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1 We have an account of the hog in Varro, B. ii. c. 4, from whom most of Pliny's remarks are probably derived.—B.
2 Varro, B. ii. c. 4, and Columella, B. vii. c. 9. fix upon the seventh year.—B.
3 Varro, and Columella, ubi supra, recommend that the sow should not he allowed to rear more than eight young ones at each birth.—B.
4 Aristotle, Hist. Anim. B. v. c. 13.—B.
5 Varro, ubi supra, says on the tenth day; Hardouin endeavours to prove that the number in Varro was originally five.—B.
6 The term "bidens," employed by Pliny, although it literally means "having two teeth," has been referred to the age of the animal, as indicated rather by the respective size of the teeth than by their number. It has been supposed to designate an animal of two years old, when the canine teeth of the lower jaw had become prominent.—B
7 This is also referred to by Aristotle, Hist. Anim. B. vi. c. 18, but is without foundation.—B.
8 Aristotle, ubi supra, B. viii. c. 26. It is mentioned as a frequent occurrence by Plautus, Trinum. A. ii. s. 4, 1. 139.—B.
9 Columella, B. vii. c. 10, gives directions for the treatment of hogs affected with scrofula. The name of the disease has been supposed to be derived from the frequency of its occurrence in this animal, anciently called "scrofa."
10 It may appear unnecessary to refer to authorities on this subject, which is a matter of daily observation; it has, however, been stated by some naturalists, that the hog, in its wild state, does not exhibit any of the filthy propensities so generally observed in it when domesticated.—B.
11 This saying is found in Varro, B. ii. c. 4; it is referred to by Cicero, De Nat. Deor. B. ii. c. 64, and ascribed to Chrysippus; "ne putisceret, ani- mam ipsam pro sale datam."—B. "That they are only of use for their flesh, which is kept from putridity by their life, which acts as salt."
12 Pliny speaks of this more at large in B. xxviii. c. 60.—B.
13 This operation, and the effect of it, are mentioned by Aristotle, Hist. Anim. B. ix. c. 79, and by Columella, B. vii. c. 9.—B.
14 There were three Romans of this name, celebrated for their skill in gastronomy; of these the most illustrious lived in the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius. A treatise (probably spurious) is extant, to which his name is attached, entitled "De Arte Culinariâ"—"On the Art of Cookery." Pliny refers to him again, B. xix. c. 41, and he is mentioned by many others of the classical writers.—B.
15 See B. x. c. 1. A much more cruel mode of increasing the liver of this animal, by confining it in hot ovens, is practised at the present day, to satisfy the palate of the admirers of the Strasburg patés de foies gras.
16 Pliny, in B. ix. c. 66, employs the expression "tonsilæ in homine, in sue glandule," as if he considered them analogous parts.—B. See Plautus passim.
17 Publius Syrus was a comic performer and a writer, who acquired considerable celebrity; he lived during the reign of Augustus.—B.
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