestiges of their existence. The Granicus904, taking a different route, flows into the Propontis905. The small city of Scamandria, however, still exists, and, at a distance of a mile and a half from its harbour, Ilium906, a place exempt from tribute907, the fountain-head of universal fame. Beyond the gulf are the shores of Rhœteum908, peopled by the towns of Rhœteum909, Dardanium910, and Arisbe911. There was also in former times a town of Achilleon912, founded near the tomb of Achilles by the people of Mitylene, and afterwards rebuilt by the Athenians, close to the spot where his fleet had been stationed near Sigeum. There was also the town of Æantion913, founded by the Rhodians upon the opposite point, near the tomb of Ajax, at a distance of thirty stadia from Sigeum, near the spot where his fleet was stationed. Above Æolis and part of Troas, in the interior, is the place called Teuthrania914, inhabited in ancient times by the Mysians. Here rises the river Caicus already mentioned. Teuthrania was a powerful nation in itself, even when the whole of Æolis was held by the Mysians. In it are the Pioniæ915, Andera916, Cale, Stabulum, Conisium, Teium, Balcea917, Tiare, Teuthranie, Sarnaca, Haliserne, Lycide, Parthenium, Thymbre, Oxyopum, Lygdamum, Apollonia, and Pergamum918, by far the most famous city in Asia, and through which the river Selinus runs; the Cetius, which rises in Mount Pindasus, flowing before it. Not far from it is Elæa, which we have mentioned919 as situate on the sea-shore. The jurisdiction of this district is called that of Pergamus; to it resort the Thyatireni920, the Mosyni, the Mygdones921, the Bregmeni, the Hierocometæ922, the Perpereni, the Tiareni, the Hierolophienses, the Hermocapelitæ, the Attalenses923, the Panteenses, the Apollonidienses, and some other states unknown to fame. The little town of Dardanum924 is distant from Rhœteum seventy stadia. Eighteen miles thence is the Promontory of Trapeza925, from which spot the Hellespont first commences its course.

Eratosthenes tells us that in Asia there have perished the nations of the Solymi926, the Leleges927, the Bebryces928, the Colycantii, and the Tripsedri. Isidorus adds to these the Arimi929, as also the Capretæ, settled on the spot where Apamea930 stands, which was founded by King Seleucus, between Cilicia, Cappadocia, Cataonia, and Armenia, and was at first called Damea931, from the fact that it had conquered nations most remarkable for their fierceness.


Of the islands which lie before Asia the first is the one situate in the Canopic Mouth of the Nile, and which received its name, it is said, from Canopus, the pilot of Menelaüs. A second, called Pharos, is joined by a bridge to Alexandria, and was made a colony by the Dictator Cæsar. In former times it was one day's sail932 from the mainland of Egypt; at the present day it directs ships in their course by means of the fires which are lighted at night on the tower933 there; for in consequence of the insidious nature of the shoals, there are only three channels by which Alexandria can be approached, those of Steganus934, Posideum935 and Taurus.

In the Phœnician Sea, before Joppe there is the island of Paria936, the whole of it forming a town. Here, they say, Andromeda was exposed to the monster: the island also of Arados, already mentioned937, between which and the continent, as we learn from Mucianus, at a depth of fifty cubits in the sea, fresh water is brought up from a spring at the very bottom by means of leather pipes938.


The Pamphylian Sea contains some islands of little note. The Cilician, besides four others of very considerable size, has Cyprus939, which lies opposite to the shores of Cilicia and Syria, running east and west; in former times it was the seat of nine kingdoms. Timosthenes states that the circumference of this island is 427 miles, Isidorus940 375; its length, between the two Promontories of Dinæ941 and Acamas942 lying on the west, is, according to Artemidorus, 160 1/2 miles, according to Timosthenes, 200. Philonides says that it was formerly called Acamantis, Xenagoras that it had the names of Cerastis943, Aspelia, Amathusia, and Macaria944, while Astynomus gives it the names of Cryptos945 and Colinia. Its towns are fifteen in number, Neapaphos946, Palæpaphos947, Curias948, Citium949, Corineum, Salamis950, Ama- thus951, Lapethos952, Solœ, Tamasos953, Epidarum, Chytri954, Arsinoë955, Carpasimn956, and Golgi957. The towns of Cinyria, Marium, and Idalium958 are no longer in existence. It is distant from Anemurium959 in Cilicia fifty miles; the sea which runs between the two shores being called the Channel of Cilicia960. In the same locality961 is the island of Eleusa962, and the four islands known as the Clides963, lying before the promontory which faces Syria; and again at the end of the other cape964 is Stiria: over against Neapaphos is Hierocepia965, and opposite to Salamis are the Salaininiæ.

In the Lycian Sea are the islands of Illyris, Telendos, and Attelebussa966, the three barren isles called Cypriæ, and Dionysia, formerly called Caretha. Opposite to the Promontory of Taurus are the Chelidoniæ967, as many in number, and extremely dangerous to mariners. Further on we find Leucolla with its town, the Pactyæ968, Lasia, Nymphäis, Macris, and Megista, the city on which last no longer exists. After these there are many that are not worthy of notice. Opposite, however, to Cape Chimæra is Dolichiste969, Chœrogylion, Crambussa970, Rhoge971, Enagora, eight miles in circumference, the two islands of Dædala972, the three of Crya973, Strongyle, and over against Sidyma974 the isle of Antiochus. Towards the mouth of the river Glaucus975, there are Lagussa976, Macris, Didymæ Helbo, Scope, Aspis, Telandria, the town of which no longer exists, and, in the vicinity of Caunus977, Rhodussa.


But the fairest of them all is the free island of Rhodes, 125, or, if we would rather believe Isidorus, 103 miles in circumference. It contains the inhabited cities of Lindos, Camirus978, and Ialysus979, now called Rhodos. It is distant from Alexandria in Egypt, according to Isidorus, 583 miles; but, according to Eratosthenes, 469. Mucianus says, that its distance from Cyprus is 166. This island was formerly called Ophiussa980, Asteria981, Æthria982, Trinacrie983, Corymbia984, Pœeëssa985, Atabyria986, from the name of one of its kings; and, in later times, Macaria987 and Oloessa988. The islands of the Rhodians are Carpathus989, which has given its name to the surrounding sea; Casos990, formerly known as Achne991; Nisyros992, twelve miles distant from Cnidos, and formerly called Porphyris993; and, in the same vicinity, midway between Rhodes and Cnidos, Syme994. This island is thirty-seven miles and a half in circumference, and welcomes us with eight fine harbours. Besides these islands, there are, in the vicinity of Rhodes, those of Cyclopis, Teganon, Cordylussa995, the four islands called Diabetæ996, Hymos, Chalce997, with its city of that name, Sentlussa998, Narthecussa999, Dimastos, Progne; and, off Cnidos, Cisserussa, Therionarce, and Calydne1000, with the three towns of Notium, Nisyros, and Mendeterus. In Arconnesus1001 there is the town of Ceramus. Off the coast of Caria, there are the islands known as the Argiæ, twenty in number; also Hyetussa1002, Lepsia, and Leros.

The most noted island, however, in this gulf is that of Cos1003, fifteen miles distant from Halicarnassus, and 100 in circumference, according to the opinion of many writers. It was formerly called Merope; according to Staphylus, Cea; Meropis, as Dionysius tells us; and, after that, Nymphæa. In this island there is Mount Prion. Nisyros1004, formerly called Porphyris, is supposed to have been severed from the island of Cos. We next come to the island of Caryanda1005, with a city of that name, and that of Pidosus1006, not far from Halicarnassus. In the Gulf of Ceramicus we also find Priaponnesos1007, Hipponnesos, Psyra, Mya, Lampsa. Æmyndus, Passala, Crusa, Pinnicussa, Sepiussa1008, and Melano. At a short distance from the mainland is an island which bears the name of Cinædopolis, from the circumstance that King Alexander left behind there certain persons of a most disgraceful character.


The coast of Ionia has the islands of Trageæ, Corseæ1009, and Icaros, which has been previously1010 mentioned; Lade1011, formerly called Late; and, among others of no note, the two Camelidæ1012, in the vicinity of Miletus; and the three Trogiliæ1013, near Mycale, consisting of Philion, Argennon, and Sandalion. There is Samos also, a free1014 island, eighty-seven miles in circumference, or, according to Isidorus, 100. Aristotle tells us, that it was at first called Parthenia1015, after that Dryussa1016, and then Anthemussa1017. To these names Aristocritus has added Melamphllus1018 and Cyparissia1019: other writers, again, call it Parthenoarussa1020 and Stephane1021. The rivers of tis island are the Imbrasus, the Chesius, and the Ibettes. There are also the fountains of Gigartho and Leucothea; and Mount Cercetius. In the vicinity of Samos are the islands of Rhypara, Nymphæa, and Achillea.


At a distance of ninety-four miles from Samos is the free island of Chios1022, its equal in fame, with a town of the same name. Ephorus says, that the ancient name of this island was Æthalia: Metrodorus and Cleobulus tell us, that it had the name of Chia from the nymph Chione; others again say, that it was so called from the word signifying snow1023; it was also called Macris and Pityusa1024. It has a mountain called Pelennæus; and the Chian Marble is well known. It is 1251025 miles in circumference, according to the ancient writers; Isidorus however makes it nine more. It is situate between Samos and Lesbos, and, for the most part, lies opposite to Erythræ1026.

The adjacent islands are Thallusa1027, by some writers called Daphnusa1028, Œnussa, Elaphitis, Euryanassa, and Arginusa, with a town of that name. All these islands are in the vicinity of Ephesus, as also those called the Islands of Pisistratus, Anthinæ, Myonnesos, Diarreusa,—in both of these last there were cities, now no longer in existence,—Poroselene1029, with a city of that name, Cerciæ, Halone1030, Commone, Illetia, Lepria and Rhesperia, Procusæ, Bolbulæ, Phanæ, Priapos, Syce, Melane, Ænare, Sidusa, Pele, Drymusa1031, Anhydros, Scopelos1032, Sycussa, Marathussa, Psile, Perirreusa, and many others of no note. In the main sea lies the celebrated island of Teos, with a city1033 of that name, seventy-one miles and a half distant from Chios, and the same from the Erythræ.

In the vicinity of Smyrna are the Peristerides1034, Carteria, Alopece, Elæussa, Bachina, Pystira, Crommyonnesos, and Megale1035. Facing Troas there are the Ascaniæ, and the three islands called Plateæ. We find also the Lamiæ, the two islands called Plitaniæ, Plate, Scopelos, Getone, Arthedon, Cœlæ, Lagussæ, and Didymæ.


But Lesbos1036, distant from Chios sixty-five miles, is the most celebrated of them all. It was formerly called Himerte, Lasia, Pelasgia, Ægira, Æthiope, and Macaria, and is famous for its nine cities. Of these, however, that of Pyrrha has been swallowed up by the sea, Arisbe1037 has perished by an earthquake, and Methymna is now united to Antissa1038; these lie in the vicinity of nine cities of Asia, along a coast of thirty-seven miles. The towns of Agamede and Hiera have also perished. Eresos1039, Pyrrha, and the free city of Mitylene1040, still survive, the last of which was a powerful city for a space of 1500 years. The circumference of the whole island is, according to Isidorus, 168 miles1041, but the older writers say 195. Its mountains are, Lepethymnus, Ordymnus, Maicistus, Creon, and Olympus. It is distant seven miles and a half from the nearest point of the mainland. The islands in its vicinity are, Sandaleon, and the five called Leucæ1042; Cydonea1043, which is one of them, contains a warm spring. The Arginussæ1044 are four miles distant from Æge1045; after them come Phellusa1046 and Pedna. Beyond the Hellespont, and opposite the shore of Sigeum, lies Tenedos1047, also known by the names of Leucophrys1048, Phœnice, and Lyrnesos. It is distant from Lesbos fifty-six miles, and twelve and a half from Sigeum.


The tide of the Hellespont now begins to run with greater violence, and the sea beats against the shore, undermining with its eddies the barriers that stand in its way, until it has succeeded in separating Asia from Europe. At this spot is the promontory which we have already mentioned as Trapeza1049; ten miles distant from which is the city of Abydos1050, where the straits are only seven stadia wide; then the town of Percote1051; Lampsacus1052, at first called Pityusa; the colony of Parium1053, which Homer calls by the name of Adrastia; the town of Priapos1054; the river Æsepus1055; Zelia1056; and then the Propontis1057, that being the name given to the tract of sea where it enlarges. We then come to the river Granicus1058, and the harbour of Artace1059, where a town formerly stood. Beyond this is an island which Alexander joined to the continent, and upon which is Cyzicus1060, a city of the Milesians, which was formerly called Arctonnesos1061, Dolionis, and Dindymis; above it are the heights of Mount Dindymus1062. We then come to the towns of Placia, Ariace1063, and Scylace; in the rear of which places is Mount Olympus, known as the "Mysian Olympus," and the city of Olympena. There are also the rivers Horisius1064 and Rhyndacus1065, formerly called the Lycus; this last river rises in Lake Artynias, near Miletopolis, and receives the Macestos, and many other streams, dividing in its course Asia1066 from Bithynia1067.

This country was at first called by the name of Cronia, after that, Thessalis, and then Malianda and Strymonis. The people of it are by Homer called Halizones1068, from the fact that it was a nation begirt by the sea. There was formerly a vast city here, Attussa by name; at present there are twelve cities in existence; among which is Gordiucome1069, otherwise Juliopolis; and, on the coast, Dascylos1070. We then come to the river Gelbes1071; and, in the interior, the town of Helgas, or Germanicopolis, which has also the other name of Booseœte1072 Apamea1073, now more generally known as Myrlea of the Colophonians: the river Etheleus also. the ancient boundary of Troas, and the commencement of Mysia. Next to this comes the gulf1074 into which the river Ascanius flows, the town of Bryllion1075, and the rivers Hylas and Cios, with a town of the same name as the last- mentioned river; it was founded by the Milesians at a place which was called Aseania of Phrygia, as an entrepôt for the trade of the Phrygians who dwelt in the vicinity. We may therefore look upon this as a not ineligible opportunity for making further mention of Phrygia.


Phrygia lies above Troas, and the peoples already men- tioned as extending from the Promontory of Lectum1076 to the river Etheleus. On its northern side it borders upon Galatia, on the south it joins Lyeaonia, Pisidia, and Mygdonia, and, on the east, it touches upon Cappadocia. The more celebrated towns there, besides those already mentioned, are Ancyra1077, Andria, Celænæ1078, Colossæ1079, Carina1080, Cotyaion1081, Ceraine, Conium, and Midaium. There are authors who say that the Mœsi, the Brygi, and the Thyni crossed over from Europe, and that from them are descended the peoples called the Mysi, Phryges, and Bithyni.


On this occasion also it seems that we ought to speak of Galatia1082, which lies above Phrygia, and includes the greater part of the territory taken from that province, as also its former capital, Gordium1083. The Gauls1084 who have settled in these parts, are called the Tolistobogi, the Voturi, and the Ambitouti; those who dwell in Mæonia and Paphlagonia are called the Trocmi. Cappadocia stretches along to the north-east of Galatia, its most fertile parts being possessed by the Tectosages and the Teutobodiaci. These are the nations by which those parts are occupied; and they are divided into peoples and tetrarchies, 195 in number. Its towns are, among the Tectosages, Ancyra1085; among the Troemi, Tavium1086; and, among the Tolistobogi, Pessinus1087. Besides the above, the best known among the peoples of this region are the Actalenses, the Arasenses, the Comenses1088, the Didienses, the Hierorenses, the Lystreni1089, the Neapolitani, the Œandenses, the Seleucenses1090, the Sebas- teni1091, the Timoniacenses1092, and the Thebaseni1093. Galatia also touches upon Carbalia in Pamphylia, and the Milyæ1094, about Baris; also upon Cyllanticum and Oroandicum1095, a district of Pisidia, and Obizene, a part of Lvcaonia. Besides those already mentioned1096, its rivers are the Sangarius1097 and the Gallus1098, from which last the priests1099 of the Mother of the gods have taken their name.


And now as to the remaining places on this coast. On the road from Cios into the interior is Prusa1100, in Bithynia, founded by Hannibal at the foot of Olympus, at a distance of twenty-five miles from Nicæa, Lake Ascanius1101 lying between them. We then come to Nicæa1102, formerly called Olbia, and situate at the bottom of the Ascanian Gulf; as also a second place called Prusa1103, at the foot of Mount Hypius. Pythopolis, Parthenopolis, and Coryphanta are no longer in existence. Along the coast we find the rivers Æsius, Bryazon, Plataneus, Areus, Æsyros, Geodos, also called Chrysorroas1104, and the promontory1105 upon which once stood the town of Megarice. The gulf that here runs inland received the name of Craspedites from the circumstance of that town lying, as it were, upon its skirt1106. Astacum1107, also, formerly stood here, from which the same gulf has received the name of the 'Astacenian': the town of Libyssa1108 formerly stood at the spot where we now see nothing but the tomb of Hannibal. At the bottom of the gulf lies Nicomedia1109, a famous city of Bithynia; then comes the Promontory of Leucatas1110, by which the Astacenian Gulf is bounded, and thirty-seven miles distant from Nicomedia; and then, the land again approaching the other side, the straits1111 which extend as far as the Thracian Bosporus. Upon these are situate Chalcedon1112, a free town, sixty-two miles from Nicomedia, formerly called Procerastis1113, then Colpusa, and after that the "City of the Blind," from the circumstance that its founders did not know where to build their city, Byzantium being only seven stadia distant, a site which is preferable in every respect.

In the interior of Bithynia are the colony of Apamea1114, the Agrippenses, the Juliopolitæ, and Bithynion1115; the rivers Syrium, Laphias, Pharnacias, Alces, Serinis, Lilæus, Scopius, and Hieras1116, which separates Bithynia from Galatia. Beyond Chalcedon formerly stood Chrysopolis1117, and then Nicopolis, of which the gulf, upon which stands the Port of Amycus1118, still retains the name; then the Promontory of Naulochum, and Estiæ1119, a temple of Neptune1120. We then come to the Bosporus, which again separates Asia from Europe, the distance across being half a mile; it is distant twelve miles and a half from Chalcedon. The first entrance of this strait is eight miles and three-quarters wide, at the place where the town of Spiropolis1121 formerly stood. The Thyni occupy the whole of the coast, the Bithyni the interior. This is the termination of Asia, and of the 282 peoples, that are to be found between the Gulf of Lycia1122 and this spot. We have already1123 mentioned the length of the Hellespont and Propontis to the Thracian Bosporus as being 239 miles; from Chalcedon to Sigeum, Isidorus makes the distance 322 1/2.


The islands of the Propontis are, before Cyzicus, Elaphonnesus1124, from whence comes the Cyzican marble; it is also known by the names of Neuris and Proconnesus. Next come Ophiussa1125, Acanthus, Phœbe, Scopelos, Porphyrione, Halone1126, with a city of that name, Delphacia, Polydora, and Artaceon, with its city. There is also, opposite to Nicomedia, Demonnesos1127; and, beyond Heraclea, and opposite to Bithynia, the island of Thynias, by the barbarians called Bithynia; the island of Antiochia: and, at the mouth of the Rhyndacus, Besbicos1128, eighteen miles in circumference; the islands also of Elæa, the two called Rhodussæ, and those of Erebinthus1129, Megale, Chalcitis1130, and Pityodes1131.

Summary.—Towns and nations spoken of * * * *, Noted rivers * * * *. Famous mountains * * * *. Islands, 118 in number. People or towns no longer in existence * * * *. Remarkable events, narratives, and observations * * * *.

Roman Authors Quoted.—Agrippa1132, Suetonius Paulinus1133, M. Varro1134, Varro Atacinus1135, Cornelius Nepos1136, Hyginus1137. L. Vetus1138, Mela1139, Domitius Corbulo1140, Licinius Mucianus1141, Claudius Cæsar1142, Arruntius1143, Livius the Son1144, Sebosus1145, the Register of the Triumphs1146.

foreign authors quoted.—King Juba1147 Hecatæus1148 Hellanicus1149, Damastes1150, Dicæarchus1151, Bæton1152, Timosthenes1153, Philonides1154, Zenagoras1155, Astynomus1156, Staphylus1157, Aristoteles1158, Aristocritus1159, Dionysius1160, Ephorus1161, Eratosthenes1162, Hipparchus1163, Panætius1164, Serapion1165 of Antioch, Callimachus1166, Agathocles1167, Polybius1168, Timæus1169 the mathematician, Herodotus1170, Myrsilus1171, Alexander Polyhistor1172, Metrodorus1173, Posidonius1174, who wrote the Periplus and the Periegesis, Sotades1175, Periander1176, Aristar- chus1177 of Sicyon, Eudoxus1178, Antigenes1179, Callicrates1180, Xenophon1181 of Lampsacus, Diodorus1182 of Syracuse, Hanno1183, Himilco1184, Nymphodorus1185, Calliphanes1186, Artemidorus1187, Megasthenes1188, Isidorus1189, Cleobulus1190, and Aristocreon1191.


Page 1, line 9, The allusion, otherwise obscure, is to the fact that some friends of Catullus had filched a set of table napkins, which had been given to him by Veranius and Fabius, and substituted others in their place.

Page 13, line 2, for Roman figures, read other figures.

Page 20, line 7, for the God of nature; he also tends, down to and most excellent. read the God of nature. He supplies light to the universe, and dispels all darkness; He both conceals and reveals the other stars. It is He that regulates the seasons, and, in the course of nature, governs the year as it ever springs anew into birth; it is He that dispels the gloom of the heavens, and sheds his light upon the clouds of the human mind. He, too, lends his brightness to the other stars. He is most brilliant and most excellent.

Page 21, line 13, for elected, read erected.

Page 21, line 13, for good fortune, read evil fortune.

Page 23, line 18, for our scepticism concerning God is still increased, read our conjectures concerning God become more vague still.

Page 23, line 31, for and the existence of God becomes doubtful, read whereby the very existence of a God is shewn to be uncertain.

Page 33, line 4, for as she receives, read as receives.

Page 54, line 15, for the seventh of the circumference, read the seventh of the third of the circumference.

Page 59, line 36, for transeuntia, read trascurrentia.

Page 67, line 26, for circumstances, read influences.

Page 78, line 9, for higher winds, read higher waves.

Page 78, line 17, for the male winds are therefore regulated by the odd numbers, read hence it is that the odd numbers are generally looked upon as males.

Page 79, line 15, for of the cloud, read of the icy cloud.

Page 79, line 21, for sprinkling it with vinegar, read throwing vinegar against it.

Page 79, line 22, for this substance, read that liquid.

Page 80, line 13, for but not until, read and not after.

Page 80, line 14, for the former is diffused, down to impulse, read the the latter is diffused in the blast, the former is condensed by the violent impulse.

Page 80, line 17. for dash, read crash.

Page 81, line 21, for thunder-storms, read thunder-bolts.

Page 81, line 27, for their operation, read its operation.

Page 82, line 8, for thunder-storms, read thunder-bolts.

Page 85, line 2, for blown up, read blasted.

Page 88, line 15, for the east, read the west.

Page 89, line 11, for even a stone, read ever a stone.

Page 92, line 9, for how many things do we compel her to produce spontaneously, read how many things do we compel her to produce! How many things does she pour forth spontaneously!

Page 92, line 10, for odours and flowers read odours and flavours.

Page 93, line 16, for luxuries, read caprices.

1 Not reckoning under that appellation the country of Egypt, which was more generally looked upon as forming part of Asia. Josephus informs us that Africa received its name from Ophir, great-grandson of Abraham and his second wife, Keturah.

2 Castella,' fortified places, erected for the purpose of defence; not towns formed for the reception of social communities.

3 The Emperor Caligula, who, in the year 41 A.D., reduced the two Mauritanias to Roman provinces, and had King Ptolemy, the son of Juba, put to death.

4 Now Cape Spartel. By Scylax it is called Hermæum, and by Ptolemy and Strabo Cote, or Coteis. Pliny means "extreme," with reference to the sea-line of the Mediterranean, in a direction due west.

