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1 In B. v. c. 21 and 22.
2 Who called himself the King of kings, and was finally conquered by Pompey.
3 The Mediterranean.
4 See B. v. c. 12.
5 Salmasius thinks that this should be written "Nombei;" but Hardouin remarks that the Nombæi were not of Arabian but Jewish extraction, and far distant from Mount Libanus.
6 The only resemblance between them is, that each is a peninsula; that of Arabia being of far greater extent than Italy. It will be remarked that here, contrary to his ordinary practice, Pliny makes a distinction between the Red Sea and the Persian Sea or Gulf.
7 "In eandem etiam cœli partem nulla differentia spectat." A glance at the map will at once show the fallacy of this assertion.
8 In B. v. c. 12 and 21.
9 In c. 30 of the present Book.
10 Mentioned in B. v. c. 21, if, indeed, that is the same Petra.
11 Omana or Omanum was their chief place, a port on the north-east coast of Arabia Felix, a little above the promontory of Syagros, now Ras el Had, on a large gulf of the same name. The name is still preserved in the modern name Oman.
12 In Sitacene, mentioned in the preceding Chapter.
13 Or rather, as Hardouin says, the shore opposite to Charax, and on the western bank of the river.
14 Called Core Boobian, a narrow salt-water channel, laid down for the first time in the East India Company's chart, and separating a large low island, off the mouth of the old bed of the Euphrates, from the mainland.
15 The great headland on the coast of Arabia, at the entrance of the bay of Doat-al-Kusma from the south, opposite to Pheleche Island.
16 This is the line of coast extending from the great headland last mentioned to the river Khadema, the ancient Achenus.
17 So called from the city of Arabia Felix, built on its shores. Strabo says of this city "The city of Gerra lies in a deep gulf, where Chaldæan exiles from Babylon inhabit a salt country, having houses built of salt, the walls of which, when they are wasted by the heat of the sun, are repaired by copious applications of sea-water." D'Anville first identified this place with the modern El Khatiff. Niebuhr finds its site on the modern Koneit of the Arabs, called "Gran" by the Persians; but Foster is of opinion that he discovered its ruins in the East India Company's Chart, situate where all the ancient authorities had placed it, at the end of the deep and narrow bay at the mouth of which are situated the islands of Bahrein. The gulf mentioned by Pliny is identified by Foster with that of Bahrein.
18 The modern island of Bahrein, according to Brotier, still famous for its pearl-fishery.
19 Now Samaki, according to Ansart. Its ancient name was Aradus.
20 Hardouin takes this to be that which by the Arabians is called by the name of Falg.
21 On the Arabian side of the Persian Gulf.
22 Considered by modern geographers to be identical in situation with the Black Mountains and the Cape of Asabi, and still marked by a town and district named Sabee, close to Cape Mussendom.
23 In the modern district still called Oman.
24 On the opposite coast.
25 He calls it Canis, evidently thinking that "Cynos" was its Greek appellation only: as meaning the "Dogs'" river.
26 Or the mountain "with the Three Peaks."
27 Stephanus mentions this as an island of the Erythræan Sea. Hardly any of these places appear to have been identified; and there is great uncertainty as to the orthography of the names.
28 From which came the myrrh mentioned by Pliny in B. xii. c. 36.
29 Or the Tent-Dwellers, the modern Bedouins.
30 By some geographers identified with the Ocelis or Ocila, mentioned in c. 26, the present Zee Hill or Ghela, a short distance to the south of Mocha, and to the north of the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb. Hardouin says, however, that it was a different place, Acila being in the vicinity of the Persian Gulf, in which he appears to be correct.
31 Nothing relative to Numenius beyond this fact has been recorded.
32 Hardouin and Ansart think that under this name is meant the island called in modern times Mazira or Maceira.
33 There seem to have been three mythical personages of this name; but it appears impossible to distinguish the one from the other.
34 Or "Dioscoridis Insula," an island of the Indian Ocean, of considerable importance as an emporium or mart, in ancient times. It lay between the Syagrus Promontorium, in Arabia, and Aromata Promontorium, now Cape Guardafui, on the opposite coast of Africa, somewhat nearer to the former, according to Arrian, which cannot be the case if it is rightly identified with Socotorra, 200 miles distant from the Arabian coast, and 110 from the north-east promontory of Africa.
