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1 Or Hindoo Koosh. In this statement he is supported by Arrian, Strabo, Mela, and Quintus Curtius. It rises, however, a considerable distance on the north-east side of the Himalaya.
2 The modern Jhelum.
3 Some writers suppose that this must be the same as the Hydraotes, or modern Ravi, because the latter is not otherwise found mentioned in the list given by Pliny. The name, however, leaves but little doubt that Pliny had heard of the Acesines under its Indian name of Chandabragha, and out of it has made another river.
4 The modern Sutlej.
5 Probably in the vicinity of the modern Calingapatam; none of the other places seem to be identified.
6 Ansart suggests that the Cesi may be the same race as the modern Sikhs.
7 Perhaps the people of modern Ajmere.
8 These peoples are supposed by Hardouin to have occupied the southern parts of the peninsula now known as Bisnagar, Calicut, and the Deccan, with the Malabar and Coromandel coasts.
9 Hardouin suggests that this people dwelt on the present peninsula of Guzerat.
10 None of these appear to have been identified; indeed, it appears to be next to impossible, owing to the corrupt state in which they have come down to us.
11 Built on the Hydaspes by Alexander after his victory over Porus, B. C. 326, at the spot where he had crossed the river before the battle, and in memory of his celebrated charger Bucephalus, who had expired during the battle from fatigue and old age, or from wounds. The exact site of this place is not known, but the probabilities appear in favour of Jhelum, at which place is the usual passage of the river, or else of Jellapoor, about sixteen miles lower down. 78 Probably the same that is mentioned in c. 21 of the present Book.
12 Parisot supposes that these were the inhabitants of the district which now bears the name of Pekheli.
13 Gedrosia comprehended probably the same district as is now known by the name of Mekran, or, according to some, the whole of modern Beloochistan.
14 The people of the city and district of Arachotus, the capital of Ara- ehosia. M. Court has identified some ruins on the Argasan river, near Kandahar, on the road to Shikarpur, with those of Arachotus; but Professor Wilson considers them to be too much to the south-east. Colonel Rawlinson thinks they are those to be seen at a place called Ulan Robat. He states that the most ancient name of the city, Cophen, (mentioned by Pliny in c. 25 of the present Book), has given rise to the territorial desig- nation. See p. 57.
15 The people of Aria, consisting of the eastern part of Khorassan, and the western and north-western part of Afghanistan. This was one of the most important of the eastern provinces or satrapies of the Persian empire.
16 This was the collective name of several peoples dwelling on the southern slopes of the Hindoo Koosh, and of the country which they inhabited which was not known by any other name. It corresponded to the eastern part of modern Afghanistan and the portion of the Punjaub lying to the west of the Indus.
17 It is supposed that the Cophes is represented by the modern river of Kabul.
18 The place here alluded to was in the district of Goryræa, at the north-western corner of the Punjaub, near the confluence of the rivers Cophen and Choaspes being probably the same place as Nagara or Dionysopolis, the modern Nagar or Naggar.
20 Supposed by some to have been Lower Scinde, and the vicinity of Kurrachee, with its capital Potala.
21 Ansart suggests that these may be the Laccadives. Their name means the "gold" and "silver" islands.
22 Probably an island near the mouths of the Indus.
23 Probably the same as the Bibacta of Arrian. The present name of it is Chilney Isle.
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