5 Mentioned again by Pliny in B. xxxii. c. 6. Lissa was so called, according to Bochart, from the Hebrew or Phœnician word liss, 'a lion.' At the present day there is in this vicinity a headland called the 'Cape of the Lion.' Bochart thinks that the name 'Cotta,' or 'Cotte,' was derived from the Hebrew quothef, a 'vine-dresser.'

6 The modern Tangier occupies its site. It was said to have derived its name from Tinge, the wife of Antæus, the giant, who was slain by Hercules. His tomb, which formed a hill, in the shape of a man stretched out at full length, was shown near the town of Tingis to a late period. It was also believed, that whenever a portion of the earth covering the body was taken away, it rained until the hole was filled up again. Sertorius is said to have dug away a portion of the hill; but, on discovering a skeleton sixty cubits in length, he was struck with horror, and had it immediately covered again. Procopius says, that the fortress of this place was built by the Canaanites, who were driven by the Jews out of Palestine.

7 It has been supposed by Salmasius and others of the learned, that Pliny by mistake here attributes to Claudius the formation of a colony which was really established by either Julius Cæsar or Augustus. It is more probable, however, that Claudius, at a later period, ordered it to be called "Traducta Julia," or "the removed Colony of Julia," in remembrance of a colony having proceeded thence to Spain in the time of Julius Cæsar. Claudius himself, as stated in the text, established a colony here.

8 Its ruins are to be seen at Belonia, or Bolonia, three Spanish miles west of the modern Tarifa.

9 At this point Pliny begins his description of the western side of Africa.

10 Now Arzilla, in the territory of Fez. Ptolemy places it at the mouth of the river Zileia. It is also mentioned by Strabo and Antoninus.

11 Now El Araiche, or Larache, on the river Lucos.

12 Mentioned again in B. ix. c. 4 and c. 5 of the present Book, where Pliny speaks of them as situate elsewhere. The story of Antæus is further enlarged upon by Solinus, B. xxiv.; Lucan, B. iv. 1. 589, et seq.; and Martianus Capella, B. vi.

13 Now the Lucos.

14 Hardouin is of opinion, that he here has a hit at Gabinius, a Roman author, who, in his Annals of Mauritania, as we learn from Strabo (B. xvii.), inserted numerous marvellous and incredible stories.

15 When we find Pliny accusing other writers of credulity, we are strongly reminded of the proverb, 'Clodius accusat mœchos.'

16 Or the "Julian Colony on the Plains." Marcus suggests that the word Babba may possibly have been derived from the Hebrew or Phœnician word beab or beaba, "situate in a thick forest." Poinsinet takes Babba to be the Beni-Tuedi of modern times. D'Anville thinks that it is Naranja.

17 There is considerable difficulty about the site of Banasa. Moletius thinks that it is the modern Fanfara, or Pefenfia as Marmol calls it. D'Anville suggests that it may be Old Mahmora, on the coast; but, on the other hand, Ptolemy places it among the inland cities, assigning to it a longitude at some distance from the sea. Pliny also appears to make it inland, and makes its distance from Lixos seventy-five miles, while he makes the mouth of the Subur to be fifty miles from the same place.

18 From both the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. According to Poinsinet, Volubilis was the synonym of the African name Fez, signifying a 'band,' or 'swathe.' Mannert conjectures that it is the same as the modern Walili, or Qualili. D'Anville calls it Guulili, and says that there are some remains of antiquity there.

19 The modern Subu, or Sebou. D'Anville is of opinion that this river has changed a part of its course since the time of Pliny.

20 Most probably the modern Sallee stands on its site.

21 Not in reference to the fact of its existence, but the wonderful stories which were told respecting it.

22 Like others of the ancient writers, Pliny falls into the error of considering Atlas, not as an extensive chain of mountains, but as an isolated mountain, surrounded by sands. With reference to its height, the whole range declines considerably from west to east; the highest summits in Morocco reaching near 13,000 feet, in Tunis not 5000.

23 Or "Goat-Pans;" probably another name for the Fauni, or Fauns. More usually, there is but one Ægipan mentioned,—the son, according to Hyginus, of Zeus or Jupiter, and a goat,—or of Zeus and Æga, the wife of Pan. As a foundation for one part of the stories here men- tioned, Brotier suggests the fact, that as the Kabyles, or mountain tribes, are in the habit of retiring to their dwellings and reposing during the heat of the day, it would not, consequently, be improbable that they would devote the night to their amusements, lighting up fires, and dancing to the music of drums and cymbals.

24 Under his name we still possess a "Periplus," or account of a voyage round a part of Libya. The work was originally written in Punic, but what has come down to us is a Greek translation. We fail, however, to discover any means by which to identify him with any one of the many Carthaginians of the same name. Some writers call him king, and others dux, or imperator of the Carthaginians; from which we may infer, that he held the office of suffetes. This expedition has by some been placed as far back as the time of the Trojan war, or of Hesiod, while others again place it as late as the reign of Agathocles. Falconer, Bougainville, and Gail, place the time of Hanno at about B.C. 570, while other critics identify him with Hanno, the father or son of Hamilcar, who was killed at Himera, B.C. 480. Pliny often makes mention of him; more particularly see B. viii. c. 21.

25 M. Gosselin thinks that the spot here indicated was at the south-western extremity of the Atlas range, and upon the northern frontier of the Desert of Zahara.

26 Supposed by some geographers to be the same as that now called the Ommirabih, or the Om-Rabya. This is also thought by some to have been the same river as is called by Pliny, in p. 381, by the name of Asana; but the distances do not agree.

27 Supposed by Gosselin to be the present bay of Al-cazar, on the African coast, in the Straits of Cadiz; though Hardouin takes it to be the κόλπος ἐμπορικὸς, or "Gulf of Commerce," of Strabo and Ptolemy. By first quoting from one, and then at a tangent from another, Pliny involves this subject in almost inextricable confusion.

28 Probably the place called Thymiaterion in the Periplus of Hanno.

29 The present Subu, and the river probably of Sallee, previously mentioned.

30 The modern Mazagan, according to Gosselin.

31 Cape Cantin, according to Gosselin; Cape Blanco, according to Marcus.

32 Probably the Safi, Asafi, or Saffee of the present day.

33 The river Tensift, which runs close to the city of Morocco, in the interior.

34 The river Mogador of the present day.

35 The modern river Sus, or Sous.

36 The learned Gosselin has aptly remarked, that this cannot be other than an error, and that "ninety-six" is the correct reading, the Gulf of Sainte-Croix being evidently the one here referred to.

37 Mount Barce seems to be here a name for the Atlas, or Daran chain.

38 Supposed by Gosselin to be the present Cape Ger.

39 The river Assa, according to Gosselin. There is also a river Suse placed here in the maps.

40 These two tribes probably dwelt between the modern Capes Ger and Non.

41 Marcus believes these to have been the ancestors of the present race of the Touaricks, while the Melanogætuli were the progenitors of the Tibbos, of a darker complexion, and more nearly resembling the negroes in bodily conformation.

42 Supposed by Gosselin to be the present river Nun, or Non. According to Bochart, this river received its name from the Hebrew or Phoenician word behemoth or bamoth, the name by which Job (xl. 15) calls the crocodile [or rather the hippopotamus]. Bochart, however, with Mannert, Bougainville, De Rennet, and De Heeren, is of opinion, that by this name the modern river Senegal is meant. Marcus is of opinion that it is either the Non or the modern Sobi.

43 Marcus here observes, that from Cape Alfach, below Cape Non, there are no mountains, but continual wastes of sand, bordering on the sea-shore. Indeed there is no headland, of any considerable height, between Cape Sobi and Cape Bajador.

44 The Chariot of the Gods." Marcus is of opinion that it is the modern Cape Verde; while, on the other hand, Gosselin takes it to be Cape Non. Brotier calls it Cape Ledo.

45 In B. vi. c. 36, Pliny speaks of this promontory as the "Hesperian Horn," and says that it is but four days' sail from the Theon Ochema. Brotier identifies this promontory with the modern Cape Roxo. Marcus is of opinion that it was the same as Cape Non ; but there is considerable difficulty in determining its identity.

46 Alluding to Polybius; though, according to the reading which Sillig has adopted a few lines previously, Agrippa is the last author mentioned. Pliny has here mistaken the meaning of Polybius, who has placed Atlas midway between Carthage, from which he had set out, and the Promontory of Theon Ochema, which he reached.

47 Ptolemy the son of Juba II. and Cleopatra, was summoned to Rome in the year A.D. 40, by Caligula, and shortly after put to death by him, his riches having excited the emperor's cupidity. Previously to this, he had been on terms of strict alliance with the Roman people, who had decreed him a toga picta and a sceptre, as a mark of their friendship.

48 Ivory and citron-wood, or cedar, were used for the making and inlaying of the tables used by the Roman nobility. See B. xiii. c. 23.

49 Supposed by some geographers to be the modern Wadi-Tensift. It has been also confounded with the Anatis (see note 1, p. 369); while others again identify it with the Anidus. It is more commonly spelt 'Asama.'

50 Or Phuth. It does not appear to have been identified.

51 The range is still called by the name of Daran.

52 The same general who afterwards conquered the Britons under Boadicea or Bonduca. While Proprætor in Mauritania under the Emperor Claudius, in the year A.D. 42, he defeated the Mauri who had risen in revolt, and advanced, as Pliny here states, as far as Mount Atlas. It is not known from what point Paulinus made his advance towards the Atlas range. Mannert and Marcus are of opinion that he set out from Sala, the modern Sallee, while Latreille, Malte Brun, and Walkenaer think that his point of departure was the mouth of the river Lixos. Sala was the most southerly town on the western coast of Africa that in the time of Pliny had submitted to the Roman arms.

53 Some of the editions read 'Niger' here. Marcus suggests that that river may have been called 'Niger' by the Phœnician or Punic colonists of the western Mauritania, and 'Ger' or' Gar' in another quarter. The same writer also suggests that the Sigilmessa was the river to which Paulinus penetrated on his march beyond Atlas.

54 The Sigilmessa, according to Marmol, flows between several mountains which appear to be of a blackish hue.

55 Bocchus however, the kinsman of Massinissa, had previously for some time reigned over both the Mauritanias, consisting of Mauritania Tingitana and Mauritania Cæsariana.

56 See B. xxv. c. 7. 12, and B. xxvi. c. 8.

57 Extending from the sea to the river Moluga, now called the Molucha and Molochath, or Malva and Malvana.

58 From whom the Moors of the present day take their name. Marcus observes here, that though Pliny distinguishes the Mauri from the Gætuli, they essentially belonged to the same race and spoke the same language, the so-called Berber, and its dialects, the Schellou and the Schoviah.

59 Maursii' was the Greek name, 'Mauri' the Latin, for this people. Marcus suggests that Mauri was a synonym only for the Greek word nomades, 'wanderers.'

60 As Marcus observes, Pliny is here greatly in error. On the inroads of Paulinus, the Mauri had retreated into the interior and taken refuge in the deserts of Zahara, whence they had again emerged in the time of the geographer Ptolemy.

61 From the time of the second Punic War this people had remained in undisputed possession of the country situate between the rivers Molochath or Moluga and Ampsaga, which formed the Cæsarian Mauritania. Ptolemy speaks of finding some remains of them at Siga, a town situate on a river of the same name, and at which King Syphax had formerly resided.

62 While Pomponius Mela does not make any difference between the Mauri and the Gætuli, Pliny here speaks of them as being essentially different.

63 Derived, according to Marcus, from the Arabic compound bani-our, 'child of nakedness,' as equivalent to the Greek word gymnetes, by which name Pliny and other ancient writers designate the wandering naked races of Western Africa.

64 The Autololes or, as Ptolemy calls them, the Autolole, dwelt, it is supposed, on the western coast of Africa, between Cape Cantin and Cape Ger. Their city of Autolala or Autolalæ is one of Ptolemy's points of astronomical observation, having the longest day thirteen hours and a half, being distant three hours and a half west of Alexandria, and having the sun vertical once a year, at the time of the winter solstice. Reichard takes it for the modern Agulon or Aquilon.

65 The Æthiopian Daratitæ, Marcus says.

66 The present Ceuta.

67 They were so called from the circumstance, Marcus says, of their peaks being so numerous, and so strongly resembling each other. They are now called, according to D'Anville, 'Gebel Mousa,' which means "the Mountain of Apes," an animal by which they are now much frequented, instead of by elephants as in Pliny's time.

68 Or Mediterranean.

69 The modern Bedia, according to Olivarius, the Tasanel, according to Dupinet, and the Alamos or Kerkal, according to Ansart. Marcus says that it is called the Setuan, and is the largest stream on the northern shores of Western Africa.

70 The modern Gomera according to Hardouin, the Nocor according to Mannert.

71 The modern Melilla most probably.

72 The modern Maluia. Antoninus calls it Malva, and Ptolemy Maloua.

73 Its site is occupied by the modern Aresgol, according to Mariana, Guardia or Sereni according to Dupinet, Ned-Roma according to Mannert and D'Anville, and Tachumbrit according to Shaw. Marcus is inclined to be of the same opinion as the last-mentioned geographer.

74 Now the city of Malaga.

75 Mauritania Cæsariensis, or Cæsarian Mauritania, now forming the French province of Algiers.

76 "Bogudiana;" from Bogud or Bogoas. The last king Bogud was deprived of his kingdom by Bocchus, king of Mauritania Cæsariensis, a warm partisan of Cæsar.

77 Or the "Great Harbour," now Arzeu according to D'Anville, and Mars-el-Kebir according to Marcus.

78 The same river probably as the Malva or Malvana previously mentioned, the word mulucha or malacha coming from the Greek μολόχη, "a marsh mallow," which malva, as a Latin word, also signifies. See p. 383.

79 From the Greek word ξένος, "a stranger." Pomponius Mela and Antoninus call this place Guiza, and Ptolemy Quisa. D'Anville places it on the right side of the river Malvana or Mulucha, and Shaw says that it was situate in the vicinity of the modern town of Oran.

80 Now Marz-Agolet, or situate in its vicinity, according to Hardouin and Ansart, and the present Arzen, according to Marcus, where numerous remains of antiquity are found.

81 Now Tenez, according to D'Anville, and Mesgraïm, according to Mannert; with which last opinion Marcus agrees.

82 Ptolemy and Antoninus place this colony to the east of the Promontory of Apollo, and not the west as Pliny does.

83 The present Cape Mestagan.

84 According to Dupinet and Mannert, the modern Tenez occupies its site, Zershell according to Hardouin and Shaw, Vacur according to D'Anville and Ansart, and Algiers according to others. It is suggested by Marcus that the name Iol is derived from the Arabic verb galla, "to be noble" or "famous." There is no doubt that the magnificent ruins at Zershell are those of Iol, and that its name is an abbreviation of Cæsarea Iol.

85 Or New Town.

86 Scylax calls it Thapsus; Ammianus Marcellinus, Tiposa. According to Mannert it was situate in the vicinity of the modern Damas.

87 Or Icosium. It has been identified by inscriptions discovered by the French as standing on the same site as the modern Algiers. D'Anville, Mannert and others identify it with Scherchell or Zershell, thus placing it too far west. Mannert was evidently misled by an error in the Antonine Itinerary, whereby all the places along this coast are, for a considerable distance, thrown too far to the west; the researches however which followed the French conquest of the country have revealed inscriptions which completely set the question at rest.

88 According to Mannert, this was situate on the modern Cape Arbatel. Marcus thinks that the Hebrew ros, or Arab ras, "a rock," enters into the composition of the word.

89 Now Hur according to D'Anville, Colcah according to Mannert.

90 The modern Acor, according to Marcus.

91 The modern Pedeles or Delys, according to Ortellius and Mannert, Tedles according to D'Anville.

92 The modern Jigeli or Gigeri. It was probably in ancient times the emporium of the surrounding country.

93 Destroyed, according to Hardouin, and probably by the incursions of the sea. At the mouth of the Ampsaga (now called the Wad-El-Kebir or Sufjimar, and higher up the Wadi Roumel) there is situate a small sea-port called Marsa Zeitoun.

94 Near the present Mazuaa, according to Mannert.

95 The modern Burgh, according to D'Anville and Mannert, but more probably considerably to the east of that place.

96 The modern El-Herba, according to Mannert.

97 Marcus suggests that this is the Chinalaph of Ptolemy, and probably the modern Schellif.

98 The same that is called Savis by Ptolemy, who places Icosium on its banks.

99 By Mela called the Vabar. Marcus supposes it to be the same as the modern Giffer.

100 By Ptolemy called the Sisar; the Ajebbi of modern geographers, which falls into the Mediterranean, near the city of Budja.

101 Brotier says that this reading is incorrect, and that 222 is the proper one, that being the true distance between the river Ampsaga or Wadel-Kebir and the city of Cæsarea, the modern Zershell.

102 It was not only Numidia that bore this name, but all the northern coast of Africa from the frontiers of the kingdom of Carthage near Hippo Regius to the Columns of Hercules. It was thus called from the Greek metagonos, a "descendant" or "successor;" as the Carthaginians established a number of small towns and villages on the coast, which were thus posterior in their origin to the large cities already founded there.

103 Hardouin says that the Moors in the interior still follow the same usage, carrying their houses from pasture to pasture on waggons.

104 Now Chollum or Collo.

105 The modern Sgigada or Stora, according to Mannert, D'Anville, and Shaw.

106 The modern Constantina occupies its site. Numerous remains of the ancient town are still discovered. Sitius was an officer who served under Cæsar, and obtained a grant of this place after the defeat of Juba.

107 Called Urbs, or Kaff, according to D'Anville and Shaw; the latter of whom found an inscription there with the words Ordo Siccensium.

108 Or 'Royal Bulla'; which epithet shows that it was either a residence or a foundation of the kings of Numidia, and distinguishes it from a small place called Bulla Mensa, south of Carthage. Bulla Regia was four days' journey south-west of Carthage, on a tributary of the river Bagrada, the valley of which is still called Wad-el-Boul. This place was one of the points of Ptolemy's recorded astronomical observations, having its longest day fourteen hours and one-eighth, and being distant from Alexandria two hours to the west.

109 The modern Tamseh, according to Shaw and Mannert, and Tagodet, according to D'Anville.

110 Its ruins are south of the modern Bona. It received the name of Regius or 'Royal' from being the residence of the Numidian kings. It was also famed as being the see of St. Augustine. It was a colony of Tyre, and stood on the bay now forming the Gulf of Bona. It was one of the most flourishing cities of Africa till it was destroyed by the Vandals A.D. 430.

111 Now the Mafragg, according to Mannert.

112 Still called Tabarca, according to Hardouin.

113 Now the Zaina, according to Marcus.

114 For the character of the Numidian marble, see Pliny, B. xxxvi. c. 7.

115 Extending from the river Tusca, or Zaina, to the northern frontiers of Byzacium. It corresponds with the Turkish province or beylik of Tunis.

116 He says this not only to distinguish it from Africa, considered as one-third of the globe, but also in contradistinction to the proconsular province of the Roman empire of the same name, which contained not only the province of Zeugitana, but also those of Numidia, Byzacium, and Tripolis.

117 Candidum: now Ras-el-Abiad.

118 The references to this headland identify it with Cape Farina, or Ras Sidi Ali-al-Mekhi, and not, as some have thought, the more westerly Cape Zibeeb or Ras Sidi Bou-Shoushe. Shaw however applies the name of Zibeeb to the former.

119 Now Cape Bon, or Ras-Addar.

120 More properly called Hippo Diarrhytus or Zaritus, a Tyrian colony, situate on a large lake which communicated with the sea, and received the waters of another lake. Its situation exposed it to frequent inundations, whence, as the Greeks used to state, the epithet διάῤῥυτος. It seems more probable however that this is the remnant of some Phœnician title, as the ancients were not agreed on the true form of the name, and of this uncertainty we have a further proof in the Hippo Dirutus of our author.

121 This is placed by Ptolemy to the south-east of Hippo, and near the southern extremity of Lake Sisar.

122 This important city stood on the north part of the Carthaginian Gulf, west of the mouth of the Bagrada, and twenty-seven Roman miles N.W. of Carthage; but the site of its ruins at the modern Bou-Shater is now inland, in consequence of the changes made by the Bagrada in the coast-line. In the Third Punic war Utica took part with the Romans against Carthage, and was rewarded with the greater part of the Carthaginian territory.

123 Now called the Mejerdah, and though of very inconsiderable size, the chief river of the Carthaginian territory. The main stream is formed by the union of two branches, the southern of which, the ancient Bagrada, is now called the Mellig, and in its upper course the Meskianah. The other branch is called the Hamiz.

124 Or the "Cornelian Camp." The spot where Cornelius Scipio Africa- nus the Elder first encamped, on landing in Africa, B.C. 204. Cæsar describes this spot, in his description of Curio's operations against Utica, B. C. b. ii. c. 24, 25. This spot is now called Ghellah.

125 This colony was first established by Caius Gracchus, who sent 6000 settlers to found on the site of Carthage the new city of Junonia. The Roman senate afterwards annulled this with the other acts of Gracchus. Under Augustus however the new city of Carthage was founded, which, when Strabo wrote, was as prosperous as any city in Africa. It was made, in place of Utica, which had favoured the Pompeian party, the seat of the proconsul of Old Africa. It stood on the peninsula terminated by Ras-Sidi-Bou-Said, Cape Carthage or Carthagena. As Gibbon has remarked, "The place might be unknown if some broken arches of an aqueduct did not guide the footsteps of the inquisitive traveller."

126 The original city of Carthage was called 'Carthago Magna' to distinguish it from New Carthage and Old Carthage, colonies in Spain.

127 Now Rhades, according to Marcus.

128 Marcus identifies it with the modern Gurtos.

129 By the Greeks called 'Aspis.' It derived its Greek and Roman names from its site on a hill of a shield-like shape. It was built by Agathocles, the Sicilian, B.C. 310. In the first Punic war it was the landing-place of Manlius and Regulus, whose first action was to take it, B.C. 256. Its site is still known as Kalebiah, and its ruins are peculiarly interesting. The site of Misua is occupied by Sidi-Doud, according to Shaw and D'Anville.

130 Shaw informs us that an inscription found on the spot designates this place as a colony, not a free city or town. Its present name is Kurbah.

131 The present Nabal, according to D'Anville.

132 Zeugitana extended from the river Tusca to Horrea-Cælia, and Byzacium from this last place to Thenæ.

133 As sprung partly from the Phœnician immigrants, and partly from the native Libyans or Africans.

134 Pliny says, B. xvii. c. 3, "A hundred and fifty fold." From Shaw we learn that this fertility no longer exists, the fields producing not more than eight- or at most twelve-fold.

135 The modern Lempta occupies its site.

136 Originally a Phœnician colony, older than Carthage. It was the capital of Byzacium, and stood within the southern extremity of the Sinus Neapolitanus or Gulf of Hammamet. Trajan made it a colony, under the high-sounding name, as we gather from inscriptions, of Colonia Concordia Ulpia Trajana Augusta Frugifera Hadrumetana, or, as set forth on coins, Colonia Concordia Julia Hadrumetana Pia. The epithet Frugifera refers to the fact that it was one of the chief sea-ports for the corn-producing country of Byzacium. It was destroyed by the Vandals, but restored by the Emperor Justinian under the name of Justiniana or Justinianopolis. The modern Sousa stands on its site; and but slight traces of the ancient city are to be found.

137 Situate in the vicinity of the modern Monastir.

138 Shaw discovered its ruins at the modern town of Demas.

139 Now Taineh, according to D'Anville. This place formed the boundary between the proconsular province of Africa and the territory of the Numidian king Masinissa and his descendants.

