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1 Aristotle, Hist. Anim. B. i. c. 6.
2 By this Pliny means, Cuvier says, only the symmetrical fins, or pairs of fins, the pectoral namely, which are in place of arms, and the ventral, which are instead of feet; of which, in fact, no fish has more than two pairs. Pliny does not include in this statement the dorsal, anal, and pectoral fins.
3 Eels and congers, for instance, which have but one pair.
4 Mursenæ and lampreys.
5 See B. iii. c. 17.
6 Cuvier thinks that there can be no question that he is speaking here of some mollusc or crustaceous animal.
7 Mureenæ, like eels, have gills, but the orifice, Cuvier says, is much smaller than in the eel, and the opercula, under the skin, are so small as to be hardly perceptible; indeed, so much so, that modern naturalists, Lacepède, for instance, have denied the fact of their existence.
8 Aristotle, De Part. Anim. B. iv. c. 13, and Hist. Anim. B. i. c, 6.
9 Or sting-ray. On the contrary, Cuvier says, the pastinaca, more than any other ray, has large pectoral fins, horizontally placed; but they adhere so closely to the body that they do not appear to be fins, unless closely examined.
10 By this name, Cuvier says, he calls the tentacles or feelers, which adhere to the head of the polypus, and which it uses equally for the purpose of swimming or crawling.
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