35 So called from Azania, or Barbaria, now Ajan, south of Somauli, on the mainland of Africa.
36 Now Cape Fartash, in Arabia.
37 Their country is supposed to have been the Sheba of Scripture, the queen of which visited king Solomon. It was situate in the south-western corner of Arabia Felix, the north and centre of the province of Yemen, though the geographers before Ptolemy seem to give it a still wider extent, quite to the south of Yemen. The Sabæi most probably spread originally on both sides of the southern part of the Red Sea, the shores of Arabia and Africa. Their capital was Saba, in which, according to their usage, their king was confined a close prisoner.
38 The Persian Gulf to the Rd Sea.
39 The modern district of Hadramaut derives its name from this people, who were situate on the coast of the Red Sea to the east of Aden. Sabota, their capital, was a great emporium for their drugs and spices.
40 Still known as Mareb, according to Ansart.
41 Hardouin is doubtful as to this name, and thinks that it ought to be Elaitæ, or else Læanitæ, the people again mentioned below.
43 Off the Promontory of Ras-el-Had.
44 Probably in the district now known as Akra. It was situate on the eastern coast of the Red Sea, at the foot of Mount Hippus.
45 See B. v. c. 12, where this town is mentioned.
46 Whose chief city was Petra, previously mentioned.
47 Supposed by some writers to have been the ancestors of the Saracens, so famous in the earlier part of the middle ages. Some of the MSS., indeed, read "Sarraceni."
48 Their town is called Arra by Ptolemy.
49 Their district is still called Thamud, according to Ansart.
50 Still called Cariatain, according to Ansart.
51 A ridiculous fancy, probably founded solely on the similarity of the name.
52 A story as probable, Hardouin observes, as that about the descendants of Minos.
53 The Arabs of Yemen, known in Oriental history by the name of Himyari, were called by the Greeks Homeritæ.
54 An inland city, called Masthala by Ptolemy.
55 Agatharchides speaks of a town on the sea coast, which was so called from the multitude of ducks found there. The one here spoken of was in the interior, and cannot be the same.
56 Hardouin observes, that neither this word, nor the name Riphearma, above mentioned, has either a Hebrew or an Arabian origin.
57 Probably the same place as we find spoken of by Herodotus as Ampe, and at which Darius settled a colony of Miletians after the capture of Miletus, B. C. 494.
58 Hardouin remarks that Mariaba, the name found in former editions, has no such meaning in the modern Arabic.
59 Mentioned by Ovid in the Metamorphoses, B. v. 1. 165, et seq. Sillig, however, reads "Ciani."
60 An intimate friend of the geographer Strabo. He was prefect of Egypt during part of the reign of Augustus, and in the years B. C. 24 and 25. Many particulars have been given by Strabo of his expedition against Arabia, in which he completely failed. The heat of the sun, the badness of the water, and the want of the necessaries of life, destroyed the greater part of his army.
61 By adoption, as previously stated.
62 The town of the Calingii, mentioned above.
63 Or wandering tribes.
64 Its uses in medicine are stated at length in the last Chapter of B. xxi.
65 Another form of the name of Atramitæ previously mentioned, the ancient inhabitants of the part of Arabia known as Hadramant, and settled, as is supposed, by the descendants of the Joctanite patriarch Hazarmaveth.
66 Arabia at the present day yields no gold, and very little silver. The queen of Sheba is mentioned as bringing gold to Solomon, 1 Kings, x. 2, 2 Chron. ix. i. Artemidorus and Diodorus Siculus make mention, on the Arabian Gulf, of the Debæ, the Alilæi, and the Gasandi, in whose territories native gold was found. These last people, who did not know its value, were in the habit of bringing it to their neighbours, the Sabæi, and exchanging it for articles of iron and copper.
67 B. xii.
68 The "mitra," which was a head-dress especially used by the Phrygians, was probably of varied shape, and may have been the early form of the eastern turban.
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