140 The present Mahometa, according to Marcus, El Mahres according to D'Anville.

141 Now Cabès, according to D'Anville, giving name to the Gulf of Cabès. Marcus calls it Gaps.

142 Now Tripoli Vecchio; also called Sabart according to D'Anville.

143 Scipio Æmilianus, the son-in-law of Æmilius Paulus.

144 Micipsa, the son of Masinissa, and his two legitimate brethren. Scipio having been left by Masinissa executor of his will, the sovereign power was divided by him between Micipsa and his two brethren Gulussa and Mastanabal. On this occasion also he separated Numidia from Zeugitana and Byzacium, by a long dyke drawn from Thenæ, due south, to the borders of the Great Desert, and thence in a north-westerly direction to the river Tusca.

145 The Syrtes or 'Quicksands' are now called, the Lesser Syrtes the Gulf of Cabès, and the Greater the Gulf of Sydra. The country situate between the two Syrtes is called Tripoli, formerly Tripolis, a name which, according to Solinus, it owed to its three cities, Sabrata, Leptis, and Œa.

146 Marcus observes with reference to this passage, that both Hardouin and Poinsinet have mistaken its meaning. They evidently think that Pliny is speaking here of a route to the Syrtes leading from the interior of Africa, whereas it is pretty clear that he is speaking of the dangers which attend those who approach it by the line of the sea-coast, as Cato did, on his march to Utica, so beautifully described by Lucan in his Ninth Book. This is no doubt the same route which was taken by the caravans on their passage from Lebida, the ancient Leptis, to Berenice in Cyrenaica.

147 Those which we find at the middle of the coast bordering upon the Greater Syrtis, and which separate the mountains of Fezzan and Atlas from Cyrenaïca and Barca.

148 In its widest sense this name is applied to all the Libyan tribes inhabiting the Oases on the eastern part of the Great Desert, as the Gætulians inhabited its western part, the boundary between the two nations being drawn at the sources of the Bagrada and the mountain Usargala. In the stricter sense however, and in which the term must be here understood, the name 'Garamantes' denoted the people of Phazania, the modern Fezzan, which forms by far the largest oasis in the Grand Desert of Zahara.

149 Augylæ, now Aujelah, was an oasis in the desert of Barca, in the region of Cyrenaica, about 3 1/2° south of Cyrene. It has been remarked that Pliny, here and in the Eighth Chapter of the present Book, in abridging the account given by Herodotus of the tribes of Northern Africa, has transferred to the Augylæ what that author really says of the Nasamones. This oasis forms one of the chief stations on the caravan route from Cairo to Fezzan. It is placed by Rennell in 30°3′ North Lat. and 22°46′ East Long., 180 miles south-east of Barca, 180 west by north of Siwah, the ancient Ammonium, and 426 east by north of Mourzouk. Later authorities, however, place the village of Aujelah in 29°15′ North Lat. and 21°55′ East Long.

150 For an account of the Psylli see B. vii. c. 2. They probably dwelt in the vicinity of the modern Cape Mesurata.

151 Now Lake Lynxama, according to Marcus.

152 Marcus observes that in order properly to understand this passage we must remember that the ancients considered Africa as terminating north of the Equator, and imagined that from the Straits of Hercules the western coast of Africa ran, not towards the south-west, but slanted in a southeasterly direction to the Straits of Babelmandel.

153 The modern Tripoli.

154 A flourishing city with a mixed population of Libyans and Sicilians. It was at this place that Apuleius made his eloquent and ingenious defence against the charge of sorcery brought against him by his step-sons. According to some writers the modern Tripoli is built on its site, while other accounts make it to have been situate six leagues from that city.

155 Now called the Wady-el-Quaham.

156 Mannert is of opinion that this was only another name for the city of Leptis Magna or the "Greater Leptis" here mentioned by Pliny. There is little doubt that his supposition is correct.

157 The more common reading is Taphra or Taphara. D'Anville identifies it with the town of Sfakes.

158 Scylax identifies it with Neapolis or Leptis, and it is generally looked upon as being the same place as Sabrata or Old Tripoli.

159 Now called Lebida. It was the birth-place of the Emperor Septimius Severus. It was almost destroyed by an attack from a Libyan tribe A.D. 366, and its ruin was completed by the invasion of the Arabs. Its ruins are considerable.

160 Men of sea complexion," is the meaning of this Greek name. According to Marcus they dwelt between the Greater Leptis and the Lake Tritonis, at the present day called Schibkah-el-Loudeah. For a further account of the Lotophagi, see B. xiii. c. 32.

161 Two brothers, citizens of Carthage, who in a dispute as to their respective territories with the people of Cyrene, submitted to be buried alive in the sand, at the boundary-line between the two countries. Sallust (Jugurthine War) is the main authority for the story. It is also related by Pomponius Mela, B. i. c. 7, and Valerius Maximus, B. v. c. 6, but from the Greek name of the brothers, meaning "lovers of praise," it is doubtful whether the story is not of spurious origin.

162 The Lake Tritonis mentioned in note11, p. 393.

163 Now called El Hammah, according to Shaw.

164 According to some accounts the goddess Pallas or Minerva was born on the banks of Lake Tritonis.

165 The modern Cape of Tajuni.

166 Now called Udina, according to Marcus.

167 Now called Tabersole, according to Marcus.

168 In the north of Byzacium, near the Bagrada and the confines of Numidia. It was the station of a Roman garrison, and considerable remains of it are still visible near the modern Zanfour.

169 Called Cannopissæ by Ptolemy, who places it to the east of Tabraca.

170 There is great doubt as to the correct orthography of these places, most of which can be no longer identified.

171 According to Marcus the present Porto Tarina.

172 Also called Achilla and Achulla, the ruins of which are to be seen at the modern El Aliah. It stood on the sea-coast of Byzacium, a little above the northern extremity of the Lesser Syrtis. It was a colony from the island of Melita, now Malta.

173 Now called El-Jemma, according to Marcus.

174 From it modern Tunis takes its name.

175 The birth-place of St. Augustin. It was to the north-west of Hippo Regius.

176 In the vicinity of this place, if it is the same as the Tigisis mentioned by Procopius, there were two columns to be seen in his day, upon which was written in the Phœnician language, "We fled from before the robber, Joshua the son of Nun."

177 There were two towns of this name in the proconsular province of Africa. The first was situate in the country of Zeugitana, five days' journey west of Carthage, and it was here that Scipio defeated Hannibal. The other bore the surname of Regia or Royal, from being the frequent residence of the Numidian kings. It lay in the interior, and at the present day its site bears the name of 'Zowarin' or 'Zewarin.'

178 The ruins of Capsa still bear the name of Cafsa or Ghafsah. It was an important city in the extreme south of Numidia, situate in an oasis, in the midst of an arid desert abounding in serpents. In the Jugurthine war it was the treasury of Jugurtha, and was taken and destroyed by Marius; but was afterwards rebuilt and made a colony.

179 They dwelt between the river Ampsaga or Wady-El-Kebir and the Tusca or Wady-Zain, the western boundary of the Carthaginian territory.

180 Dwelling to the east of the mountain Zalycus, now known as the Wanashrise, according to Shaw.

181 The ancients called by the name of 'Gætulians' all the people of Africa who dwelt south of the Mauritanias and Numidia, as far as the line which, according to their ideas, separated Africa from Æthiopia.

182 The Quorra most probably of modern geographers.

183 So called, as mentioned below, from its five principal cities.

184 Where Jupiter Ammon or Hammon was worshiped under the form of a ram, the form he was said to have assumed when the deities were dispersed in the war with the Giants. Ancient Ammonium is the present oasis of Siwah in the Libyan Desert.

185 The same that has been already mentioned in B. ii. c. 106. It is mentioned by Herodotus and Pomponius Mela.

186 Previously called Hesperis or Hesperides. It was the most westerly city of Cyrenaica, and stood just beyond the eastern extremity of the Greater Syrtis, on a promontory called Pseudopenias, and near the river Lethon. Its historical importance only dates from the times of the Ptolemies, when it was named Berenice, after the wife of Ptolemy III. or Euergetes. Having been greatly reduced, it was fortified anew by the Emperor Justinian. Its ruins are to be seen at the modern Ben Ghazi.

187 So called from Arsinoë, the sister of Ptolemy Philadelphus. Its earlier name was Taucheira or Teucheira, which name, according to Marcus, it still retains.

188 Its ruins may still be seen at Tolmeita or Tolometa. It was situate on the N.W. coast of Cyrenaica, and originally bore the name of Barca. From which of the Ptolemies it took its name is not known. Its splendid ruins are not less than four miles in circumference.

189 Its ruins are still to be seen, bespeaking its former splendour, at the modern Marsa Sousah. It was originally only the port of Cyrene, but under the Ptolemies it flourished to such an extent as to eclipse that city. It is pretty certain that it was the Sozusa of the later Greek writers. Eratosthenes was a native of this place.

190 The chief city of Cyrenaica, and the most important Hellenic colony in Africa, the early settlers having extensively intermarried with wives of Libyan parentage. In its most prosperous times it maintained an extensive commerce with Greece and Egypt, especially in silphium or assafœtida, the plantations of which, as mentioned in the present chapter, extended for miles in its vicinity. Great quantities of this plant were also exported to Capua in Southern Italy, where it was extensively employed in the manufacture of perfumes. The scene of the 'Rudens,' the most picturesque (if we may use the term) of the plays of Plautus, is laid in the vicinity of Cyrene, and frequent reference is made in it to the extensive cultivation of silphium; a head of which plant also appears on the coins of the place. The philosophers Aristippus and Carneades were born here, as also the poet Callimachus. Its ruins, at the modern Ghrennah, are very extensive, and are indicative of its former splendour.

191 In C. 1 of the present Book. It was only the poetical fancy of the Greeks that found the fabled gardens of the Hesperides in the fertile regions of Cyrenaica. Scylax distinctly mentions the gardens and the lake of the Hesperides in this vicinity, where we also find a people called Hesperidæ, or, as Herodotus names them, Euesperidæ. It was probably in consequence of this similarity of name, in a great degree, that the gardens of the Hesperidcs were assigned to this locality.

192 Now called Ras-Sem or Ras-El-Kazat. It is situate a little to the west of Apollonia and N.W. of Cyrene.

193 According to Ansart, 264 miles is the real distance between Capes Ras-Sem and Tænarum or Matapan.

194 As already mentioned, Apollonia formed the harbour of Cyrene.

195 This was called the Chersonesus Magna, being so named in contradistinction to the Chersonesus Parva, on the coast of Egypt, about thirty-five miles west of Alexandria. It is now called Ras-El-Tin, or more commonly Raxatin.

196 So called from the peculiar features of the locality, the Greek word καταβαθμὸς, signifying "a descent." A deep valley, bounded east and west by ranges of high hills, runs from this spot to the frontiers of Egypt. It is again mentioned by Pliny at the end of the present Chapter. The spot is still known by a similar name, being called Marsa Sollern, or the "Port of the Ladder." In earlier times the Egyptian territory ended at the Gulf of Plinthinethes, now Lago Segio, and did not extend so far as Catabathmos.

197 This name was unknown to Herodotus. As Marcus observes, it was probably of Phœnician origin, signifying "leading a wandering life," like the term "nomad," derived from the Greek.

198 Now called El Bareton or Marsa-Labeit. This city was of considerable importance, and belonged properly to Marmaria, but was included politically in the Nomos Libya of Egypt. It stood near the promontory of Artos or Pythis, now Ras-El-Hazeit.

199 So called from the words Matû-Ammon, "the tribe of Ammon," according to Bochart. The Nasamones were a powerful but savage people of Libya, who dwelt originally on the shores of the Greater Syrtis, but were driven inland by the Greek settlers of Cyrenaica, and afterwards by the Romans.

200 From μεσὸς "the middle," and ἄμμος "sand."

201 See note6 in p. 396.

202 Herodotus places this nation to the west of the Nasamones and on the river Cinyps, now called the Wadi-Quaham.

203 In most of the editions they are called 'Hammanientes.' It has been suggested that they were so called from the Greek word ἄμμος "sand."

204 This story he borrows from Herodotus, B. iv. c. 158.

205 From the Greek word τρωγλοδύται, "dwellers in caves." Pliny has used the term already (B. iv. c. 25) in reference to the nations on the banks of the Danube. It was a general name applied by the Greek geographers to various uncivilized races who had no abodes but caves, and more especially to the inhabitants of the western coasts of the Red Sea, along the shores of Upper Egypt and Æthiopia.

206 At the beginning of C. 4.

207 Which gives name to the modern Fezzan.

208 Now called Tanet-Mellulen, or the station of Mellulen, on the route from Gadamez to Oserona.

209 Zaouila or Zala, half way between Augyla and Mourzouk.

210 Now Gadamez, which, according to Marcus, is situate almost under the same meridian as Old Tripoli, the ancient Sabrata.

211 According to Marcus this range still bears the name of Gibel-Assoud, which in the Arabic language means the "Black Mountain."

212 In a southerly direction. He alludes probably to the Desert of Bildulgerid.

213 This spring is also mentioned by Pliny in B. ii. c. 106. Marcus suggests that the Debris of Pliny is the same as the Bedir of Ptolemy. He also remarks that the English traveller Oudney discovered caverns hewn out of the sides of the hills, evidently for the purposes of habitation, but of which the use is not known by the present people. These he considers to have been the abodes of the ancient Troglodytæ or "cave-dwellers." In the Tibesti range of mountains, however, we find a race called the Rock Tibboos, from the circumstance of their dwelling in caves.

214 Cornelius Balbus Gaditanus the Younger, who, upon his victories over the Garamantes, obtained a triumph in the year B.C. 19.

215 L. Cornelius Balbus the Elder, also at native of Gades. He obtained the consulship in B.C. 40, the first instance, as we find mentioned by Pliny, B. vii. c. 44, in which this honour had been conferred upon one who was not a Roman citizen.

216 On the occasion of a triumph by a Roman general, boards were carried aloft on "fercula," on which were painted in large letters the names of vanquished nations and countries. Here too models were exhibited in ivory or wood of the cities and forts captured, and pictures of the mountains, rivers, and other great natural features of the subjugated region, with appropriate inscriptions. Marcus is of opinion that the names of the places here mentioned do not succeed in any geographical order, but solely according to their presumed importance as forming part of the conquest of Balbus. He also thinks that Balbus did not penetrate beyond the fifteenth degree of north latitude, and that his conquests did not extend so far south as the banks of Lake Tchad.

217 The site of Garama still bears the name of 'Gherma,' and presents very considerable remains of antiquity. It is four days' journey north of Mourzouk, the capital of Fezzan.

218 Now Tibesti, according to Marcus.

219 Marcus suggests that this is probably the Febabo of modem geographers, to the N.E. of Belma and Tibesti.

220 Discera was the Im-Zerah of modern travellers, on the road from Sockna to Mourzouk, according to Marcus, who is of opinion that the places which follow were situate at the east and north-east of Thuben and the Black Mountain.

221 Om-El-Abid, to the N.W. of Garama or Gherma, according to Marcus, and Oudney the traveller.

222 The same, Marcus thinks, as the modem Tessava in Fezzan.

223 Marcus suggests that this may be the modern Sana.

224 The town of Winega mentioned by Oudney, was probably the ancient Pega, according to Marcus.

225 The modern Missolat, according to Marcus, on the route from Tripoli to Murmuck.

226 According to Marcus, this was the Mount Goriano of the English travellers Denham, Clapperton, and Oudney, where, confirming the statement here made by Pliny, they found quartz, jasper, onyx, agates, and cornelians.

227 Mentioned by Tacitus, B. iv. c. 50. The town of Œa has been alluded to by Pliny in C. 4.

228 Past the head of the rock." Marcus suggests that this is the Gibel-Gelat or Rock of Gelat spoken of by the English travellers Denham, Clapperton, and Oudney, forming a portion of the chain of Guriano or Gyr. He says, that at the foot of this mountain travellers have to pass from Old and New Tripoli on their road to Missolat, the Maxala of Pliny, and thence to Gerama or Gherma, the ancient capital of Fezzan.

229 As Marcus observes, this would not make it to extend so far south as the sixteenth degree of north latitude.

230 The Mareotis of the time of the Ptolemies extended from Alexandria to the Gulf of Plinthinethes; and Libya was properly that portion of territory which extended from that Gulf to Catabathmos. Pliny is in error here in confounding the two appellations, or rather, blending them into one. It includes the eastern portion of the modern Barca, and the western division of Lower Egypt. It most probably received its name from the Lake Mareotis, and not the lake from it.

231 This was a seaport town on the northern coast of Africa, probably about eleven or twelve miles west of Parætonium, sometimes spoken of as belonging to Egypt, sometimes to Marmorica. Scylax places it at the western boundary of Egypt, on the frontier of the Marmaridæ. Ptolemy, like Pliny, speaks of it as being in the Libyan Nomos. The distances given in the MSS. of Pliny of this place from Parætonium are seventy-two, sixty-two, and twelve miles; the latter is probably the correct reading, as Strabc, B. xvii., makes the distance 100 stadia. It is extremely doubtful whether the Apis mentioned by Herodotus, B. ii. c. 18, can be the same place: but there is little doubt, from the words of Pliny here, that it was dedicated to the worship of the Egyptian god Apis, who was represented under the form of a bull.

232 Now called Zerbi and Jerba, derived from the name of Girba, which even in the time of Aurelius Victor, had supplanted that of Meninx. It is situate in the Gulf of Cabes. According to Solinus, C. Marius lay in concealment here for some time. It was famous for its purple. See B. ix. c. 60.

233 Now called Kerkéni, Karkenah, or Ramlah.

234 Now Gherba. It was reckoned as a mere appendage to Cercina, to which it was joined by a mole, and which is found often mentioned in history.

235 Still called Lampedusa, off the coast of Tunis. This island, with Gaulos and Galata, has been already mentioned among the islands off Sicily; see B. iii. c. 14.

236 Now Pantellaria. See B. iii. c. 14.

237 A lofty island surrounded by dangerous cliffs, now called Zowamour or Zembra.

238 In the former editions the word "Aræ" is taken to refer to the Ægimuri, as meaning the same islands. Sillig is however of opinion that totally distinct groups are meant, and punctuates accordingly. The "Aræ" were probably mere rocks lying out at sea, which received their name from their fancied resemblance to altars. They are mentioned by Virgil in the Æneid, B. i. l. 113, upon which lines Servius says, that they were so called because there the Romans and the people of Africa on one occasion made a treaty.

239 The greater portion of this Chapter is extracted almost verbatim from the account given by Mela. Ptolemy seems to place the Liby-Egyptians to the south of the Greater and Lesser Oasis, on the route thence to Darfour.

240 Or "White Æthiopians," men though of dark complexion, not negroes. Marcus is of opinion that the words "intervenientibus desertis" refer to the tract of desert country lying between the Leucæthiopians and the Liby-Egyptians, and not to that between the Gætulians on the one hand and the Liby-Egyptians and the Leucæthiopians on the other.

241 Meaning to the south and the south-east of these three nations, according to Marcus. Rennel takes the Leucæthiopians to be the present Mandingos of higher Senegambia: Marcus however thinks that they are the Azanaghis, who dwell on the edge of the Great Desert, and are not of so black a complexion as the Mandingos.

242 Probably the people of the present Nigritia or Soudan.

243 Marcus is of opinion that Pliny does not here refer to the Joliba of Park and other travellers, as other commentators have supposed; but that he speaks of the river called Zis by the modern geographers, and which Jackson speaks of as flowing from the south-east towards north-west. The whole subject of the Niger is however enwrapped in almost impenetrable obscurity, and as the most recent inquirers have not come to any conclusion on the subject, it would be little more than a waste of time and space to enter upon an investigation of the notions which Pliny and Mela entertained on the subject.

244 From γυμνὸς, "naked."

245 Mentioned in C. 1 of the present Book.

246 7 He refers to the words in the Odyssey, B. i. l. 23, 24.— αἰθίοπας τοὶ δίχθα δεδαιάται, ἔσχατοι ἄνδρων̓
οἱ μὲν δυσομένου ῾υπερίονος, οἱ δ̓ ἀνιόντος. "The Æhiopians, the most remote of mankind, are divided into two parts, the one at the setting of Hyperion, the other at his rising."

247 A tribe of Æthiopia, whose position varied considerably at different epochs of history. Their predatory and savage habits caused the most extraordinary reports to be spread of their appearance and ferocity. The more ancient geographers bring them as far westward as the region beyond the Libyan Desert, and into the vicinity of the Oases. In the time however of the Antonines, when Ptolemy was composing his description of Africa, they appear to the south and east of Egypt, in the wide and almost unknown tract which lay between the rivers Astapus and Astobores.

248 Mela speaks of this race as situate farthest to the west. The description of them here given is from Herodotus, B. iv. c. 183–185, who speaks of them under the name of "Atarantes."

249 The people who are visited by no dreams, are called Atlantes by Herodotus, the same name by which Pliny calls them. He says that their territory is ten days' journey from that of the Atarantes.

250 This also is borrowed from Herodotus. As some confirmation of this account, it is worthy of remark, that the Rock Tibboos of the present day, who, like the ancient Troglodytæ, dwell in caves, have so peculiar a kind of speech, that it is compared by the people of Aujelah to nothing but the whistling of birds. The Troglodytæ of Fezzan are here referred to, not those of the coasts of the Red Sea.

251 Mela says that they look upon the Manes or spirits of the departed as their only deities.

252 This is said, in almost the same words, of the Garamantes, by Herodotus. The mistake was probably made by Mela in copying from Herodotus, and continued by Pliny when borrowing from him.

253 So called from their supposed resemblance in form to the Satyrs of the ancient mythology, who were represented as little hairy men with horns, long ears, and tails. They were probably monkeys, which had been mistaken for men.

254 Half goat, half man. See the Note relative to Ægipan, in C. 1 of the present Book, p. 378.

255 Evidently intended to be derived from the Greek ἱμὰς "a thong," and πόδες "the feet." It is most probable that the name of a savage people in the interior bore a fancied resemblance to this word, upon which the marvellous story here stated was coined for the purpose of tallying with the name. From a statement in the Æthiopica of Heliodorus, B. x., Marcus suggests that the story as to the Blemmyee having no heads arose from the circumstance, that on the invasion of the Persians they were in the habit of falling on one knee and bowing the head to the breast, by which means, without injury to themselves, they afforded a passage to the horses of the enemy.

256 It must be remembered, as already mentioned, that the ancients looked upon Egypt as forming part of Asia, not of Africa. It seems impossible to say how this supposition arose, when the Red Sea and the Isthmus of Suez form so natural and so palpable a frontier between Asia and Africa.

257 It is not improbable that these numbers are incorrectly stated in the MSS. of our author.

258 Parisot remarks that Pliny is in error in this statement. A considerable part of Lower Egypt lay both on the right and left of the Delta or island formed by the branches of the Nile. It must be remembered, however, that our author has already included a portion of what was strictly Egypt, in his description of Libya Mareotis.

259 By reason of its triangular form, δ.

260 The Ombite nome worshipped the crocodile as the emblem of Sebak. Its capital was Ombos.

261 This nome destroyed the crocodile and worshipped the sun. Its capital was Apollinopolis Magna.

262 It worshipped Osiris and his son Orus. The chief town was Thermonthis.

263 Probably the original kingdom of Menes of This, the founder of the Egyptian monarchy. It worshipped Osiris. Its capital was This, afterwards called Abydos.

264 The nome of Thebes, which was its chief town.

265 Its capital was Coptos.

266 Its chief town was Tentyra. This nome worshipped Athor or Venus, Isis, and Typhon. It destroyed the crocodile.

267 Perhaps the same as the Panopolite or Chemmite nome, which had for its chief town Chemmis or Panopolis. It paid divine honours to a deified hero.

268 It probably worshipped Typhon. Its capital was Antæopolis.

269 Probably an offshoot from a nome in the Heptanomis of similar name.

270 Dedicated to the worship of the wolf. Its chief town was Lycopolis. It should be remarked that these names do not appear to be given by Pliny in their proper geographical order.

271 Some of these nomes were inconsiderable and of little importance. The Bubastite nome worshipped Bubastis, Artemis, or Diana, of whom it contained a fine temple.

272 Its chief town was Tanis. In this nome, according to tradition, Moses was born.

273 Its capital was Athribis, where the shrew-mouse and crocodile were worshipped.

274 The seat of the worship of the dog-headed deity Anubis. Its capital was Cynopolis; which is to be distinguished from the Deltic city and other places of that name, as this was a nome of the Heptanomis or Middle Egypt, to which also the Hammonian nome belonged.

275 The border nome of Upper and Middle Egypt.

276 Its capital was Pachnamunis. It worshipped a goddess corresponding to the Greek Leto, or the Latona of the Romans.

277 Its capital was Busiris. It worshipped Isis, and at one period was said to have sacrificed the nomad tribes of Syria and Arabia.

278 Its chief town was Onuphis.

279 Its chief city was Sais, and it worshipped Neith or Athene, and contained the tomb and a sanctuary of Osiris.

280 Its capital was Tava.

281 Its chief town was Naucratis on the coast, the birth-place of Athenæus, the Deipnosophist. By some authors it is made part of the Saitic nome. The names given by Pliny vary very considerably from those found in others of the ancient writers.

282 The capital of this nome was Heracleopolis, 'The city of Hercules,' as Pliny calls it, situate, as he says, on an island, at the entrance of the nome of Arsinoïtes, formed by the Nile and a canal. After Memphis and Heliopolis, it was probably the most important city couth of the Thebaid. Its ruins are inconsiderable; a portion of them are to be seen at the modern hamlet of Amasieh.

283 The capital of this nome was Heracleopolis, 'The city of Hercules,' as Pliny calls it, situate, as he says, on an island, at the entrance of the nome of Arsinoïtes, formed by the Nile and a canal. After Memphis and Heliopolis, it was probably the most important city couth of the Thebaid. Its ruins are inconsiderable; a portion of them are to be seen at the modern hamlet of Amasieh.

284 He probably means Arsinoë or Arsinoïtis, the chief town of the nome of that name, and the city so called at the northern extremity of the Heroöpolite Gulf in the Red Sea. The former is denoted by the modern district of El-Fayoom, the most fertile of ancient Egypt. At this place the crocodile was worshipped. The Labyrinth and Lake Mœris were in this nome. Extensive ruins at Medinet-el-Fayoom, or El-Fares, represent its site. The modern Ardscherud, a village near Suez, corresponds to Arsinoë on the Red Sea. There is some little doubt however whether this last Arsinoë is the one here meant by Pliny.

285 Memphis was the chief city of this nome, which was situate in Middle Egypt, and was the capital of the whole country, and the residence of the Pharaohs, who succeeded Psammetichus, B.C. 616. This nome rose in importance on the decline of the kingdom of Thebais, but was afterwards eclipsed by the progress of Alexandria under the successors of Alexander the Great.

286 At which Middle Egypt terminates.

287 They are more generally looked upon as forming one nome only, and included under the name of Hammonium.

288 Its chief town was Heroöpolis, a principal seat of the worship of Typhon, the evil or destroying genius.

289 The same as the nome of Arsinoïtes, the capital of which, Arsinoë, was originally called Crocodilopolis.

290 Now known as Birket-el-Keroum. This was a vast lake on the western side of the Nile in Middle Egypt, used for the reception and subsequent distribution of a part of the overflow of the Nile. The supposition that it was formed by artificial means is now pretty generally exploded, and it is regarded as of natural formation. It was situate in the nome of Arsinoïtes or Crocodilopolites. Its length seems to be overstated by our author, as at the present day it is only thirty miles in length and five in breadth at the widest part.

291 And it is generally supposed that they are so up to the present day. The ethnographer Jablonski is of opinion that this river derives its name from the Coptish word tneialei "to rise at stated times." Servius, the commentator on Virgil, says that it is derived from the two Greek words νέα ἰλὺς "fresh mud," in allusion to the fresh mud or slime which it leaves after each inundation. Singularly enough, Champollion prefers this silly etymology to that suggested by Jablonski.

292 An interesting disquisition on the probable sources of the Nile, as viewed by the ancients, is to be found in the Ninth Book of Lucan's Pharsalia. The Indian word "nilas," "black," has also been suggested as its possible origin.

293 What spot is meant under this name, if indeed it is anything more than the creation of fancy, it is impossible to ascertain with any degree of precision. It is possible however that the ancients may have had some knowledge of Lake Tchad, and the Mountains of the Moon, or Djebel-Kumri, though at the same time it is more than doubtful that the Nile has its source in either of those localities, the former especially.

294 Perhaps a kind of river lamprey. As to the Coracinus, see B. ix. c. 24, 32, and B. xxxii. c. 19, 24, 34, 44, and 53; and as to the Silurus, B. ix. c. 17, 25, and B. xxxii. c. 31, 36, 40, 43, 44, &c.

295 The modern Vacur in Northern Africa.

296 A district which in reality was at least 1200 or 1500 miles distant from any part of the Nile, and probably near 3000 from its real source.

297 Spargit." It is doubtful whether this word means here "waters," or "divides." Probably however the latter is its meaning.

298 This is the third or eastern branch of the river, now known as the Tacazze. It rises in the highlands of Abyssinia, in about 11°40′ north lat. and 39°40′ east long., and joins the main stream of the Nile, formed by the union of the Abiad and the Azrek, in 17°45′ north lat. and about 34°5′ east long.; the point of junction being the apex of the island of Meroë, here mentioned by Pliny.

299 Possibly by this name he designates the Bahr-el-Abied, or White River, the main stream of the Nile, the sources of which have not been hitherto satisfactorily ascertained. The Astapus is supposed to have been really the name of the Bahr-el-Azrek, or Blue River, the third branch of the Nile, the sources of which are in the highlands of Abyssinia, in about 11°40′ north lat. and 39°40′ east long.

300 Or "side of the water that issues from the shades." As Hardouin says, this does not appear to be a very satisfactory explanation.

301 Said by Tzetzes to have been derived from the Greek τρἱτος, "the third," because it had three times changed its name: having been called, first, the Ocean; secondly, Aëtus, or the Eagle; and thirdly, Ægyptus.

302 Or the "Cataracts," for which it is the Greek name. The most northerly of these cataracts, called the First Cataract, is, and always has been, the southern boundary of Egypt. According to the most recent accounts, these Cataracts are devoid of any stupendous features, such as characterize the Falls of Niagara.

303 The one now called the First Cataract.

304 Seven mouths in ancient times, which have now dwindled down to two of any importance, the Damietta mouth on the east, and the Rosetta on the west.

305 The Etesians are periodical winds, which blow steadily from one quarter for forty days each year, during the season of the Dog-days. The opinion here stated was that promulgated by Thales the philosopher. Seneca refutes it in B. iv. c. 2. of his Quæst. Nat.

306 This was the opinion of Democritus of Abdera, and of Agatharchidas of Cnidos. It is combated by Diodorus Siculus, B. i., but it is the opinion most generally received at the present day. See the disquisition on the subject introduced in the Ninth book of Lucan's Pharsalia.

307 And that the high tide or inundation would be consequently continuous as well.

308 The principal well for this purpose was called the "Nilometer," or "Gauge for the Nile."

309 On this subject see Pliny, B. xviii. c. 47, and B. xxxvi. c. 11.

310 Seneca says that the Nile did not rise as usual in the tenth and eleventh years of the reign of Cleopatra, and that the circumstance was said to bode ruin to her and Antony.—Nat. Quæst. B. iv. c. 2.

311 He means dense clouds, productive of rain, not thin mists. See what is said of the Borysthenes by our author, B. xxxi. c. 30.

312 Syene was a city of Upper Egypt, on the eastern bank of the Nile just below the First Cataract, and was looked upon as the southern frontier city of Egypt against Æthiopia. It was an important point in the geography and astronomy of the ancients; for, lying just under the tropic of Cancer, it was chosen as the place through which they drew their chief parallel of latitude. The sun was vertical to Syene at the time of the summer solstice, and a well was shown there where the face of the sun was seen at noon at that time. Its present name is Assouan or Ossouan.

313 If this word means the "Camp," it does not appear to be known what camp is meant. Most editions have "Cerastæ," in which case it would mean that at Syene the Cerastes or horned serpent is found.

314 One of these (if indeed Philæ did consist of more than a single island, which seems doubtful) is now known as Djeziret-el-Birbe, the "Island of the Temple."

315 This island was seated just below the Lesser Cataract, opposite Syene, and near the western bank of the Nile. At this point the river becomes navigable downward to its mouths, and the traveller from Meroë or Æthiopia enters Egypt Proper. The original name of this island was "Ebo," Eb being in the language of hieroglyphics the symbol of the elephant and ivory. It was remarkable for its fertility and verdure, and the Arabs of the present day designate the island as Djesiret-el-Sag, or "the Blooming."

316 This is a mistake of Pliny's, for it was opposite to Syene. Brotier thinks that Pliny intended to write' Philæ,' but by mistake inserted Syene.

317 Artemidorus, Juba, and Aristocreon.

318 They were probably made of papyrus, or else of hides, like the British coracles.

319 The last king of the line of Psammetichus, B.C. 569. He succeeded Apries, whom the Egyptians put to death. He died just before the invasion by Cambyses, having displayed great abilities as a ruler.

320 There was the Greater Apollinopolis, the modem Edfoo, in the Thebaid, on the western bank of the Nile, in lat. 25° north, about thirteen miles below the lesser Cataract: its inhabitants were enemies of the crocodile and its worshippers. The remains of two temples there are considered second only to the temple of Denderah as specimens of the sacred structures of Egypt. A Lesser Apollinopolis was in Upper Egypt, on the western bank of the Nile, in lat. 27° north. Another Lesser Apollinopolis was a town of the Thebaid in the Coptite Nome, in lat. 26° north, situate between Thebes and Coptos. It was situate at the present Kuss.

321 Its site is unknown. Hardouin suggests that it is the Eilethuia of Ptolemy, the modern El-Kab.

322 City of Jupiter," the Greek name for Thebes, the No or No Ammon of Scripture. It stood in the centre of the Thebaid, on both banks of the Nile, above Coptos, and in the Nomos Coptites. Its ruins, which are the most magnificent in the world, enclose within their site the four villages of Carnac, Luxor, Medinet Abou, and Gournou.

323 Its hieroglyphical name was Kobto, and its site is now occupied by the modern town of Kouft or Keft. It was situate in lat. 26° north, on the right bank of the Nile, about a mile from its banks. As a halting place or rather watering-place for the caravans, it was enriched by the commerce between Libya and Egypt on the one hand, and Arabia and India and Egypt on the other, the latter being carried on through the port of Berenice on the Red Sea, founded by Ptolemy Philadelphus, B.C. 266. In the seventh century of the Christian era, it bore for some time the name of Justinianopolis. There are a few remains of Roman buildings to be seen on its site.

324 Also called Aphrodite or Aphroditopolis. Of this name there were several towns or cities in ancient Egypt. In Lower Egypt there was Atarbechis, thus named, and a town mentioned by Strabo in the nome of Leontopolites. In the Heptanomis or Middle Egypt there was the place, the ruins of which are called Aftyeh, on the east side of the Nile, and the capital of the nome of Aphroditopolites. In Upper Egypt or the Thebais there was the present Tachta, on the west side of the Nile, between Ptolemais and Panopolis, capital of another nome of Aphroditopolites, and that one the ruins of which are now called Deir, on the west bank of the Nile, higher up than the former, and, like it, some distance from the river. It was situate in the nome Hermonthites.

325 Another Diospolis. Great Diospolis is mentioned in the preceding page.

326 Or Tentyra. The modern Dendera of the Arabs, called Dendôri or Hidendôri by the ancient Egyptians.

327 In ancient times called This, and in Coptic Ebôt, the ruins of which are now known as Arábat-el-Matfoon. It was the chief town of the Nomos Thinites, and was situate in lat. 26°10′ north and long. 32°3′ east. In the Thebaid it ranked next to Thebes itself. Here according to general belief was the burial-place of Osiris. In the time of Strabo it had sunk into a mere village. Its ruins, though nearly buried in the sand, are very extensive. There is, however, some uncertainty as to the exact identity of This with Abydus.

328 The ruins of these places are still to be seen at Abydus.

329 He calls the whole of the country on the western bank of the Nile by this name.

330 Called Absou or Absaï by the Arabs, and Psoë by the ancient Egyptians. It has been suggested that it was the same place as This, more generally identified with Abydus.

331 Its site is now called Ekhmin or Akhmin by the Arabs, Khmim being its ancient Egyptian name. It was the chief town of the nome of Panopolites, and the deity Phthah was worshipped there under the form of Priapus.

332 Another Aphroditopolis, the present Tachta, mentioned above, in Note6 in the last page. Pliny distinguishes it from that now called Deir, mentioned above.

333 Now known as Es-Siout.

334 Or Hermopolis—the modern Esh-moon or Ash-mounion, on the eastern bank of the Nile, in lat. 27°54′ north. It was the capital of the Hermopolite nome in the Heptanomis. It was a place of great opulence and densely populated. The deities Typhon and Thoth were principally worshipped at this place. The latter, the inventor of the pen and letters, nearly corresponded with the Hermes of the Greeks (the Mercury of the Romans), from which the Hellenized name of the place. Its ruins are very extensive.

335 This town was no doubt connected with the alabaster quarries of Mount Alabasternus, now Mount St. Anthony, and the hill of Alabastrites, now the Côteau Hessan.

336 Or Cynopolis, the chief place of the Cynopolite nome. The Dog-headed deity Anubis was worshipped here. The modern Samallus occupies its site. This place was in the Heptanomis, but there were several other towns of the same name, one of which was situate in the Delta or Lower Egypt.

337 In C. 9, when speaking of the nome of Heracleopolites; of which nome, this place, called Heracleopolis, was the capital. It was situate at the entrance of the valley of the Fayoum, on an island formed by the Nile and a canal. After Memphis and Heliopolis it was probably the most important city north of the Thebaid. It furnished two dynasties of kings to Egypt. The ichneumon was worshipped here, from which it may be inferred that the people were hostile to the crocodile. Its ruins are inconsiderable; the village of Anasieh covers part of them.

338 The capital of the nome of Arsinoites, seated on the western bank of the Nile, between the river and Lake Mœris, south-west of Memphis, in lat. 29° north. It was called under the Pharaohs, "the City of Crocodiles," from the reverence paid by the people to that animal. Its ruins are to be seen at Medinet-el-Fayoom or El-Fares.

339 Its magnificent ruins, known by the name of Menf and Metrabenny, are to be seen about ten miles above the pyramids of Gizeh.

340 This lay beyond Lake Mœris, or Birket-el-Keroun, at a short distance from the city of Arsinoë. It had 3000 apartments, 1500 of which were underground. The accounts given by modern travellers of its supposed ruins do not agree with what we have learned from the ancients respecting its architecture and site. The purposes for which it was built are unknown. Its supposed site is called Havara.

341 If this is not an abbreviation or corruption for Crocodilon, as Hardouin suggests, it may probably mean the "town of Rams," from the worship perhaps of that animal there.

342 Heliopolis or Rameses. In Scripture it is called by the names of On and No—Gen. xli. 45 and Ezek. xxx. 15. It stood on the eastern side of the Pelusiac arm of the Nile, near the right bank of the Great Canal which connected the river with the Red Sea, and close adjoining to the present overland route for travellers to India. It was one of the most ancient of the Egyptian cities; here the father-in-law of Joseph exercised the office of high-priest, and here the prophet Jeremiah is supposed to have written his Book of Lamentations. Its priests were the great depositaries of the theological and historical learning of Egypt. Solon, Thales, and Plato were reputed each to have visited its schools. According to Macrobius, Baalbec, the Syrian City of the Sun, was a colony from this place. It was the capital of the nome Heliopolites, and paid worship to the sun and the bull Mnevis, the rival of Apis. From Josephus we learn that after the dispersion and fall of the tribes of Judah and Israel, great numbers of the Jews took refuge at this place, forming almost one-half of its population. The ruins, which were extremely magnificent, occupied in the twelfth century an area nearly three miles in extent. Pliny speaks of the great obelisk there, which is still standing. (See B. xxxvi. c. 9.) The village of Matarieh occupies a part of its site, and besides the obelisk of red granite, there are a few remains of the Temple of the Sun.

343 Now called Birk-el-Mariout.

344 Or Dinocrates. He was the architect of the new temple of Diana at Ephesus, which was built after the destruction of the former one by Herostratus. It was this architect who formed a design for cutting Mount Athos into a statue of Alexander, with a city in the right hand and a reservoir of the mountain streams in the left.

345 Holland seems to think that the word "laxitate" applies to chlamys.

346 The chlamys was a scarf or cloak worn over the shoulders, and especially used by military persons of high rank. It did not reach lower than the knees, and was open in front, covering only the neck, back, and shoulders.

347 Its real dimensions were something less than 300 stadia, or thirty geographical miles long, and rather more than 150 stadia wide.

348 Or "Pseudostomata." These were crossed in small boats, as they were not navigable for ships of burden.

349 In the Pharaonic times Canopus was the capital of the nome of Menelaïtes, and the principal harbour of the Delta. It probably owed its name to the god Canobus, a pitcher full of holes, with a human head, which was worshipped here with peculiar pomp. It was remarkable for the number of its festivals and the general dissoluteness of its morals. Traces of its ruins are to be seen about three miles from the modern Aboukir.

350 Corresponding to the modern Raschid or Rosetta. It is supposed that this place was noted for its manufactory of chariots.

351 The town of Sebennys or Sebennytum, now Samannoud, gave name to one of the nomes, and the Sebennytic Mouth of the Nile.

352 Or the Pathinetic or Bucolic Mouth, said to be the same as the modern Damietta Mouth.

353 The capital of the Mendesian nome, called by the Arabs Ochmoun. This mouth is now known as the Deibeh Mouth.

354 Now called Szan or Tzan. The Tanitic Mouth, which is sometimes called the Saitic, is at the present day called Omm-Faredjé.

355 Its ruins are to be seen at the modern Tineh. This city in early times had the name of Abaris. It was situate on the eastern side of the most easterly mouth of the Nile, which, after it, was called the Pelusiac Mouth, about two miles from the sea, in the midst of morasses. Being the fiontier city towards Syria and Arabia it was strongly fortified. It was the birth-place of Ptolemy the geographer.

356 Butos or Buto stood on the Sebennytic arm of the Nile near its mouth, on the southern shores of the Butic Lake. It was the chief seat of the worship of the goddess Buto, whom the Greeks identified with Leto or Latona. The modern Kem Kasir occupies its site.

357 Called Harbait by the Arabs, and Farbait by the ancient Egyptians.

358 In the Delta. It was the capital of the nome of Leontopolites, and probably of late foundation, as no writer previous to Pliny mentions it. Its site is uncertain, but Thall-Essabouah, the "Hill of the Lion," has been suggested.

359 The chief town of the Athribitic nome in Lower Egypt. It stood on the eastern bank of the Tanitic branch of the Nile. This nome and town derived their name from the goddess Thriphis, whom the inscriptions there and at Panopolis designate as the "most great goddess." The ruins at Atrieb or Trieb, at the spot where the modern canal of Moueys turns off from the Nile, represent the ancient Athribis. They are very extensive, and among them are considerable remains of the Roman era.

360 This was situate near the city or town of Busiris in the Delta. The modern village of Bahbeyt is supposed to cover the ruins of the temple of Isis.

361 The modern Busyr or Abousir, where considerable ruins of the ancient city are still to be seen. It was the chief town of the nome of Busirites, and stood south of Sais, near the Phatnitic mouth, on the western bank of the Nile. This was also the name of a town in Middle Egypt, in the neighbourhood of Memphis, and represented by another village of the name of Abousir. Pliny, B. xxxvi. c. 16, speaks of the Catacombs in its vicinity.

362 The place of that name in the Delta is here meant.

363 Probably the town of that name, otherwise called Aphroditopolis, in the nome of Leontopolites.

364 The ruins of which are now called Sa-el-Hajjar. It was situate in the Delta, on the east side of the Canopic branch of the Nile. It was the ancient capital of Lower Egypt and contained the palace and burial-place of the Pharaohs. It was the chief seat of the worship of the Egyptian goddess Neith, also known as Sais. It gave its name to the nome of Saïtes.

365 It was situate in the Delta of Egypt and in the nome of Saïtes, on the eastern bank of the Canopic branch of the Nile. It was a colony of the Milesians, founded probably in the reign of Amasis, about B.C. 550, and remained a pure Greek city. It was the only place in Egypt in which, in the time of the later Pharaohs, foreigners were permitted to settle and trade. In later times it was famous for the worship of Aphrodite or Venus, and rivalled Canopus in the dissoluteness of its manners.

366 Ptolemy the geographer does this.

367 Arabia Petræa; that part of Arabia which immediately joins up to Egypt.

368 Called Arabia Felix to the present day.

369 The part of Arabia which joins up to Egypt, Arabia Petræa namely.

370 Strabo places this people as far south as the mouth of the Red Sea, i.e. on the east of the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb. Forster (in his 'Arabia,' vol. ii.) takes this name to be merely an inversion of Beni Kahtan, the great tribe which mainly peoples, at the present day, central and southern Arabia.

371 Probably the people of Esebon, the Heshbon of Scripture, spoken of by Jerome as being the city of Sihon, king of the Amorites.

372 The "tent-people," from the Greek σκηνὴ, "a tent." This seems to have been a name common to the nomadic tribes of Arabia. Ammianus Marcellinus speaks of them as being the same as the Saraceni or Saracens.

373 The modern El Katieh or El Kas; which is the summit of a lofty range of sandstone hills on the borders of Egypt and Arabia Petræa, immediately south of the Sirbonian Lake and the Mediterranean Sea. On its western side was the tomb of Pompey the Great.

374 The same as the Amalekites of Scripture, according to Hardouin. Bochart thinks that they are the same as the Chavilæi, who are mentioned as dwelling in the vicinity of Babylon.

375 The position which Pliny assigns to this nation would correspond with the northern part of the modern district of the Hedjaz. Forster identifies them with the Cauraitæ, or Cadraitæ of Arrian, and the Darræ of Ptolemy, tracing their origin to the Cedar or Kedar, the son of Ishmael, mentioned in Genesis xxv. 13, and represented by the modern Harb nation and the modern town of Kedeyre. See Psalm cxx. 5: "Woe is me, that I sojourn in Mesech, that I dwell in the tents of Kedar!"

376 An Arabian people, said to have descended from the eldest son of Ishmael, who had their original abodes in the north-western part of the Arabian peninsula, east and south-east of the Moabites and Edomites. Extending their territory, we find the Nabatæi of Greek and Roman history occupying nearly the whole of Arabia Petræa, along the northeast coast of the Red Sea, on both sides of the Ælanitic Gulf, and on the Idumæan mountains, where they had their capital, Petra, hewn out of the rock.

377 Now the Bahr-el-Soueys, or Gulf of Suez.

378 The Bahr-el-Akabah, or Gulf of Akabah.

379 Now Akabah, an Idumæan town of Arabia Petræa, situate at the head of the eastern gulf of the Red Sea, which was called after this town "Ælaniticus Sinus." It was annexed to the kingdom of Judah, with the other cities of Idumæa, by David, 2 Sam. viii. 14, and was one of the harbours on the Red Sea from which the ships of Solomon sailed for Ophir. See 1 Kings ix. 26 and 2 Chron. viii. 17. It was a place of commercial importance under the Romans and the head-quarters of the Tenth Legion. A fortress now occupies its site.

380 Its site is now known as Guzzah. It was the last city on the south-west frontier of Palestine, and from the earliest times was a strongly fortified place. It was taken from the Philistines by the Jews more than once, but as often retaken. It was also taken by Cyrus the Great and Alexander, and afterwards by Ptolemy Lagus, who destroyed it. It afterwards recovered, and was again destroyed by Alexander Jannæus, B.C. 96, after which, it was rebuilt by Gabinius and ultimately united to the Roman province of Syria. In A.D. 65 it was again destroyed, but was rebuilt, and finally fell into the hands of the Arabs, in A.D. 634.

381 Meaning the Mediterranean.

382 The present Suez. See B. vi. c. 33.

383 Or the "Hollow" Syria. This was properly the name given, after the Macedonian conquest, to the great valley between the two great ranges of Mount Lebanon, in the south of Syria, bordering upon Phœnicia on the west, and Palestine on the south. In the wars between the Ptolemies and the Seleucidæ, the name was applied to the whole of the southern portion of Syria, which became subject for some time to the kings of Egypt; but under the Romans, it was confined to Cœlesyria proper with the district east of Anti-Libanus, about Damascus, and a portion of Palestine east of Jordan.

384 Or Ostracine, the northern point of Arabia.

385 This was a great fortress of Syria founded by Seleucus B.C. 300, at the foot of Mount Pieria and overhanging the Mediterranean, four miles north of the Orontes and twelve miles west of Antioch. It had fallen entirely to decay in the sixth century of our era. There are considerable ruins of its harbour and mole, its walls and necropolis. They bear the name of Seleukeh or Kepse.

386 From the Greek ζεῦγμα, "a junction ;" built by Seleucus Nicator on the borders of Commagene and Cyrrhestice, on the west bank of the Euphrates, where the river had been crossed by a bridge of boats constructed by Alexander the Great. The modern Rumkaleh is supposed to occupy its site.

387 On this subject see B. vii. c. 57. The invention of letters and the first cultivation of the science of astronomy have been claimed for the Egyptians and other nations. The Tyrians were probably the first who applied the science of astronomy to the purposes of navigation. There is little doubt that warfare must have been studied as an art long before the existence of the Phœnician nation.

388 Strabo places this between Mount Casius and Pelusium.

389 See C. 12 of the present Book. Chabrias the Athenian aided Nectanebus II. against his revolted subjects.

390 Its ruins are to be seen on the present Ras Straki.

391 Now called the Sabakat Bardowal. It lay on the coast of Egypt, east of Mount Casius, and it is not improbable that the boundary-line between Egypt and Palæstina or Idumæa ran through the middle of its waters. It was strongly impregnated with asphaltus. A connection formerly existed between it and the Mediterranean, but this being stopped up, it gradually grew smaller by evaporation and is now nearly dry.

392 The present Kulat-el-Arich or El Arish, situate at the mouth of the brook El-Arish, called by the Scriptures the "river of Egypt." Its name signifies in Greek, "cutting off of noses," and is probably derived from the fact of its having been the place of exile for criminals who had been so mutilated, under the Æthiopian kings of Egypt. Poinsinet suggests however that the name means the "town of the circumcised."

393 The place on its site is still called Refah, but it was really situate on the coast. Gaza has been already mentioned in a Note to C. 12, p. 423.

394 Anthedon was on the coast of Palestine, although Pliny says to the contrary. It was situate about three miles to the south-west of Gaza, and was destroyed by Alexander Jannæus. In the time of Julian it was addicted to the worship of Astarte, the Syrian Venus. According to Dupinet the present name of its site is Daron.

395 Brotier says that this is the same as the Mount Gerizim of Scripture, but that was situate in Samaria, a considerable distance from the southern coast of Palæstina. Pliny is the only author that mentions it.

396 The Ascalon of Scripture, one of the five cities of the Philistines, situate on the coast of the Mediterranean, between Gaza and Jamnia. In early times it was the seat of the worship of Derceto, a fish with a woman's head. The ruins, which still bear the name of Askulân, are very extensive, and indicative of great strength. The shalot or scallion was originally a native of this place, and thence derived its name.

397 The Ashdod of Scripture. It was one of the five cities of the Philistines and the chief seat of the worship of Dagon. Herodotus states that it stood a siege of twenty-nine years from Psammetichus, king of Egypt. It was afterwards taken and retaken several times. It was situate between Ascalon and Jamnia, and its site is indicated by the modern village of Esdad, but no ruins of the ancient city are visible.

398 One of these was a city of the Philistines, assigned to the tribe of Judah in the fifteenth Chapter of Joshua, 45, according to the Septuagint version, but omitted in the Hebrew, which only mentions it in 2 Chron. xxvi. 6 (where it is called Jabneh in the English version), as one of the cities of the Philistines taken and destroyed by King Uzziah. The place of this name that lay in the interior, is probably the one spoken of by Josephus as in that part of the tribe of Judah occupied by the children of Dan, as also in the 1 Maccabees, x. 69–71. The one was probably the port of the other. The ruins of the port still retain the name of Yebora, and are situate on an eminence about an hour's distance from the sea, on the banks of the river Rûbin.

399 Or Joppa of Scripture, now called Yâfa or Jaffa. The timber from Lebanon intended for both the first and second Temples was landed here. It was taken and retaken more than once during the wars of the Maccabees, and was finally annexed by Pompey to the Roman province of Syria. It is mentioned several times in the New Testament in connection with Saint Peter. In the Jewish war, having become a refuge for pirates, it was taken by Cestius and destroyed, and even the very ruins were demolished by Vespasian. It was afterwards rebuilt, and in the time of the Crusades was alternately in the hands of the Christians and the Moslems.

400 To be devoured by the sea monster, from which she was delivered by Perseus, who had borrowed for the occasion the talaria or winged shoes of Mercury. In B. ix. c. 4, Pliny states that the skeleton of the monster was exhibited at Rome by M. Æmilius Scaurus, when he was Curule Ædile.

401 Probably the same as Derceto or Atargatis, the fish-goddess with a woman's head, of the Syrians.

402 Situate between Cæsarea and Joppa. It is probable that it owed its name to the Macedonian kings of either Egypt or Syria. Arsûf, a deserted village, but which itself was of considerable importance in the time of the Crusades, represents the ancient Apollonia.

403 The site of the Turris Stratonis was afterwards occupied by Cæsarea, a city on the coast, founded by Herod the Great, and named Cæsarea in honour of Augustus Cæsar. It was renowned for the extent and magnificence of its harbour, which was secured by a breakwater of stupendous construction. For some time it was considered the principal city of Palestine and the chief seat of the Roman government. Although it again changed its name, as Pliny states, it still retained its name of Cæsarea as the Metropolitan See of the First Palestine. It was also of considerable importance during the occupation of the Holy Land by the Crusaders. Its ruins are still visible, but have served as a quarry for many generations, and Jaffa, Sidon, Acre and Beyrout have been supplied with stones from this site. Massive remains of its mole or break-water and its towers still exist.

404 Or Phœnicia.

405 By some regarded as the Scriptural town of Sichem, but by others as a distinct place, though in its immediate vicinity. Its present name is Naplous or Nabolos, situate between Mounts Ebal and Gerizim. Its proper name under the Romans was Flavia Neapolis. It was the birth-place of Justin Martyr.

406 The city of Samaria, so called from Shemer, the owner of the hill which Omri, King of Israel, purchased, about B.C. 922, for its site. Herod greatly renovated this city, which he called Sebaste, in honour of his patron Augustus, in Greek "Sebastos." Its site is now occupied by a poor village, which bears the name of Sebustieh.

407 A town of Palæstina, frequently mentioned by Josephus as remarkable for the strength of its fortifications, and situate on the Lake Tiberias, opposite to Tarichæa. After a spirited defence, it was taken by Vespasian, who slaughtered 4000 of the survivors, upon which 5000 threw themselves from the walls, and were dashed to pieces below. The site had been forgotten for nearly eighteen centuries, when Lord Lindsay discovered it on a lofty hill on the east of Lake Tiberias, and nearly opposite the town of that name. It is now called El-Hossn, and the ruins of the fortifications are very extensive.

408 Antiochian Syria.

409 Peræa was the general name of that part of Palæstina which lay east of the river Jordan; but more usually, in a restricted sense, it signified a part only of that region, namely the district between the rivers Hieromax on the north, and Arnon on the south.

410 Jericho, so often mentioned in Scripture. It was celebrated for its palm-grove, which was presented by Antony to Cleopatra. A Bedouin encampment called Riha is all that now occupies its site.

411 A city eight or ten miles from the village Emmaüs of the New Testament. It was called Nicopolis, in commemoration, it has been suggested, of the destruction of Jerusalem. Its site is still marked by a village called Ammious, on the road from Jerusalem to Jaffa.

412 So often mentioned in the New Testament. This town lay to the S.E. of Joppa, and N.W. of Jerusalem, at the junction of several roads which lead from the sea-coast. It was destroyed by the Romans in the Jewish war, but was soon after rebuilt, and called Diospolis. A village called Lud occupies its site.

413 So called from Acrabbim, its chief town, situate nine miles from Nicopolis. The toparchy of Acrabbim, which formerly formed part of Samaria, was the most northerly of those of Judæa.

414 Situate in the country of Benjamin. Josephus reckons it second in importance only to Jerusalem, from which, according to Eusebius, it was distant fifteen miles, on the road to the modern Nablous. That author also identifies it with the Eshcol of Scripture. Its site is marked by a small Christian village, called by the natives Jufia.

415 Like the two preceding ones, this toparchy for a long time belonged to Samaria. Thamna, or Thamnis, was the Timnath-Serah in Mount Ephraim, mentioned in Joshua xix. 50, and xxiv. 30, as the place where Joshua was buried.

416 The toparchy of Bethleptepha of other authors. It appears to have been situate in the south of Judæa, and in that part which is by Josephus commonly called Idumæa. Reland has remarked, that the name resembles Beth-lebaoth, a city of the tribe of Simeon, mentioned in Joshua xix. 6.

417 From the Greek, meaning the "mountain district," or the "hill country," as mentioned in Luke i. 39.

418 Or "Sacred Solyma."

419 A fortress of Palæstina, erected by Herod the Great, at a distance of about sixty stadia from Jerusalem, and not far from Tekoa. Its site has been identified by modern travellers with El-Furedis, or the Paradise; probably the same as the spot called the "Frank Mountain," on the top of which the ruined walls of the fortress are still to be seen.

420 Called by the Arabs Bahr-el-Arden.

421 Situate on Mount Panias, or Paneas, on the range of Anti-Libanus.

422 In C 16 of the present Book.

423 On the contrary, as Parisot observes, the Jordan runs in a straight line almost into the Dead Sea.

424 The Lake of Sodom, or the Dead Sea, in which the Cities of the Plain were swallowed up.

425 In Scripture also called the Lake Tiberias, and the Sea of Gennesareth, or Chinnereth. It is now called the Sea of Tabariah, or Tabarieh.

426 The one of the two Bethsaidas, which was situate on the north of the Sea of Tiberias. It was enlarged by Philip the Tetrarch, who greatly beautified it, and changed its name to Julias, in honour of the daughter of Augustus, the wife of Tiberius. It is generally supposed by the learned world, that this was not the Bethsaida mentioned so often in the New Testament. Its ruins are probably those now seen on a hill called Et-Tell, on the north-western extremity of the lake.

427 On the east of the lake. From it the district of Hippene took its name.

428 Its ruins are to be seen at El-Kereh, on the south side of the lake. It was strongly fortified, and made a vigorous resistance against the Romans in the Jewish War. It received its name from the great quantities of fish which were salted there, τάριχοι.

429 Now Tabariah, or Tabarieh, a miserable village. It was built by Herod Antipas, in honour of the Emperor Tiberius. After the destruction of Jerusalem, it became the seat of the Jewish Sanhedrim.

430 These hot springs are by Josephus called Emmaüs, probably a form of the Hebrew name Hammath. Dr. Robinson, in his Biblical Researches, identifies this with the town of Hammath, of the tribe of Naphthali, mentioned in Joshua xix. 35.

431 From the Greek ἄσφαλτος.

432 This is an exaggeration, though it is the fact that many heavy substances, which in ordinary water would sink immediately, will float on the surface of this lake. It has been suggested, that the story here mentioned arose from the circumstance of the name of 'bulls,' or 'cows,' having been applied by the ancient Nabatæi to the large masses of asphaltum which floated on its surface.

433 The country of the Arabian Scenitæ, or "tent people."

434 It lay on the east of the Dead Sea, and not the south, as here mentioned by Pliny, being a border fortress in the south of Peræa, and on the confines of the Nabatæi. There was a tradition that it was at this place that John the Baptist was beheaded. The city now bears the name of Mascra.

435 A Greek name, signifying the "Fine Stream." These were warm springs, situate on the eastern side of Jordan, to which Herod the Great resorted during his last illness, by the advice of his physicians. The valley of Callirhoë was visited by Captains Irby and Mangles in 1818, and an interesting account of it is to be found in their 'Travels,' pp. 467–469. The waters are sulphureous to the taste.

436 The Essenes, or Hessenes. These properly formed one of the great sects into which the Jews were divided in the time of Christ. They are not mentioned by name in the New Testament, but it has been conjectured that they are alluded to in Matt. xix. 12, and Col. ii. 18, 23. As stated here by Pliny, they generally lived at a distance from large towns, in communities which bore a great resemblance to the monkish societies of later times. They sent gifts to the Temple at Jerusalem, but never offered sacrifices there. They were divided into four classes, according to the time of their initiation. Their origin is uncertain. Some writers look upon them as the same as the Assidians, or Chasidim, mentioned in 1 Maccabees, ii. 42, vii. 13. Their principal society was probably the one mentioned by Pliny, and from this other smaller ones proceeded, and spread over Palestine, Syria, and Egypt. The Essenes of Egypt were divided into two sects; the practical Essenes, whose mode of life was the same as those of Palestine; and the contemplative Essenes, who were called Therapeutœ. Both sects maintained the same doctrines; but the latter were distinguished by a more rigid mode of life. It has been suggested by Taylor, the editor of 'Calmet's Dictionary of the Bible,' that John the Baptist belonged to this sect.

437 Or Engedi. Its ancient name was Hazezon-Tamar, when it was inhabited by the Amorites. See Gen. xiv. 7; 2 Chron. xx. 2. According to Josephus, it gave name to one of the fifteen toparchies of Judæa. It still retains its name, Ain-Jedey, or "Fountain of the Goats," and was so called from a spring which issued out of the limestone rock at the base of a lofty cliff.

438 Its site is now known as Sebbeh, on the south-west of the Dead Sea.

439 δεκὰ πολεῖς, the "Ten Cities." He alludes to the circumstance, that the number of cities varied from time to time in this district; one being destroyed in warfare, and others suddenly rising from its foundation.

440 The capital city of Syria, both in ancient and modern times. It is now called Es-Sham. The only epithet given to it by the ancient poets is that of "ventosa," or "windy," found in the Pharsalia of Lucan, B. iii. 1. 215, which, it has been remarked, is anything but appropriately chosen.

441 Or the "Golden River." It is uncertain whether this was the Abana or Pharpar, mentioned in 2 Kings v. 12. Strabo remarks, that the waters of the Chrysorroös "are almost entirely consumed in irrigation, as it waters a large extent of deep soil."

442 The ancient Rabbath Ammon, a city of the Ammonites. It was afterwards called Astarte, and then Philadelphia, in honour of Ptolemy Philadelphus. According to D'Anville, the present name of its site is Amman.

443 Thirty-three miles from Apamea. Its ruins are probably those mentioned by Abulfeda under the name of Rafaniat. William of Tyre says, that it was taken in the year 1125 by the Count of Tripoh.

444 Previously called Beth-shan. It was the next city of the Decapolis in magnitude after Damascus. It was situate in the land of the tribe of Issachar, though it belonged to the Manasites. At this place the bodies of Saul and his sons were hung up by the Philistines; see 1 Sam. xxxi. 10–12. Reland suggests that it received the name of Scythopolis, not from a Scythian colony, but from the Succoth of Gen. xxxiii. 17, which appears to have been in its vicinity. Its ruins, which still bear the name of Baisan, are very extensive.

445 Called by Josephus the capital of Peræa, and the chief place of the district of the Gadarenes of the Evangelists. Its ruins, about six miles south-east of the Sea of Galilee, are very extensive.

446 Still called the Yarmak, evidently from its ancient name. Hippo has been mentioned in the last Chapter.

447 Or Dium, between Pella and Gadara. In later times, this place was included in Roman Arabia.

448 Also called Butis. It was the most southerly of the ten cities which comprised the Decapolis, standing about five miles south of Scythopolis, or Beth-shan. Its exact site seems not to have been ascertained; but it has been suggested that it is the modern El-Bujeh. From the expression used by Pliny, it would appear to have had mineral waters in its vicinity.

449 Of this place nothing is known; but it is most probable that the Gerasa of Ptolemy and Josephus is meant. According to the former writer, it was thirty-five miles from Pella. Its site is marked by extensive ruins, thirty-five miles east of the Jordan, known by the name of Gerash, and on the borders of the Great Desert of the Hauvan. According to Dr. Keith, the ruins bear extensive marks of splendour.

450 Ptolemy mentions a city of this name in Cœlesyria.

451 So called from having been originally groups of four principalities, held by princes who were vassals to the Roman emperors, or the kings of Syria.

452 Containing the northern district of Palestine, beyond the Jordan, between Antilibanus and the mountains of Arabia. It was bounded on the north by the territory of Damascus, on the east by Auranitis, on the south by Ituræa, and on the west by Gaulanitis. It was so called from its ranges of rocky mountains, or τραχῶνες, the caves in which gave refuge to numerous bands of robbers.

453 So called from the mountain of that name. Cæsarea Philippi also bore the name of Panias. It was situate at the south of Mount Hermon, on the Jordan, just below its source. It was built by Philip the Tetrarch, B.C. 3. King Agrippa called it Neronias; but it soon lost that name.

454 In C. xiv. of the present Book, as that in which the Jordan takes its rise.

455 A place of great strength in Cœle-Syria, now known as Nebi Abel, situate between Heliopolis and Damascus.

456 Situate between Tripolis and Antaradus, at the north-west foot of Mount Libanus. It lay within a short distance of the sea, and was famous for the worship paid by its inhabitants to Astarte, the Syrian Aphrodite. A temple was erected here to Alexander the Great, in which Alexander Severus, the Roman Emperor, was born, his parents having resorted thither to celebrate a festival, A.D. 205. From this circumstance, its name was changed to Cæsarea. Burckhardt fixes its site at a hill called Tel-Arka.

457 Of this place, which probably took its name from its numerous vines, nothing whatever is known.

458 Called by Pliny, in B. xii. c. 41, Gabba. It was situate at the foot of Mount Carmel between Cæsarea and Ptolemais, sixteen miles from the former. No remains of it are to be seen. It must not be confounded with Gabala, in Galilee, fortified by Herod the Great.

459 The town was situate between Cæsarea and Ptolemais. The river has been identified with the modern Nahl-el-Zerka, in which, according to Pococke, crocodiles have been found.

460 Called Dor, before the conquest of Canaan by the Israelites. See Joshua xvii. 11, and Judges i. 27. It afterwards belonged to the half-tribe of Manasseh. Its site is now called Tortura.

461 Its site is now called Atlik, according to D'Anville. Parisot suggests that it is the modern Keufah; others that it is Hepha, near Mount Carmel.

462 Insignificant in height and extent, but celebrated in Scripture history. It still bears the name of Cape Carmel.

463 It is not improbable that he means the town of Porphyrium, now Khaifa, at the foot of the mountain.

464 Probably the Gitta of Polybius. Of it and Jeba, nothing is known.

465 The Nahr-Naman, or Abou, on which Ptolemais was situate.

466 Employed in the extensive manufacture of that article at Tyre and Sidon, to the north of this district.

467 A corruption of Acco, the native name; from which the English name Acre, and the French St. Jean d'Acre. The earliest mention of it is in the Book of Judges, i. 31. It is supposed that it was Ptolemy I., the son of Lagus, who enlarged it and gave it the name of Ptolemais. Its citadel, however, still retained the name of Ace. Under the Romans, Ptolemais, as mentioned by Pliny, was a colony, and belonged to Galilee. The modern city of Acre occupies its site.

468 The Ach-Zib of Scripture, mentioned in Joshua xix. 29, and Judges I. 31. Its ruins are to be seen near the sea-shore, about three hours' journey north of Acre. The spot is still called Es-Zib.

469 Still called the Ras-el-Abiad, or White Promontory.

470 A colony of the Sidonians: its scanty ruins are still to be seen at the poor village of Sur. The wars of the Crusades completed its downfall. The island is still joined to the mainland by the mole which was erected by Alexander the Great during the siege of the place; or, according to some, by the Syrians themselves.

471 Carthage is supposed to have been colonized immediately by the people of Utica.

472 From which was made the famous Tyrian purple.

473 Or "ancient Tyre," which was built on the mainland.

474 The Zarephath of 1 Kings xvii. 9, 10, whither Elijah was sent to the widow, whose son he afterwards raised from the dead. Its site is now known as Sarfand.

475 Probably meaning "City of the Birds," perhaps from the quantities of game in its vicinity. Its site now bears the name of Adlan.

476 Its site is now called Saïda. In the time of David and Solomon, it was probably subject to the kings of Tyre.

477 Cadmus, the founder of Thebes, was said to have been the son of its king Agenor.

478 The Lebanon of Scripture. This intervening space, the ancient Cœle-Syria, is now inhabited by the Druses.

479 Perhaps the modern Nahr-el-Damur.

480 Now Beyrout. By some it has been identified with the Berotha, or Berothai, of the Hebrew Scriptures. Its full name as a Roman colony was, "Colonia Julia Augusta Felix Berytus." It was colonized by the veterans of the Fifth, or Macedonian, and the Eighth, or Augustan, Legions. Beyrout, or Berut, is now, in a commercial point of view, the most important place in Syria.

481 Nothing is known of this place. The name seems to mean, the "Town of the Lion."

482 Now the Nahr-el-Kelb, or "Dog's River."

483 The site of this place seems not to be known.

484 Now the Nahr-el-Ibrahim.

485 The modern town which stands on its site is called Jebeil. It is situate at the foot of Lebanon. The ancient name seems to have been Gebal, and the Geblites are mentioned in Joshua, xiii. 5; 1 Kings, v. 18; and Ezek. xxvii. 9. The ruins of the ancient city are very extensive. Astarte and Isis seem to have been worshipped here.

486 Now Batrun, a small town about twelve miles north of Byblus, said to have been founded by Ithobal, king of Tyre.

487 Now Gazir, according to D'Anville.

488 Twelve miles from Tripolis. Its name would seem to bear reference to a trireme, or galley. It has been said that this is the place referred to in the Book of Daniel, xi. 30.

489 Polybius speaks of this place as being burnt by Antiochus. Its site still bears the name of Calamon, according to D'Anville.

490 This properly consisted of three distinct cities, 600 feet apart, each with its own walls, but all connected in a common constitution; having one place of assembly, and forming in reality one city only. They were colonies, as here suggested by Pliny, of Tyre, Sidon, and Arados respectively. It is still a considerable place, called Tarabolos, or Tarablis, by the Turks.

491 Its site is still known as Ortosa, or Tortosa.

492 Probably the same as the Nahr-el-Kebir, or "Great River," to the north of Tripolis. It may have derived its Greek name, which signifies "free," from its similarity to that given to it by the people of the country.

493 This was an important city, near Antarados. Its ruins are spoken of as very extensive. Simyra is still called Sumira.

494 Now called Ruad; an island off the northern coast of Phœnicia, at a distance of twenty stadia from the mainland, Pliny falling short here in his measurement. The city of Arados was very populous, though built on a mere rock; and, contrary to Eastern custom, the houses contained many stories. It is spoken of by the prophet Ezekiel under the name of Arvad: see c. xxvii. 8, 11. In importance, it ranked next to the cities of Tyre and Sidon.

495 Its modern name does not appear to be known.

496 Also called Antarados, as lying nearly opposite to the city of Arados. According to Strabo, the port of Antarados was called Carne, or Carnos. In the time of the Crusades, it was known under the name of Tortosa. Its present name is Tartus.

497 Now Banias. It was situate twenty-four miles north of Antarados. Its name is supposed to have originated in the baths in its vicinity. The site is deserted; but a few ruins of the ancient town are still to be seen.

498 Eight miles from Balanea. Its ruins are known by the name of Boldo.

499 Its site is now known as Djebeleh, a small village in the vicinity of Laodicea, or Latakia. The sun was probably worshipped here, and hence the Emperor Heliogabalus derived his name.

500 About fifty miles south of Antioch, now called Ladikiyeh, or Latakia, noted for the excellence of its tobacco, which has an European reputation. It was built by Seleucus I., on the site of an earlier city, called Ramitha. It was afterwards greatly favoured by Julius Cæsar. Herod the Great built an aqueduct here, the ruins of which are still in existence. It is now a poor Turkish village; but there are considerable remains of the ancient city to be seen in its vicinity.

501 It has been suggested, that Pliny means the city of Lydda, in the tribe of Benjamin, which of course would be very much to the south, and quite out of the order in which he is proceeding. If that is not the place meant, this Diospolis is utterly unknown.

502 At some miles' distance to the north of Laodicea. Pococke found some traces of its site at a spot called Minta Baurdeleh, or the Bay of the Tower.

503 Pliny is in error here most probably, and is speaking of a place as being in Syria which in reality was in Cilicia, between Platanus and Cragus. The name implies its situation near a mountain torrent.

504 On a small bay, some miles north of Heraclea.

505 Or Antioch, the capital of the Greek kings of Syria, and the most famous of the sixteen cities built by Seleucus Nicator, and called after the name of his father, (or son, as some say,) Antiochus. It was built on the Orontes, and formed one of the most beautiful and pleasant cities of the ancient world. The modern Antakieh is a poor town, built on the north-western part of the site of the ancient city, by the river. The walls, built by Justinian, may still be traced for a circuit of four miles. Here the followers of our Saviour first obtained the name of "Christians."

506 That is, "Near Daphne," there being a celebrated grove of that name, consecrated to Apollo, in its immediate vicinity.

507 Now called the Nahr-el-Asy.

508 Now Seleuca, or Kepse, at the foot of Mount Pieria. It has been referred to in a previous note.

509 Now known as Djebel-el-Akra.

510 In the extreme north-east of Egypt. See pp. 422 and 424.

511 The beginning of the fourth watch was three o'clock in the morning. The height of this mountain does not in reality appear to be anything remarkable, and has been ascertained to be but 5318 feet. There is probably no foundation for the marvellous story here told by Pliny; nevertheless, we are told by Spartianus, that the Emperor Adrian passed a night upon the mountain, for the purpose of seeing this extraordinary sight; but a storm arising, it prevented the gratification of his curiosity. It lay near Nymphæum and Seleucia, and its base was washed by the waters of the Orontes.

512 Or Baalbec, in the interior of Syria.

513 According to Ansart, it still retains that name.

514 Now called Bylan. This was the name of the narrow pass between a portion of Mount Taurus and the Rock of Rossicum. According to Ansart, the spot is called at the present day Saggal Doutan.

515 This was a Phœnician colony, on the eastern side of the Gulf of Issus; it is said by Ansart still to retain its ancient name.

516 Now called Aima-Dagh, a branch of Mount Taurus, running from the head of the Gulf of Issus, north-east, to the principal chain, and dividing Syria from Cilicia and Cappadocia. There were two passes in it, the Syrian Gates and the Amanian Gates. It is often spoken of by Cicero, who was the Roman governor of Cilicia.

517 The locality of this place is unknown, as Pliny is the only author who mentions it.

518 Now Kulat-el-Mudik, situate in the valley of the Orontes, and capital of the province of Apamene. It was fortified and enlarged by Seleucus Nicator, who gave it its name, after his wife Apama. It also bore the Macedonian name of Pella. It was situate on a hill, and was so far surrounded by the windings of the Orontes, as to become a peninsula, whence its name of Chersonesus. Very extensive ruins of this place still exist.

519 It is suggested, that these are the Phylarchi Arabes of Strabo, now called the Nosairis, who were situate to the east of Apamea. The river Marsyas here mentioned was a small tributary of the Orontes, into which it falls on the east side, near Apamea.

520 This was situate in Cyrrhestica, in Syria, on the high road from Antioch to Mesopotamia, twenty-four miles to the west of the Euphrates, and thirty-six to the south-west of Zeugma; two and a half days' journey from Berœa, and five from Antioch. It obtained its Greek name of the "Sacred City" from Seleucus Nicator, owing to its being the chief seat of the worship of the Syrian goddess Astarte. Its ruins were first discovered by Maundrell.

521 In the former editions it is "Magog;" but Sillig's reading of "Mabog" is correct, and corresponds with the Oriental forms of Munbedj, Manbesja, Manbesjun, Menba, Manba, Manbegj, and the modern name, Kara Bambuche, or Buguk Munbedj.

522 Astarte, the semi-fish goddess.

523 This Chalcis is supposed to have been situate somewhere in the district of the Buckaa, probably south of Heliopolis, or Baalbec. It has been suggested, that its site may have been at, or near Zahle; in the vicinity of which, at the village of Heusn Nieba, are to be seen some remarkable remains. Or else, possibly, at Majdel Anjar, where Abulfeda speaks of great ruins of hewn stone.

524 Ansart suggests, that Belus is here the name of a mountain, and that it may be the same that is now called Djebel-il-Semmaq.

525 To the north of Chalcidene, a town of Syria, on the slopes of the Taurus, eighty miles to the north-east of Antioch. In the Roman times, it was the head-quarters of the Tenth Legion. The ruins near the modern village of Corus represent the ancient Cyrrhus. Of the Gazatæ and Gindareni, nothing is known.

526 Possibly meaning the "Burghers of Granum." Nothing is known of these people.

527 The people of Emesa, a city in the district of Apamene, on the right, or eastern bank of the Orontes, to which, in C. 26 of the present Book, Pliny assigns a desert district beyond Palmyra. It was celebrated in ancient times for its magnificent temple of the sun, and the appointment of its priest, Bassianus, or Heliogabalus, to the imperial dignity, in his fourteenth year. It was made a colony, with the jus Italicum, by Caracalla, and afterwards became the capital of Phœnicia Libanesia. The present name of its site is Hems.

528 The Hylatæ are totally unknown. Ituræa was situate in the north-east of Palestine, and, with Trachonitis, belonged to the tetrarchy of Philip. Its boundaries cannot be precisely determined; but it may probably be traversed by a line drawn from the Lake of Tiberias to Damascus.

529 According to Ptolemy, the people of Mariama, some miles to the west of Emesa.

530 In the district of Laodicea, according to Ptolemy.

531 Near the Portæ Amani, or "Passes of Amanus."

532 Pinara was near Pagræ, in Pieria, last mentioned.

533 Probably Seleucia, in Mesopotamia, now called Bir, on the left bank of the Euphrates, opposite to the ford of Zeugma, a fortress of considerable importance.

534 Its site is doubtful. Sebj d'Aboulgazi has been suggested.

535 The people of Arethusa, a city of Syria, not far from Apamea, situate between Epiphania and Emesa. In later times, it took the name of Restan.

536 The people of Berœa, a town of Syria, midway between Antioch and Hierapolis. Seleucus Nicator gave to it the Macedonian name of Berœa; but, in A.D. 638, it resumed its ancient name of Chaleb, or Chalybon. The modern Haleb, or Aleppo, occupies its site. Some excavations, on the eastern side of it, are the only vestiges of ancient remains in the neighbourhood.

537 The people of Epiphanæa, placed by Ptolemy in the district of Cassiotis, in which also Antioch and Larissa were situate. The Itinerary of Antoninus places it sixteen miles from Larissa, thirty-two from Emesa, and 101 from Antioch of Syria. It is supposed to have been identical with the ancient Hamath, mentioned in 2 Sam. viii. 9; 1 Kings viii. 65; Isaiah x. 9, and called "Hamath the great" in Amos vi. 2, which name it also retained in the time of St. Jerome.

538 The people of Laodicea ad Libanum, a city of Cœle-Syria, at the northern entrance to the narrow valley, between Libanus and Anti- Libanus. During the possession of Cœle-Syria by the Greek kings of Egypt, it was the south west border fortress of Syria. It was the chief city of a district called Laodicene.

539 Of Leucas, or Leucadia, nothing is known. Larissa, in Syria, was a city in the district of Apamene, on the western bank of the Orontes, about half-way between Apamea and Epiphania. The site is now called Kulat-Seijar.

540 In the western branch of the plateau of Iran, a portion of the Taurus chain. Considerable changes in the course of the lower portion of the river have taken place since the time when Pliny wrote. Caranitis is the modern Arzrum, or Erzrúm, of the Turks.

541 Now called Dujik Tagh, a mountain of Armenia.

542 It has been suggested, that the proper reading here would be Xerxene.

543 Probably the district where the goddess Anais was worshipped, who is mentioned by Pliny in B. xxxiii. c. 24.

544 From the place of confluence where the two mountain streams forming the Euphrates unite. This spot is now known as Kebban Ma'den.

545 A fortress upon the river Euphrates, in Lesser Armenia. It has been identified with the ferry and lead-mines of Kebban Ma'den, the points where the Kara Su is joined by the Myrad-Chaï, at a distance of 270 miles from its source; the two streams forming, by their confluence, the Euphrates.

546 Other readings have "Pastona" here, said by D'Anville to be the modern Pastek.

547 Called the metropolis of Lesser Armenia by Procopius. It was situate between Anti-Taurus and the Euphrates, and celebrated for its fertility, more especially in fruit-trees, oil, and wine. The site of the city Melitene is now called Malatiyah, on a tributary of the Euphrates, and near that river itself.

548 It is generally supposed that "twenty-four" would be the correct reading here.

549 There were two places of this name. The one here spoken of was a town of Lesser Armenia, on the right bank of the Euphrates, at the first, or principal curve, which takes place before the river enters Mount Taurus. It is represented by the modern Iz Oghlu.

550 No other writer is found to make mention of the Lycus, which flows into the Euphrates, though there is a river formerly so called, which flows into the Tigris below Larissa, the modern Nimroud. D'Anville is of opinion, that it is formed from the numerous springs, called by the people of the district Bing-gheul, or the "Thousand Springs."

551 Now called the Myrad-Chaï. Ritter considers it to be the south arm of the Euphrates. The Arsanus is mentioned by no writer except Pliny.

552 The defile at this place is now called the Cataract of Nachour, according to Parisot.

553 The more general reading here is "Omira." Hardouin is of opinion, that this is the district referred to in the Book of Judith, ii. 24. In the Vulgate, it appears to be twice called the river >Mambre; but in our version it is called Arbonaï.

554 Burnouf has concluded, from a cuneiform inscription which he deciphered, that the name of this people was Ayurâ, and that Hardouin is wrong in conjecturing that it was a name derived from the Greek ὄρος, "a mountain," and designating the people as a mountain tribe. If Burnouf is right, the proper reading here would seem to be Arœi, or Arrhœi.

555 The length of the schœnus has been mentioned by our author in C. 11 of the present Book. M. Saigey makes the Persian parasang to be very nearly the same length as the schœnus of Pliny.

556 Commagene was a district in the north of Syria, bounded by the Euphrates on the east, by Cilicia on the west, and by Amanus on the north. Its capital was Samosata.

557 The place here spoken of by Pliny is probably the same mentioned by Ptolemy as in Cataonia, one of the provinces of Cappadocia. According to Parisot, the site of the place is called at the present day 'Ra Claudie.'

558 Salmasius has confounded these cataracts with those of Nachour, or Elegia, previously mentioned. It is evident, however, that they are not the same.

559 Now called Someisat. In literary history, it is celebrated as being the birth-place of the satirist Lucian. Nothing remains of it but a heap of ruins, on an artificial mound.

560 In the district of Osrhoëne, in the northern part of Mesopotamia. It was situate on the Syrtus, now the Daisan, a small tributary of the Euphrates. Pliny speaks rather loosely when he places it in Arabia. It is supposed that it bore the name of Antiochia during the reign of the Syrian king, Antiochus IV. The modern town of Orfahor Uufah is supposed to represent its site.

561 "The beautiful stream." It is generally supposed that this was another name of Edessa.

562 Supposed to be the Haran, or Charan, of the Old Testament. It was here, as alluded to by Pliny, that Crassus was defeated and slain by the Parthian general, Surena. It was situate in Osroëne, in Mesopotamia, and not far from Edessa. According to Stephanus, it had its name from Carrha, a river of Syria, and was celebrated in ancient times for its temple of Luna, or Lunus.

563 According to Strabo, the Aborras, now the Khabur, flowed round this town. By Tacitus it is called Anthemusias. According to Isidorus of Charax, it lay between Edessa and the Euphrates.

564 Now Rakkah, a fortified town of Mesopotamia, on the Euphrates, near the mouth of the river Bilecha. It was built by order of Alexander the Great, and completed probably by Seleucus. It is supposed to have been the same place as Callinicum, the fortifications of which were repaired by Justinian. Its name was changed in later times to Leontopolis by the Emperor Leo.

565 Now called Sinjar, according to Brotier. Some writers imagine that this was the site of "the plain in the land of Shinar," on which the Tower of Babel was built, mentioned in the Book of Genesis, xi. 2.

566 Mentioned in C. 17 of the present Book.

567 Probably not that in the district of Cassiotis, and on the western bank of the Orontes, mentioned in C. 19 of the present Book. Of this locality nothing seems to be known, except that Dupinet states that it is now called Adelphe by the Turks.

568 Probably the "Antiochia ad Taurum" mentioned by the geographer Stephanus, and by Ptolemy. Some writers place it at the modern Aintab, seventy-five miles north-east of Aleppo.

569 Now called Roum-Cala, or the "Roman Castle." For Zeugma see p. 424.

570 In the north-east of the district of Astropatene, originally called Rhaga. It was rebuilt by Seleucus Nicator, and by him called Europus. Colonel Rawlinson has identified it with the present Veramin, at no great distance from the ancient Rhages.

571 Its ruins are to be seen at the ford of El Hamman, near the modern Rakkah. It stood on the banks of the Euphrates; and here was the usual, and, for a long time, the only ford of the Euphrates. It is supposed to have derived its name from the Aramean word "Thiphsach," signifying "a ford."

572 Or "Dwellers in Tents." See p. 422.

573 According to Ortelius and Hardouin, this is the place called Sura by Pliny, in C. 26 of the present Book; but Parisot differs from that opinion. Bochart suggests, that "Ur, of the Chaldees," is the place referred to under this name; but, as Hardouin observes, that place lay at a considerable distance to the south.

574 So called from the circumstance that Palmyra stood in the midst of them. It was built by King Solomon, in an oasis of the Desert, in the midst of palm groves, from which it received its Greek name, which was a translation also of the Hebrew "Tadmor," "the city of palm-trees." It lay at a considerable distance from the Euphrates. Its site presents considerable ruins; but they are all of the Roman period, and greatly inferior to those of Baalbec or Heliopolis.

575 The rock fortress of the Idumæans in Arabia Petræa, now called Wady-Musa, half-way between the head of the Gulf of Akabah and the Dead Sea.

576 Which it continued to do until it was conquered under its queen, Zenobia, by the Emperor Aurelian, in A.D. 270. It was partially destroyed by him, but was afterwards fortified by Justinian; though it never recovered its former greatness.

577 See B. vi. c. 30.

578 Pliny is the only author that makes mention of Stelendene.

579 In C. 19 of the present Book.

580 Previously mentioned by Pliny. See p. 439. Of Elatium nothing is known.

581 The same place that is also mentioned in history as Flavia Firms Sura. The site of Philiscum is totally unknown.

582 Nothing is known of this place.

583 Parisot remarks, that it is true that the Euphrates increases periodically, much in the same manner as the Nile; but that its increase does not arise from similar causes, nor are the same results produced by it, seeing that the river does not convey the same volume of water as the Nile, and that the country in the vicinity of its bed does not, like Egypt, form a valley pent up between two ranges of hills.

584 So called probably from the Greek διαφανὴς, "transparent." It has not been identified, but it was no doubt a small stream falling into the Gulf of Issus.

585 Or "Passes." As to Mount Amanus, see C. 18 of the present Book.

586 Parisot suggests that this is the Chersos of Xenophon, the modern Kermes.

587 The Deli-Su of modern times according to D'Anville, the Maher-Su according to Pococke.

588 Pliny is the only writer that mentions this river Lycus.

589 The Gulf of Issos is now called the Gulf of Scanderoon or Iskenderun, from the town of that name, the former Alexandria ad Issum, mentioned here by Pliny. In the vicinity of Issus, Alexander defeated the army of Darius. The exact site of the town appears not to have been ascertained.

590 Which still preserves its name in Iskenderun, on the east side of the Gulf. It probably received its name in honour of Alexander the Great.

591 Or the "Green" River. Its identity is unknown.

592 Now called Ayas Kala or Kalassy. It was a place, in the Roman period, of some importance.

593 The modern river Jihan.

594 Or "Passes" of Cilicia, through the range of Taurus.

595 Called Mallo in modern times, according to Hardouin and Dupinet.

596 At the mouth of the Pyramus, according to Tzetzes.

597 Famous as the birth-place of St. Paul, the Apostle of the Gentiles. Its ruins still bear the name of Tersus. During the civil war it took part with Julius Cæsar, and from him received the name of Juliopolis.

598 They lie between the rivers Djihoun and Syhoun, according to Ansart.

599 Now called Messis, according to D'Anville and Mannert. The site of Cassipolis, or Cassiopolis according to some readings, is unknown.

600 The sites of Thynos and Zephyrium appear to be unknown. Anchiale was situate on the coast, upon the river Anchialcus, according to the geographer Stephanus. Aristobulus, quoted by Strabo, says that at this place was the tomb of Sardanapalus, and on it a relief in stone representing a man snapping the fingers of the right hand. He adds, "It is said that there is an Assyrian inscription also, recording that Sardanapalus built Anchiale and Tarsus in one day, and exhorting the reader to eat, drink, &c., as everything else is not worth That, the meaning of which was shown by the attitude of the figure." Athenæus however cites Amyntas as his authority for stating that the tomb of Sardanapalus was at Nineveh. Leake is of opinion that a mound on the banks of the river beyond the modern villages of Kazalu and Karaduar forms the remains of Anchiale.

601 The modern Syhou, according to Ansart.

602 Now called the Tersoos Chai. It is remarkable for the coldness of its waters, and it was here that Alexander the Great nearly met with his death from bathing when heated, in the stream.

603 Now Chelendreh. It was a strong place on the coast, situate on a high rock nearly surrounded by the sea. None of its ruins seem older than the early period of the Roman empire. The Turks call it Gulnare.

604 Probably so called from a temple to the Sea Nymphs there.

605 To distinguish it from Solæ or Soli of Cyprus. It was situate between the rivers Cydnus and Lamus, and was said to have been colonized by Argives and Lydians from Rhodes. Alexander mulcted its inhabitants of 200 talents, for their adhesion to the Persians. It was celebrated as the birth-place of the Stoic philosopher Chrysippus, the comic poet Philemon, and the poet and astronomer Aratus. Its name is perpetuated in the word Solecism, which is said to have been first applied to the corrupt dialect of Greek spoken by the inhabitants of this city, or as some say, of Soli in Cyprus.

606 It still retains its ancient name, and is situate on the western side of the Sarus, now the Syhoun or Syhan. Pompey settled here some of the Cilician pirates whom he had conquered.

607 Leake, in his 'Asia Minor,' p. 196, says, "The vestiges of Cibyra are probably those observed by Captain Beaufort upon a height which rises from the right bank of a considerable river about eight miles to the eastward of the Melas, about four miles to the west of Cape Karáburnu, and nearly two miles from the shore." Ptolemy mentions Cibyra as an inland town of Cilicia Trachea, but Scylax places it on the coast.

608 Its ruins are still called Pinara or Minara. It was an inland city of Lycia, some distance west of the river Xanthus, and at the foot of Mount Cragus.

609 Or perhaps 'Podalie.' Of it nothing seems to be known.

610 Or Selinuntum, now Selenti, on the coast of Cilicia. In consequence of the death here of the Emperor Trajan, it received the name of Trajanopolis. Of Ale, if that is the correct reading, nothing whatever is known.

611 On the coast of Cilicia; mentioned by Strabo as having a port. Leake places it at or near the ruined castle called Sokhta Kalesi, below which is a port, and a peninsula on the east side of the harbour covered with ruins.

612 In the district of Selenitis. It has been identified with the site of the modern fortress of Lambardo. It is also suggested that it may have been the same place as Laerte, the native city of Diogenes Laertius. Of Doron nothing seems to be known.

613 Its ruins are supposed to be those seen by Leake near the island of Crambusa. Here the walls of an ancient city may still be traced, and a mole of unhewn rocks projects from one angle of the fortress about 100 yards across the bay.

614 Strabo describes this cave as a vast hollow of circular form, surrounded by a margin of rock on all sides of considerable height; on descending it, the ground was found full of shrubs, both evergreens and cultivated, and in some parts the best saffron was grown. He also says that there was a cave which contained a large spring, from which arose a river of clear water which immediately afterwards sank into the earth and flowed underground into the sea. It was called the Bitter Water. This cave, so famed in ancient times, does not appear to have been examined by any modem traveller. It was said to have been the bed of the giant Typhon or Typhœus.

615 Now known as the Ghiuk-Su.

616 Supposed to be the same as the modern Lessan-el-Kahpeh.

617 Or Holmi, on the coast of Cilicia Tracheia, a little to the south-west of Seleucia. Leake thinks that the modern town of Aghaliman occupies the site of Holmœ.

618 Probably the same place as the Aphrodisias mentioned by Livy, Diodorus Siculus, and Ptolemy.

619 On the headland now called Cape Anemour, the most southerly part of Asia Minor. Beaufort discovered on the point indications of a considerable ancient town.

620 Its site is now called Alaya or Alanieh. This spot was Strabo's boundary-line between Pamphylia and Cilicia. Some slight remains of the ancient town were seen here by Beaufort, but no inscriptions were found.

621 Identified by Beaufort with the modern Manaugat-Su.

622 So called, either from an adjacent mountain of that name, or its founder, Anazarbus. Its later name was Cæsarea ad Anazarbum. Its site is called Anawasy or Amnasy, and is said to display considerable remains of the ancient town. Of Augusta nothing is known: Ptolemy places it in a district called Bryelice.

623 Identified by Ainsworth with the ruins seen at Kara Kaya in Cilicia.

624 Pompey settled some of the Cilician pirates here after his defeat of them. It was thirty miles east of Anazarbus, but its site does not appear to have been identified.

625 An island off the shore of Cilicia, also called Sebaste.

626 Some of the MSS. read "Riconium" here.

627 Its ruins are called Selefkeh. This was an important city of Seleucia Aspera, built by Seleucus I. on the western bank of the river Calycadnus. It had an oracle of Apollo, and annual games in honour of Zeus Olympius. It was a free city under the Romans. It was here that Frederick Barbarossa, the emperor of Germany, died. Its ruins are picturesque and extensive.

628 Meaning that the inhabitants of Holmia were removed by Seleucus to his new city of Seleucia.

629 Said by Vitruvius to have had the property of anointing those who bathed in its waters. If so, it probably had its name from the Greek word λιπαρὸς, "fat." It flowed past the town of Soloë. Bombos and Paradisus are rivers which do not appear to have been identified.

630 A branch of the Taurus range.

631 It bordered in the east on Lycaonia, in the north on Phrygia, in the west on Pisidia, and in the south on Cilicia and Pamphylia.

632 A well-fortified city at the foot of Mount Taurus. It was twice destroyed, first by its inhabitants when besieged by Perdiccas, and again by the Roman general Servilius Isauricus. Strabo says that Amyntas of Galatea built a new city in its vicinity out of the ruins of the old one. D'Anville and others have identified the site of Old Isauria with the modern Bei Sheher, and they are of opinion that Seidi Sheher occupies the site of. New Isaura, but Hamilton thinks that the ruins on a hill near the village of Olou Bounar mark the site of New Isaura. Of the two next places nothing seems to be known at the present day.

633 In the last Chapter.

634 In Pisidia, at the southern extremity of Lake Caralitis. Tacitus, Annals, iii. 48, says that this people possessed forty-four fortresses: whereas Strabo speaks of them as the most barbarous of all the Pisidian tribes, dwelling only in caves. They were conquered by the consul Quirinius in the time of Augustus.

635 Pisidia was a mountainous region formed by that part of the main chain of Mount Taurus which sweeps round in a semicircle parallel to the shore of the Pamphylian Gulf; the shore itself at the foot of the mountains forming the district of Pamphylia. On the south-east it was bounded by Cilicia, on the east and north-east by Lycaonia and Isauria, and by Phrygia Parorios on the north, where its boundaries greatly varied at different times.

636 Generally called "Antioch of Pisidia," was situate on the south side of the mountain boundary between Phrygia and Pisidia. The modern Yalobatch is supposed to occupy its site. The remains of the ancient town are numerous. Its title of Cæsarea was probably given to it on its becoming a Roman colony early in the imperial period.

637 D'Anville suggests that the modern Haviran occupies its site, and that Sadjakla stands on that of Sagalessos.

638 This country was bounded on the north by Galatia, on the east by Cappadocia, on the south by Cilicia Aspera, on the south-west by Isauria and Phrygia Parorios, and on the north-west by Great Phrygia. It was assigned under the Persian empire to the satrapy of Cappadocia, but considered by the Greek and Roman geographers the south-east part of Phrygia.

639 Phrygia, or the western part of Asia, the first part of the Asiatic continent that received the name of Asia. See Chapters 28 & 29 of the present Book.

640 D'Anville thinks that the place called II-Goun occupies the site of Philomela.

641 Hardouin suggests that the reading here is "Tibriani," the people of Tibrias. Ansart is of opinion that Thymbrium is meant, the place at which Cyrus defeated the army of Crœsus.

642 Its site is unknown. It was probably so called from the quarries of white stone or marble in its vicinity. Pelta and Tyrium are also equally unknown.

643 Iconium was regarded in the time of Xenophon as the easternmost town of Phrygia, while all the later authorities described it as the principal city of Lycaonia. In the Acts of the Apostles it is described as a very populous city, inhabited by Greeks and Jews. Its site is now called Kunjah or Koniych.

644 It has been suggested that this may be the Tarbassus of Artemidorus, quoted by Strabo. Hyde was in later times one of the episcopal cities of Lycaonia.

645 Their district is called Melyas by Herodotus, B. i. c. 173. The city of Arycanda is unknown.

646 United with Cilicia it now forms the province of Caramania or Kermanieh. It was a narrow strip of the southern coast of Asia Minor, extending in an arch along the Pamphylian Gulf between Lycia on the west, Cilicia on the east, and on the north bordering on Pisidia.

647 Tradition ascribed the first Greek settlements in this country to Mopsus, son of Apollo (or of Rhacius), after the Trojan war.

648 Now called the Gulf of Adalia, lying between Cape Khelidonia and Cape Anemour.

649 Now called Candeloro, according to D'Anville and Beaufort.

650 Or Aspendus, an Argeian colony on the river Eurymedon. The "mountain" of Pliny is nothing but a hill or piece of elevated ground. It is supposed that it still retains its ancient name. In B. xxxi. c. 7, Pliny mentions a salt lake in its vicinity.

651 Hardouin suggests that the correct reading is 'Petnelessum.'

652 A city of remarkable splendour, between the rivers Catarrhactes and Cestrus, sixty stadia from the mouth of the former. It was a celebrated seat of the worship of Artemis or Diana. In the later Roman empire it was the capital of Pamphylia Secunda. It was the first place visited by St. Paul in Asia Minor. See Acts, xiii. 13 and xiv. 25. Its splendid ruins are still to be seen at Murtana, sixteen miles north-east of Adalia.

653 Now known as the Kapri-Su.

654 Now called Duden-Su. It descends the mountains of Taurus in a great broken waterfall, whence its name.

655 Probably occupying the site of the modern Atalieh or Satalieh.

656 On the borders of Lycia and Pamphylia, at the foot of Mount Solyma. Its ruins now bear the name of Tekrova.

657 It was inclosed by Caria and Pamphylia on the west and east, and on the north by the district of Cibyrates in Phrygia.

658 The Gulf of Satalieh or Adalia.

659 Still known as Cape Khelidonia or Cameroso.

660 Parisot remarks here, "Pliny describes on this occasion, with an exactness very remarkable for his time, the chain of mountains which runs through the part of Asia known to the ancients, although it is evident that he confines the extent of them within much too small a compass."

661 The Caspian and the Hyrcanian Seas are generally looked upon as identical, but we find them again distinguished by Pliny in B. vi. c. 13, where he says that this inland sea commences to be called the Caspian after you have passed the river Cyrus (or Kúr), and that the Caspii live near it; and in C. 16, that it is called the Hyrcanian Sea, from the Hyrcani who live along its shores. The western side would therefore in strictness be called the Caspian, and the eastern the Hyrcanian Sea.

662 The name of Imaüs was, in the first instance, applied by the Greek geographers to the Hindú-Kúsh and to the chain parallel to the equator, to which the name of Himâlaya is usually given at the present day. The name was gradually extended to the intersection running north and south, the meridian axis of Central Asia, or the Bolor range. The divisions of Asia into 'intra et extra Imaum,' were unknown to Strabo and Pliny, though the latter describes the knot of mountains formed by the intersections of the Himalaya, the Hindú-Kúsh, and Bolor, by the expression 'quorum (Montes Emodi) promontorium Imaüs vocatur.' The Bolor chain has been for ages, with one or two exceptions, the boundary between the empires of China and Turkestan."—Dr. Smith's Dictionary of Ancient Geography.

663 The Gates of Armenia are spoken of in B. vi. c. 12, the Gates of the Caspian in C. 16 of the same Book, and the Gates of Cilicia in C. 22 of the present Book.

664 See C. ix. of the next Book.

665 Strabo gives this name to only the eastern portion of the Caucasian chain which overhangs the Caspian Sea and forms the northern boundary of Albania, and in which he places the Amazons. Mela seems to apply the name to the whole chain which other writers call Caucasus, confining the latter term to a part of it. Pliny (B. v. c. 27 & B. vi. c. 11) gives precisely the same representation, with the additional error of making the Ceraunii (i. e. the Caucasus of others) part of the Great Taurus Chain. He seems to apply the name of Caucasus to the spurs which spread out both to the north-east and the south-east from the main chain near its eastern extremity, and which he regarded as a continuous range, bordering the western shores of the Caspian. See B. vi. c. 10."—Dr. Smith's Dictionary of Ancient Geography.

666 Of Chelidonium, now Kheidonia, formed by the range of Taurus.

667 See B. ii. c. 116. The flame which continually burned on this mountain has been examined by Beaufort, the modern traveller. The name of the mountain is now Yanar: it is formed of a mass of scaglia with serpentine. Spratt says that the flame is nothing more than a stream of inflammable gas issuing from a crevice, such as is seen in several places in the Apennines. By Homer it is represented as a fabulous monster, which is explained by Servius, the commentator of Virgil, in the following manner. He says that flames issue from the top of the mountain, and that there are lions in the vicinity; the middle part abounds in goats, and the lower part with serpents. Simena appears to be unknown.

668 So called from ῞ηφαιστς, the Greek name of Vulcan. Pliny mentions this spot also in B. ii. c. 110. The flame probably proceeded from an inflammable gas, or else was ignited by a stream of naphtha.

669 More generally known as Phœnicus, a flourishing city on Mount Olympus; now Yanar Dagh, a volcano on the eastern coast of Lycia, with which it often exchanged names. Having become the head-quarters of the pirates, it was destroyed by the Roman general Servilius Isauricus. Its ruins are to be seen at a spot called Deliktash.

670 Mentioned again in B. xxxvi. c. 34, as the spot whence the gagates lapis or 'agate' took its name. The ruins at Aladja are regarded by Leake as marking the site of Gagæ; but Sir Charles Fellowes identifies the place with the modern village of Hascooe, the vicinity of which is covered with ruins.

671 On the road from Phaselis in Lycia to Patara. Its site is a village called Hadgivella, about sixteen miles south-west of Phaselis. The remains are very considerable.

672 The remains of Rhodiopolis were found by Spratt and Forbes in the vicinity of Corydalla.

673 On the Limyrus, probably the modern Phineka; the ruins to the north of which are supposed to be those of Limyra.

674 The modern Akhtar Dagh.

675 Now Andraki. This was the port of Myra, next mentioned. It stood at the mouth of the river now known as the Andraki. Cramer observes that it was here St. Paul was put on board the ship of Alexandria, Acts xxvii. 5, 6.

676 Still called Myra by the Greeks, but Dembre by the Turks. It was built on a rock twenty stadia from the sea. St. Paul touched here on his voyage as a prisoner to Rome, and from the mention made of it in Acts xxvii. 5, 6, it would appear to have been an important sea-port. There are magnificent ruins of this city still to be seen, in part hewn out of the solid rock.

677 From an inscription found by Cockerell at the head of the Hassac Bay, it is thought that Aperlœ is the proper name of this place, though again there are coins of Gordian which give the name as Aperrœ. It is fixed by the Stadismus as sixty stadia west of Somena, which Leake supposes to be the same as the Simena mentioned above by Pliny.

678 Now called Antephelo or Andifilo, on the south coast of Lycia, at the head of a bay. Its theatre is still complete, with the exception of the proscenium. There are also other interesting remains of antiquity.

679 Fellowes places the site of Phellos near a village called Saaret, west-north-west of Antiphellos, where he found the remains of a town; but Spratt considers this to mark the site of the Pyrra of Pliny, mentioned above—judging from Pliny's words. Modern geographers deem it more consistent with his meaning to look for Phellos north of Antiphellos than in any other direction, and the ruins at Tchookoorbye, north of Antiphellos, on the spur of a mountain called Fellerdagh, are thought to be those of Phellos.

680 The most famous city of Lycia. It stood on the western bank of the river of that name, now called the Echen Chai. It was twice besieged, and on both occasions the inhabitants destroyed themselves with their property, first by the Persians under Harpagus, and afterwards by the Romans under Brutus. Among its most famous temples were those of Sarpedon and of the Lycian Apollo. The ruins now known by the name of Gunik, have been explored by Sir C. Fellows and other travellers, and a portion of its remains are now to be seen in the British Museun, under the name of the Xanthian marbles.

681 Its ruins still bear the same name. It was a flourishing seaport, on a promontory of the same name, sixty stadia east of the mouth of the Xanthus. It was early colonized by the Dorians from Crete, and became a chief seat of the worship of Apollo, from whose son Patarus it was said to have received its name. Ptolemy Philadelphus enlarged it, and called it Arsinoë, but it still remained better known by its old name. This place was visited by St. Paul, who thence took ship for Phœnicia. See Acts xxi. 1.

682 This was more properly the name of a mountain district of Lycia. Strabo speaks of Cragus, a mountain with eight summits, and a city of the same name. Beaufort thinks that Yedy-Booroon, the Seven Capes, a group of high and rugged mountains, appear to have been the ancient Mount Cragus of Lycia.

683 Probably the Gulf of Macri, equal in size to the Gulf of Satalia, which is next to it.

684 This place lay in the interior at the base of Cragus, and its ruins are still to be seen on the east side of the range, about half-way between Telmessus and the termination of the range on the south coast.

685 Its ruins are to be seen at Mei, or the modern port of Macri.

686 Its site is unknown. That of Candyba has been ascertained to be a place called Gendevar, east of the Xanthus, and a few miles from the coast. Its rock-tombs are said to be beautifully executed. The Œnian grove or forest, it has been suggested, may still be recognized in the extensive pine forest that now covers the mountain above the city. The sites of Podalia and Choma seem to be unknown.

687 In some editions "Cyane." Leake says that this place was discovered to the west of Andriaca by Cockerell. It appears from Scott and Forbes's account of Lycia, that three sites have been found between port Tristorus and the inland valley of Kassabar, which from the inscriptions appeared anciently to have borne this name, Yarvoo, Ghiouristan, and Toussa. The former is the chief place and is covered with ruins of the Roman and middle-age construction. At Ghiouristan there are Lycian rock-tombs.

688 Its ruins are to be seen near the modern Doover, in the interior of Lycia, about two miles and a half east of the river Xanthus. Of the three places previously mentioned the sites appear to be unknown.

689 Mentioned by the geographer Stephanus as being in Caria.

690 Its site is fixed at Katara, on both sides of the Katara Su, the most northern branch of the Xanthus. The ruins are very considerable, lying on both sides of the stream. Balbura is a neuter plural.

691 It lay to the west of Balbura, near a place now called Ebajik, on a small stream that flows into the Horzoom Tchy. In B. xxxv. c. 17, Pliny mentions a kind of chalk found in the vicinity of this place. Its ruins are still to be seen, but they are not striking.

692 In the south-west corner of Asia Minor, bounded on the north and north-east by the mountains Messagis and Cadmus, dividing it from Lydia and Phrygia, and adjoining to Phrygia and Lycia on the south-east.

693 Caria.

694 Now Cape Ghinazi. It was also called Artemisium, from the temple of Artemis or Diana situate upon it.

695 Discharging itself into the bay of Telmissus, now Makri.

696 "Telmissus" is the reading here in some editions.

697 Situate in the district of Caria called Peræa. It was also the name given to a mountainous district. In Hoskyn's map the ruins of Dædala are placed near the head of the Gulf of Glaucus, on the west of a small river called Inegi Chai, probably the ancient Ninus, where Dædalus was bitten by a water-snake, in consequence of which he died.

698 On the Gulf of Glaucus: Stephanus however places it in Lycia. Mela speaks only of a promontory of this name.

699 Leake places this river immediately west of the Gulf of Glaucus.

700 Placed by Strabo sixty stadia from the sea, west of the Gulf of Glaucus, and east of Carinus. Its site is uncertain, but it may possibly be the place discovered by Fellows, which is proved by inscriptions to have been called Cadyanda, a name otherwise unknown to us. This lies N.N.E. of Makri, on the Gulf of Glaucus or Makri, at a place called Hoozoomlee, situate on an elevated plain.

701 The same as the river Calbis of Strabo and Mela, at present the Dalamon Tchy, Quingi or Taas, having its sources in Mount Cadmus above Cibyra. It was said to have derived its name from an Indian, who had been thrown into it from an elephant.

702 Their district was Cibyratis, of which the chief city was Cibyra. This place, uniting with the towns of Balbura, Bubon, and Œnianda, had the name of Tetrapolis; of which league Cibyra was the head, mustering 30,000 infantry and 2000 cavalry. The iron found in this district was easily cut with a chisel or other sharp tool. The site of this powerful city has been ascertained to be at Horzoom, on the Horzoom Tchy, a branch of the Dalamon Tchy or Indus. The ruins are very extensive, and the theatre in fine preservation.

703 Placed by Strabo west of Calynda. The ancient descriptions of its locality vary, but the place now known as Kaiguez is said to denote its site. The Caunii are frequently mentioned in the Persian, Grecian, and Roman histories. It was noted for its dried figs, mentioned by Pliny in B. xv. c. 19.

704 Supposed by Mannert to be the Physcus of Strabo and the Phuscæ of Ptolemy.

705 Leake says that this harbour is now called Aplothíka by the Greeks, and Porto Cavaliere by the Italians. He also says that on its western shore are the ruins of an Hellenic fortress and town, which are undoubtedly those of Loryma.

706 It had a port of the same name.

707 Called Pandion by Mela, according to Parisot.

708 Parisot suggests that it is the same as Loryma previously mentioned.

709 Like the Gulf of Schœnus, a portion probably of the Dorian Gulf, now the Gulf of Syme.

710 The modern name of this promontory is not given by Hamilton, who sailed round it. It has been confounded with the Cynos Sema of Strabo, now Cape Velo. The site of Hyda or Hyde is unknown.

711 There was a town of this name as well. Stephen of Byzantium tells us that it received its name from a shepherd who saved the life of Podalirius, when shipwrecked on the coast of Caria.

712 Part of it was situate on an island now called Cape Krio, connected by a causeway with the mainland. Its site is covered with ruins of a most interesting character in every direction. The Triopian promontory, evidently alluded to by Pliny, is the modern Cape Krio.

713 It has been remarked that in his description here Pliny is very brief and confused, and that he may intend to give the name of Triopia either to the small peninsula or island, or may include in this term the western part of the whole of the larger peninsula.

714 Of these conventus. For an account of Cibyra see last page.

715 On the Lycus, now known as the Choruk-Su. By different writers it has been assigned to Lydia, Caria, and Phrygia, but in the ultimate division of the Roman provinces it was assigned to the Greater Phrygia. It was founded by Antiochus II. on the site of a previous town, and named in honour of his wife Laodice. Its site is occupied by ruins of great magnificence. In the Apostolic age it was the seat of a flourishing Christian Church, which however very soon gave signs of degeneracy, as we learn from St. John's Epistle to it, Revel. ii. 14–22. St. Paul also addresses it in common with the neighbouring church of Colossæ. Its site is now called Eski-Hissar, or the Old Castle.

716 A tributary of the Phrygian Mæander.

717 The people of Hydrela, a town of Caria, said to have been founded by one of three brothers who emigrated from Sparta.

718 The people of Themisonium, now called Tseni.

719 The people of Hierapolis, a town of Phrygia, situate on a height between the rivers Lycus and Mæander, about five miles north of Laodicea, on the road from Apamea to Sardis. It was celebrated for its warm springs, and its Plutonium, or cave of Pluto, from which issued a mephitic vapour of a poisonous nature; see B. ii. c. 95. The Christian Church here is alluded to by St. Paul in his Epistle to the Colossians, iv. 13. Its ruins are situate at an uninhabited place called Pambuk-Kalessi.

720 Situate in the north of Phrygia Salutaris; its ruins being probably those to be seen at Afiour-Kara-Hisar. From the time of Constantine this place became the capital of Phrygia Salutaris. It stood in a fiuitful plain, near a mountain quarry of the celebrated Synnadic marble, which was white with red veins and spots. This marble was also called "Docimiticus," from Docimia, a nearer place.

721 As already mentioned in C. 25 of the present Book.

722 The site of Appia does not appear to be known. Cicero speaks of an application made to him by the Appiani, when he was governor of Cilicia, respecting the taxes with which they were burdened, and the buildings of their town.

723 Eucarpia was a town of Phrygia, not far from the sources of the Mæander, on the road from Dorylæum to Apamea Cibotus. The vine grew there in great luxuriance, and to its fruitfulness the town probably owed its name. Kiepert places it in the vicinity of Segielar, but its exact site is unknown.

724 The site of Dorylæum is now called Eski-Shehr. The hot-baths here are mentioned by Athenæus, and its waters were pleasant to the taste. Sheep-feeding appears to have been carried on here to a great extent, and under the Greek empire it was a flourishing place. The site of Midæum does not seem to be known.

725 The people of Julia, Juliopolis, or Julianopolis, a town of Lydia, probably to the south of Mount Tmolus.

726 This place was built near Celænæ by Antiochus Soter, and named after his mother Apama. Strabo says that it lay at the mouth of the river Marsyas. Its site has been fixed at the modern Denair. Some ancient ruins are to be seen.

727 Pliny commits an error here; Celænæ was a different place from Apamea, though close to it.

728 Meaning the "Fountains of the Pipe," and probably deriving its name from the legend here mentioned by Pliny, and in B. xvi. c. 44. Strabo describes the Marsyas and Mæander as rising, according to report, in one lake above Celænæ, which produced reeds adapted for making the mouth-pieces of musical instruments, but he gives no name to the lake. Hamilton found near Denair or Apamea, a lake nearly two miles in circumference, full of reeds and rushes, which he looks upon as the lake on the mountain Aulocrene, described by Pliny in the 31st Chapter of the present Book. His account however is very confused, as he mentions on different occasions a region of Aulocrene, a valley of Aulocrene, and a mountain of Aulocrene.

729 People of "the Mother City," said by Stephen of Byzantium to have received that name from Cybele, the Mother of the Gods.

730 Nothing is known of the site of Dionysopolis. It is mentioned in a letter of Cicero's to his brother Quintus, in which he speaks of the people of this place as being very hostile to the latter.

731 The site of Euphorbium is denoted, according to Leake, by the modern Sandukli. It lay between Synnas and Apamea, and not improbably, like Eucarpia, received its name from the fertility of its territory.

732 The site of Acmona has been fixed at Ahatkoi, but it seems doubtful.

733 The site of Pelta is by D'Anville called Ris-Chak or Hou-Chak.

734 The people of Silbium or Silbia, near Metropolis.

735 The Dorian settlements on the coast of Caria were so called. The Dorian Gulf was probably the Sinus Ceramicus mentioned below.

736 Of these places nothing whatever seems to be known.

737 Pitaium and Eutane seem to be unknown.

738 A member of the Dorian Hexapolis, or League of the Six Cities. The site of this famous city is occupied by the modern Boodroum, and its ruins are very extensive. It was famous as being the birth-place of the two historians Herodotus and Dionysius. It was the largest and best fortified city of Caria.

739 According to Parisot the site of this place is now called Angeli and Karabaglas.

740 This place must not be confounded with Tehnessus or Telmissus in Lycia, which has been previously mentioned. It was situate six miles from Halicarnassus. Of the other places here mentioned nothing seems to be known.

741 Now the Gulf of Staneo, Kos, or Boodroum. It took its name from the port of Ceramus, now Keramo, according to D'Anville.

742 Now the Gulf of Mandeliyeh. It took its name from the city of lasus, the site of which is now called Askem or Asyn-Kalessi.

743 Its ruins are to be seen at the port called Gumshlu. This was a Dorian colony on the coast of Caria, founded probably on the site of the old town of the Leleges.

744 It has been suggested that this was only another name for the new town of Myndos, in contradistinction to Palæomyndos, or "old Myndos."

745 Scylax the geographer is supposed to have been a native of this place. The town is supposed to have been built partly on the mainland and partly on an island. Pastra Linani is supposed to have been the harbour of Caryanda.

746 A Dorian city on the Promontory of Termerium.

747 Situate near lasus and Myndos. Leake conjectures that it may have been on the bay between Pastra Limâne and Asyn Kalesi. There was a statue here of Artemis Cindyas, under the bare sky, of which the incredible story was told that neither rain nor snow ever fell on it.

748 See note14 on the last page.

749 Its ruins are to be seen at the spot still called Melasso. It was a very flourishing city, eight miles from the coast of the Gulf of Iasus, and situate at the foot of a rock of fine white marble. It was partly destroyed in the Roman civil wars by Labienus. Its ruins are very extensive.

750 Hamilton has fixed the site of this place between four and five miles south-east of Kuyuja, near the mouth of the valley of the Kara-Su. The surrounding district was famous for the excellence of its figs. The city was built by Antiochus, the son of Seleucus.

751 Now called the Mendereh or Meinder.

752 Pococke thinks that the present Jenjer is the Orsinus, while Mannert takes it to be the Hadchizik, a little winding river that falls into the Mæander.

753 Now called Guzel-Hissar, according to Ansart.

754 On the road from Dorylæum to Apamea. It is said to have received its name from Attalus II., who named the town after his brother and predecessor EumenesII. Its site is known as Ishekle, and it is still marked by numerous ruins and sculptures.

755 A tributary of the Mæander. Its modern name is not mentioned.

756 Mannert takes the ruins to be seen at Jegni-Chehr to be those of ancient Orthosia. The town of Lysias does not appear to have been identified.

757 The situation of this district is not known. See B. xvi. c. 16, where it appears that this region was famous for its boxwood.

758 One of the numerous places of that name devoted to the worship of Bacchus. It was built on both sides of the ravine of the brook Eudon, which fell into the Meæander. Its ruins are to be seen at Sultan-Hissar, a little to the west of Hazeli.

759 Its ruins are to be seen at Ghiuzel-Hissar, near Aidin. This was a flourishing commercial city, included sometimes in Ionia, sometimes in Caria. It stood on the banks of the Eudon, a tributary of the river Mæander. Under the Seleucidæ it was called Antiochia and Seleucia.

760 From the beauty and fertility of the surrounding country.

761 An Ionic town of Caria, on the north side of the Sinus Latmicus, fifty stadia from the mouth of the Mæander.

762 Or Euromus, a town of Caria, at the foot of Mount Grion, which runs parallel with Latmos. Ruins of a temple to the north-west of Alabanda are considered to belong to Euromus.

763 A town of uncertain site. It must not be confounded with the place of the same name, mentioned in c. 31 of the present Book.

764 The ruins of its citadel and walls still exist on the east side of Mount Latmos, on the road from Bafi to Tchisme.

765 Situate about twenty miles south of Tralles. The modern site is doubtful, but Arab Hissa, on a branch of the Mæander, now called the Tchina, is supposed to represent Alabanda. It was notorious for the luxuriousness of its inhabitants. A stone found in the vicinity was used for making glass and glazing vessels. See B. xxxvi. c. 13.

766 Built by Antiochus I. Soter, and named, in honour of his wife, Stratonice. It stood south of Alabanda, near the river Marsyas. It is supposed that it stood on the site of a former city called Idrias, and still earlier, Chrysaoris.

767 D'Anville identifies it with a place called Keramo, but no such place appears to be known. Strabo places it near the sea between Cnidus and Halicarnassus, and Ceramus comes next after Cnidus. Ptolemy seems to place it on the south side of the bay. Of Hynidos nothing appears to be known.

768 Its situation is unknown; but there can be little doubt that it was founded by the Dorians who emigrated to the coast of Asia Minor from Argolis and Trœzene in the Peloponnesus. Phorontis appears to be unknown.

769 Parisot observes that many of the towns here mentioned belonged to the northern part of Phrygia.

770 The people of Alinda in Caria, which was surrendered to Alexander the Great by Alinda, queen of Caria. It was one of the strongest places in Caria. Its position has been fixed by Fellowes at Demmeergee-derasy, between Arab-Hissa and Karpuslee, on a steep rock.

771 Of Xystis, as also of Hydissa, nothing appears to be known.

772 Inhabitants of Apollonia in Caria, of which place nothing appears to be known.

773 Pococke says that the modern site of Trapezopolis is called Karadche.

774 The people of Aphrodisias, an ancient city of Caria, situate at the modern Ghera or Geyra, south of Antiochia on the Mæander. Aphrodite or Venus seems to have been principally worshipped at this place. Strabo places it in Phrygia.

775 Or Coscinia, a place in Caria, which, as we may gather from Strabo, ranked below a town. Leake thinks that Tshina, where Pococke found considerable remains, is the site of this place.

776 On the eastern bank of the Harpasus, a tributary of the Mæander. Its ruins are supposed to be those seen at a place called Harpas Kalessi. In B. ii. c. 98, Pliny speaks of a wonderful rock at this place.

777 Now known as the Harpa.

778 By this name alone it is known to Homer.

779 Its ruins, now called Sart, are very extensive, though presenting nothing of importance. Its citadel, situated on a rock, was considered to be almost impregnable.

780 Now called Kisilja Musa Dagh. It was famous for its wine, saffron, and gold.

781 Now called the Sarabat. It was famous for its gold-producing sands.

782 On the road between Thyatira and Sardes: near it was situate the necropolis of Sardes.

783 Strabo says that some persons called the citadel only by that name.

784 There was a city of Mysia or Phrygia of the name of Cadus or Cadi; but nothing is known of the place here alluded to, whose people would appear to have been a colony from Macedonia.

785 The people of Philadelphia, now Ala-Cher, or the "Fine City," twelve leagues south-east of Sardes, and nine leagues south of Attalia.

786 So called from the Greek ᾿απόλλωνος ἱερὸν, "the temple of Apollo," in the vicinity of which, south-east of Pergamus, their town was probably situate. Nothing is known of these localities.

787 Dwellers in Mesotmolus, a town which, from its name, would appear to have been situate on the middle of Mount Tmolus.

788 Now called the Gulf of Melasso.

789 Now the Cape of Melasso.

790 The remains of the Temple of Didymæan Apollo at Branchidæ are still visible to those sailing along the coast. It was in the Milesian territory, and above the harbour Panormus. The name of the site was probably Didyma or Didymi, but the place was also called Branchidæ, from that being the name of a body of priests who had the care of the temple. We learn from Herodotus that Crœsus, king of Lydia, consulted this oracle, and made rich presents to the temple. The temple, of which only two columns are left, was of white marble.

791 The ruins of this important city are difficult to discover on account of the great changes made on the coast by the river Meander. They are usually supposed to be those at the poor village of Palatia on the south bank of the Mendereh; but Forbiger has shown that these are more probably the remains of Myus, and that those of Miletus are buried in a lake formed by the Mendereh at the foot of Mount Latmus.

792 See B. vii. c. 57. Josephus says that he lived very shortly before the Persian invasion of Greece.

793 Now called the Monte di Palatia.

794 Generally called "Heraclea upon Latmus," from its situation at the western foot of Mount Latmus. Ruins of this town still exist at the foot of that mountain on the borders of Lake Baffi.

795 Its ruins are now to be seen at Palatia. It was the smallest city of the Ionian Confederacy, and' was situate at the mouth of the Mæander, thirty stadia from its mouth.

796 Mannert says that its ruins are to be seen at a spot called by the Turks Sarasun-Kalesi.

797 One of the twelve Ionian cities, situate at the foot of Mount Mycale. It stood originally on the shore, but the change in the coast by the alluvial deposits of the Mæander left it some distance from the land. It was celebrated as being the birth-place of the philosopher Bias. Its ruins are to be seen at the spot called Samsun.

798 Now called Cape Santa Maria, or Samsun.

799 He implies that it is derived from φυλὴ "C flight."

800 Between Ephesus and Neapolis. It belonged to the Samians who exchanged with the Ephesians for Neapolis, which lay nearer to their island. The modern Scala Nova occupies the site of one of them, it is uncertain which.

801 Its ruins are to be seen at the modern Inek-Bazar. It was situate on the river Lethæus, a tributary of the Mæander. It was famous for its temple of Artemis Leucophryene, the ruins of which still exist.

802 See B. ii. c. 91.

803 Now known as Ak-Hissar or the "White Castle." Strabo informs us that it was founded by Seleucus Nicator.

804 From the excellence of its horses.

805 Its ruins are to be seen near the modern Ayazaluk. It was the chief of the twelve Ionian cities on the coast of Asia Minor, and devoted to the worship of Artemis, whose temple here was deemed one of the wonders of the world. Nothing, except some traces of its foundations, is now to be seen of this stupendous building.

806 It was more generally said to have been founded by the Carians and the Leleges.

807 Now called the Kara-Su, or Black River, or Kuchuk-Meinder, or Little Mæander.

808 It has been observed that though Pliny seems to say that the Caÿster receives many streams, they must have had but a short course, and could only be so many channels by which the rivers descend from the mountain slopes that shut in the contracted basin of the river.

809 This lake or marsh seems to be the morass situate on the road from Smyrna to Ephesus, into which the Phyrites flows, and out of which it comes a considerable stream.

810 The Phyrites is a small river that is crossed on the road from Ephesus to Smyrna, and joins the Caÿster on the right bank ten or twelve miles above Ayazaluk, near the site of Ephesus.

811 See B. ii. c. 91. for further mention of this island.

812 Said to be derived from the Greek, meaning "The beautiful (stream) from Pion."

813 One of the twelve Ionian cities of Asia, founded by Andræmon. Notium was its port. There do not seem to be any remains of either of these places.

814 Called also the Hales or Ales, and noted for the coolness of its waters.

815 At Clarus, near Colophon. When Germanicus was on his way to the East, this oracle foretold to him his speedy death. Chandler is of opinion that he discovered the site of this place at Zillé, where he found a spring of water with marble steps to it, which he considers to have been the sacred fountain. Others again suggest that these ruins may be those of Notium.

816 Its site was probably near the modern Ekklesia, but no traces of the city itself are to be found.

817 Implying that in his time Notium was not in existence, whereas in reality Notium superseded Old Colophon, of which it was the port, and was sometimes known as New Colophon.

818 Now known as Cape Curco.

819 The site of this place is now known as Ritri, on the south side of a small peninsula, which projects into the bay of Erythræ. The ruins are considerable.

820 On the south side of the bay of Smyrna. In Strabo's time this city appears to have been removed from Chytrium, its original site. Chandler found traces of the city near Vourla, from which he came to the conclusion that the place was very small and inconsiderable.

821 According to Nicander, this was a mountain of the territory of Clazomenæ, almost surrounded by sea.

822 Or "the Horses," originally four islands close to the mainland, off Clazomenæ.

823 This was probably the same causeway that was observed by Chandler in the neighbourhood of Vourla, the site of ancient Clazomenæ.

824 See B. ii. c. 91, where he speaks of this place as being swallowed up in the earth.

825 From Clazomenæ.

826 Now called Izmir by the Turks, Smyrna by the western nations of Europe; the only one of the great cities on the western coast of Asia Minor that has survived to the present day. This place stood at the head of the cities that claimed to be the birth-place of Homer; and the poet was worshipped here for a hero or demi-god in a magnificent building called the Homereum. There are but few remains of the ancient city: the modern one is the greatest commercial city of the Levant.

827 Hardouin takes this to be the name of a town, but Ortelius and Pinetus seem to be more correct in thinking it to be the name of a mountain.

828 It does not appear that all these mountains have been identified. Cadmus is the Baba Dagh of the Turks.

829 Mentioned in C. 29 of the present Book.

830 In the time of Strabo this tributary of the Hermus seems to have been known as the Phrygius.

831 Its site is now called Menemen, according to D'Anville. The Cryus was so called from the Greek κρύος, "cold."

832 The present Gulf of Smyrna.

833 Or the "Ants."

834 Probably so called from the whiteness of the promontory on which it was situate. It was built by Tachos, the Persian general, in B.C. 352, and remarkable as the scene of the battle between the Consul Licinius Crassus and Aristonicus in B.C. 131. The modern name of its site is Lefke.

835 Its ruins are to be seen at Karaja-Fokia or Old Fokia, south-west of Fouges or New Fokia. It was said to have been founded by Phocian colonists under Philogenes and Damon.

836 The people of Hyrcania, one of the twelve cities which were prostrated by an earthquake in the reign of Tiberius Cæsar; see B. ii. c. 86.

837 The people of Magnesia "ad Sipylum," or the city of Magnesia on the Sipylus. It was situate on the south bank of the Hermus, and is famous in history as the scene of the victory gained by the two Scipios over Antiochus the Great, which secured to the Romans the empire of the East, B.C. 190. This place also suffered from the great earthquake in the reign of Tiberius, but was still a place of importance in the fifth century.

838 The people, it is supposed, of a place called Hierocæsarea.

839 The people probably of Metropolis in Lydia, now Turbali, a city on the plain of the Caÿster, between Ephesus and Smyrna. Cilbis, perhaps the present Durgut, was their chief place.

840 A people dwelling in the upper valley of Caÿster.

841 Or Mysian Macedonians.

842 The people of Mastaura in Lydia. Its site is still known as Mastaura-Kalesi.

843 The people of Briula, the site of which is unknown.

844 The people of Hypæpæ, a small town of Lydia, on the southern slope of Mount Tmolus, forty-two miles from Ephesus. Under the Persian supremacy, the worship of Fire was introduced at this place. Arachne, the spinner, and competitor with Minerva, is represented by Ovid as dwelling at this place; he calls it on two occasions "the little Hypæpæ." Leake is of opinion that the ruins seen at Bereki belong to this place.

845 The people of Dios Hieron, or the "Temple of Jupiter." This was a small place in Ionia between Lebedus and Colophon. It has been suggested that it was on the banks of the Caÿster, but its site is uncertain.

846 AEolis, properly so called, extended as far north as the promontory of Lectum, at the northern entrance of the bay of Adramyttium.

847 Near Cyme, a place of Pelasgian origin. It was called Egyptian Larissa, because Cyrus the Great settled here a body of his Egyptian soldiers. According to D'Anville its site is still known as Larusar.

848 Said to have been so called from Cyme an Amazon. It was on the northern, side of the Hermus: Herodotus gives it the surname of Phriconis. Its site is supposed to be at the modern Sanderli or Sandarlio. The father of the poet Hesiod was a native of this place.

849 It was probably so called in honour of the Emperor Augustus.

850 Situate at a short distance from the coast. We learn from Tacitus that it suffered from the great earthquake in the time of Tiberius. Its site is called Guzel-Hissar, according to D'Anville.

851 Originally named Agroeira or Alloeira. There is a place still called Aala, on the river Hermus, but Hamilton found no remains of antiquity there.

852 Or the "New Walls." Strabo speaks of it as distant thirty stadia from Larissa.

853 Its site is unknown; but it must not be confounded with the place of that name mentioned in the last Chapter, which stood on the sea-coast. It suffered from the great earthquake in the reign of Tiberius Cæsar.

854 Or Grynium, forty stadia from Myrina, and seventy from Elæa. It contained a sanctuary of Apollo with an ancient oracle and a splendid temple of white marble. Parmenio, the general of Alexander, took the place by assault and sold the inhabitants as slaves. It is again mentioned by Pliny in B. xxxii. c. 21.

855 This passage seems to be in a corrupt state, and it is difficult to arrive at Pliny's exact meaning.

856 The port of the Pergameni. Strabo places it south of the river Caïcus, twelve stadia from that river, and 120 from Pergamum. Its site is uncertain, but Leake fixes it at a place called Kliseli, on the road from the south to Pergamum.

857 Its modern name is said to be Ak-Su or Bakir.

858 On the coast of the Elaitic gulf. It was almost destroyed by an earthquake in the reign of the Emperor Titus. Its site is by some thought to have been at Sanderli.

859 Supposed to have been situate near the modern Cape Coloni. It was here that in the war with Antiochus, B.C. 191–190, the Roman fleet was hauled up for the winter and protected by a ditch or rampart.

860 So called from Lysimachus, the son of Agathocles.

861 A strong place opposite to Lesbos. It was on the road from Adramyttium to the plain of the Caïcus. Its site is generally fixed at Dikeli Koi.

862 Or Carine. The army of Xerxes, on its route to the Hellespont, marched through this place. Its site is unknown.

863 It lay outside of the bay of Adramyttium and the promontory of Pyrrha.

864 Mentioned in the Iliad with Chryse and Tenedos.

865 A place called Kutchulan, or, as some write it, Cotschiolan-Kuni, is supposed to occupy its site.

866 Or Thebes, in the vicinity of Troy.

867 In the plain of Thebes between Antandros and Adramyttium. It had a temple of Artemis, of which the Antandrii had the superintendence, Its site does not appear to have been ascertained.

868 Not improbably the Chryse, mentioned by Homer in the Iliad, B. i. II. 37, 390, 431; but there were several places of this name.

869 See the note to Scepsis in the present Chapter.

870 Or Gergis, Gergithus, or Gergithes, a town in the Troad, north of Scamander. It was a place with an acropolis and strong walls. Attalus, king of Pergamus, transplanted the people of Gergis to another spot near the sources of the Caïcus, whence we afterwards find a place called Gergetha or Gergithion, in the vicinity of Larissa. The old town of Gergis was by some said to have been the birth-place of the Sibyl, and its coins have her image impressed on them.

871 Also called Neandria, upon the Hellespont.

872 South of Adramyttium; in its vicinity were copper-mines and celebrated vineyards. It was here that Thucydides is said to have died.

873 In the district of Coryphantes, opposite to Lesbos, and north of Atarneus. Pliny speaks of the oysters of Coryphas, B. xxxii. c. 6.

874 This Aphrodisias does not appear to have been identified.

875 Again mentioned by Pliny in B. xi. c. 80. Scepsis was an ancient city in the interior of the Troad, south-east of Alexandria, in the mountains of Ida. Its inhabitants were removed by Antigonus to Alexandria; but being permitted by Lysimachus to return to their homes, they built a new city, and the remains of the old town were then called Palæscepsis. This place is famous in literary history for being the spot where certain MSS. of Aristotle and Theophrastus were buried to prevent their transfer to Pergamus. When dug up they were found nearly destroyed by mould, and in this condition were removed by Sylla to Athens.

876 Sometimes called the Lycormas, now known as the Fidhari or Fidharo.

877 Frequently mentioned by Homer.

878 Still known as Ida or Kas-Dagh.

879 More generally known as Adramyttium or Adramyteum, now Adramiti or Edremit. According to tradition it was founded by Adramys, the brother of Crœsus, king of Lydia. It is mentioned as a sea-port in the Acts, xxvii. 2. There are no traces of ancient remains on its site.

880 One of the heights of Mount Ida in the Troad, now called Kaz-Dag. The territory in this vicinity, as we learn from Virgil and Seneca, was famous for its fertility. The modern village of Iné is supposed to occupy the site of the ancient town of Gargara.

881 Now Antandro, at the head of the Gulf of Adramyttium. Aristotle also says that its former name was Edonis, and that it was inhabited by a Thracian tribe of Edoni. Herodotus as well as Aristotle also speak of the seizure of the place by the Cimmerii in their incursion into Asia.

882 Now Cape Baba or Santa Maria, the south-west promontory of the Troad.

883 Or Sminthian Apollo. This appears to have been situate at the Chrysa last mentioned by Pliny as no longer in existence. Strabo places Chrysa on a hill, and he mentions the temple of Smintheus and speaks of a symbol which recorded the etymon of that name, the mouse which lay at the foot of the wooden figure, the work of Scopas. According to an ancient tradition, Apollo had his name of Smintheus given him as being the mouse-destroyer, for, according to Apion, the meaning of Smintheus was a "mouse."

884 According to tradition this place was in early times the residence of Cycnus, a Thracian prince, who possessed the adjoining country, and the island of Tenedos, opposite to which Colone was situate on the mainland. Pliny however here places it in the interior.

885 The site of this Apollonia is at Abullionte, on a lake of the same name, the Apolloniatis of Strabo. Its remains are very inconsiderable.

886 Or Lycus, now known as the Edrenos.

887 Of this people nothing whatever is known.

888 D'Anville thinks that the modern Bali-Kesri occupies the site of Miletopolis.

889 Stephanus Byzantinus mentions a place called Pœmaninum near Cyzicus.

890 The inhabitants of Polichna, a town of the Troad.

891 The people of Pionia, near Scepsis and Gargara.

892 They occupied the greater part of Mysia Proper. They had a native divinity to which they paid peculiar honours, by the Greeks cailed ζεύς ᾿αβπεττηνὸς.

893 The same as the Olympeni or Olympieni, in the district of Olympene at the foot of Mount Olympus; next to whom, on the south and west, were the Abretteni.

894 On the south-western coast of the Troad, fifty stadia south of Larissa. In the time of Strabo it had ceased to exist. No ruins of this place have been known to be discovered, but Prokesch is induced to think that the architectural remains to be seen near Cape Baba are those of Hamaxitus.

895 Or Cebrene or Cebren. It was separated from the territory of Scepsis by the river Menander. Leake supposes it to have occupied the higher region of Ida on the west, and that its site may have been at a place called Kushunlu Tepe, not far from Baramitsh.

896 Mentioned in Acts xvi. 8. It is now called Eski Stambul or Old Stambul. It was situate on the coast of Troas, opposite to the south-eastern point of the island of Tenedos, and north of Assus. It was founded by Antigonus, under the name of Antigonia Troas, and peopled with settlers from Scepsis and other neighbouring towns. The ruins of this city are very extensive.

897 Or Nea, mentioned in B. ii. c. 97.

898 Now called the Mendereh-Chai.

899 On the north-west promontory of Troas. Here Homer places the Grecian fleet and camp during the Trojan war. The promontory is now called Yenisheri.

900 Now called Jeni-Scher, according to Ansart. It was at this spot that the Greeks landed in their expedition against Troy.

901 Usually identified with the Mendereh-Chai or Scamander.

902 The modern Gumbrek.

903 Or "ancient Scamander."

904 Now known as the Koja-Chai; memorable as the scene of the three great victories by which Alexander the Great overthrew the Persian empire, B.C. 334. Here also a victory was gained by Lucullus over Mithridates, B.C. 78.

905 Or Sea of Marmora.

906 It is not exactly known whether New Ilium was built on the same site as the Ilium or Troy which had been destroyed by the Greeks; but it has been considered improbable that the exploits mentioned in the Iliad should have happened in so short a space as that lying between the later Ilium and the coast. The site of New Ilium is generally considered to be the spot covered with ruins, now called Kissarlik, between the villages called Kum-kioi, Kalli-fath, and Tchiblak.

907 The Dictator Sylla showed especial favour to Ilium.

908 Now called Cape Intepeh or Barbieri.

909 The modern Paleo Castro probably occupies its site.

910 More generally called Dardanus, or Dardanum, said to have been built by Dardanus. It was situate about a mile south of the promontory Dardanis or Dardanium. Its exact site does not appear to be known: from it the modern Dardanelles are supposed to have derived their name.

911 Situate between Percote and Abydus, and founded by Scamandrius and Ascanius the son of Æneas. The village of Moussa is supposed to occupy its site. The army of Alexander mustered here after crossing the Hellespont.

912 Alexander the Great visited this place on his Asiatic expedition in B.C. 334, and placed chaplets on the tomb of Achilles.

913 So called from Æas, the Greek name of Ajax.

914 Teuthrania was in the south-western corner of Mysia, between Temnus and the borders of Lydia, where in very early times Teuthras was said to have founded a Mysian kingdom, which was early subdued by the kings of Lydia: this part was also called Pergamene.

915 Called Pionitæ in the preceding Chapter.

916 A town in the Troad, the site of which is unknown.

917 A town on the Propontis, according to Stephanus. The sites of most of the places here mentioned are utterly unknown.

918 Also called Pergama or Pergamus. Its ruins are to be seen at the modern Pergamo or Bergamo. It was the capital of the kingdom of Pergamus, and situate in the Tcuthranian district of Mysia, on the northern bank of the river Caïcus. Under its kings, its library almost equalled that of Alexandria, and the formation of it gave rise to the invention of parchment, as a writing material, which was thence called Charta Pergamena. This city was an early seat of Christianity, and is one of the seven churches of Asia to whom the Apocalyptic Epistles are addressed. Its ruins are still to be seen.

919 At the beginning of the preceding Chapter.

920 The people of Thyatira, mentioned in B. v. c. 31.

921 The people of Mygdonia, a district between Mount Olympus and the coast, in the east of Mysia and the west of Bithynia.

922 The people of the Holy Village." Hierocome is mentioned by Livy as situate beyond the river Mæander.

923 The people of Attalia, mentioned in C. 32.

924 Previously mentioned in the present Chapter.

925 Or "the Table." Now known as Capo de Janisseri.

926 Also called the Milyæ, probably of the Syro-Arabian race; they were said to have been the earliest inhabitants of Lycia.

927 The Leleges are now considered to have been a branch of the great Indo-Germanic race, who gradually became incorporated with the Hellenic race, and thus ceased to exist as an independent people.

928 A nation belonging probably more to mythology than history. Strabo supposes them to have been of Thracian origin, and that their first place of settlement was Mysia.

929 By some supposed to have been a people of Phrygia.

930 Mentioned in C. 29 of the present Book.

931 From the Greek δαμάω "to subdue." Hardouin thinks that this appellation is intended to be given by Pliny to Asia in general, and not to the city of Apamea in particular, as imagined by Ortelius and others.

932 It is so described by Homer.

933 This was the light-house built upon it by Ptolemy II. Philadelphus, whence the name of pharus came to be applied to similar structures. It was here also that, according to the common story, the seventy Translators of the Greek version of the Old Testament, hence called the Septuagint, were confined while completing their work.

934 The narrow or fortified channel.

935 The Neptunian channel.

936 Mentioned also in C. 14 of the present Book.

937 In C. 17 of the present Book.

938 The boatmen of Ruad, the ancient Aradus, still draw fresh water from the spring Ain Ibrahim, in the sea, a few rods from the shore of the opposite coast.