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1 Nova Carthago or New Carthage, now Carthagena.
2 Now Zaragoza or Saragossa, on the right bank of the river Ebro. Its original name was Salduba, but it was changed in honour of Augustus, who colonized it after the Cantabrian war, B.C. 25.
3 This was the most remote place of any consideration in Celtiberia, on the west. Its ruins are still to be seen on the summit of a hill surrounded with rocks, forming a natural wall between Corunna del Conde and Pennalda de Castro.
4 This was Asturica Augusta, the chief city of the nation of the Astures, and situate on one of the tributaries of the Astura, now Esta. On its site is situate the present Astorga: its ruins are very extensive.
5 Now Lugo.
6 Or Bracara Augusta, now Braga. Among the ruins of the ancient city there are the remains of an aqueduct and amphitheatre.
7 Probably the present town of Vera near Muxacra.
8 The "Promontory of Saturn," now Cabo de Palos.
9 D'Anville takes this place to be the port of Vacur; if so, the distance from Cape Palos is exactly 170 miles.
10 Now Segura.
11 The modern town of Elche was probably built from the ruins of this place.
12 Now called the Gulf of Alicant.
13 With the Arabian El prefixed, this has formed the name of the famous port of Alicant.
14 Now Denia, a thriving town.
15 Now called the Xucar.
16 Now called Albufera.
17 The present city of Valencia.
18 Or Turia, now the Guadalaviar.
19 Or Saguntus, famed for the fidelity of its inhabitants to the Roman cause: after a siege of nine months, rather than submit to the Carthaginians under Hannibal, they set fire to their town and perished in the flames, B.C. 219. It was rebuilt eight years afterwards and made a Roman colony. The ruins of the ancient town, which was said to have been originally founded by Greeks from Zacynthus, are still to be seen, and the ancient walls (muri veteres) give name to the present Murviedro, which is built on its site.
20 Now the Murviedro, which flows past the city of that name and the town of Segorbe.
21 Dertosa, the present Tortosa, is supposed to have been inhabited by them.
22 Now the Ebro.
23 Hardouin places this on the site of the modern Fuente de Ivero. The Ebro takes its rise in the Val de Vieso.
24 According to D'Anville, the present Logrono. At present the Ebro only becomes navigable at Tudela, 216 miles from the sea. Other writers, however, take Varia to be the present Valtierra, near Tudela.
25 Or the Subur, now the Francoli. It flows into the sea at the port of Tarraco, now Tarragona.
26 The more ancient commentators think that Carthago Vetus, or the colony of Old Carthage (now Carta la Vieja), is here alluded to, but more probably it is Carthago Nova that is meant.
27 On the Subi, previously mentioned; now called Villa Nova.
28 Now the Llobregat.
29 Their territory was situate around the present Gulf of Ampurias.
30 Their chief cities were Gerunda, the present Gerona, and Ausa or Vicus Ausæ, now Vic d'Osona.
31 In the country beyond Gerona.
32 Living in the upper valley of the river Sicoris or Segre, which still retains, from them, the name of Cerdague.
33 The people of the modem Navarre and Guipuzcoa.
34 In the later writers Barcelo, now Barcelona. It was said to have been originally founded by Hercules, and afterwards rebuilt by Hamilcar Barcas, who gave it the name of his family. Its name as a Roman colony was Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino. The modern city stands somewhat to the east of the ancient one.
35 The modern Badalona, two leagues from Barcelona.
36 On the sea-shore,—the present Pineda.
37 Now the Tordera.
38 The modern city of Blanos stands on its site.
39 Probably the present Ter or Tet.
40 The modem Ampurias. We learn from Strabo that a wall divided the town of the Greeks from that of the old inhabitants. It was the usual landing-place for travellers from Gaul. It was originally colonized by the Phocæans from Massilia or Marseilles.
41 Hardouin says that the Ticher or Tichis is the same with the modern Ter, but in such case Pliny would have mentioned it before coming to Emporiæ. Its present name however does not appear to be accurately known.
42 A promontory extending from the Pyrenæan chain, on which a temple of Venus was situate. It is now called Cabo de Cruz. The distance mentioned by Pliny is probably too great.
43 The people of the present Tortosa.
44 Probably not the same people as the Edetani, in whose district Saguntum and Valencia were situate.
45 The people of Gerunda or Gerona.
46 They are nowhere else mentioned. Ukert supposes that their city stood in the district between the Sicoris and Nucaria.
47 Their city was Tiara Julia.
48 The people of Aquæ Calidæ or the 'Hot Springs,' called at the present day Caldes, four leagues from the city of Barcelona.
49 Ptolemy places Bæcula between Ausa and Gerunda.
50 The people of the present Belchite.
51 The people of the present Xelsa, on the Ebro.
52 The inhabitants of Calagurris, now Calahorra, a city of the Vascones, on the banks of the Ebro. They remained faithful to Sertorius to the last, and after slaughtering their wives and children and eating their flesh, their city was taken and destroyed; which event put an end to the Sertorian war. It was called" Nassica," in contradistinction to Calagurris Fibularia, which is afterwards mentioned by Pliny. The latter is mentioned by Cæsar as forming one community with Osca (now Huesca), and was probably the present Loarre, though some writers take the first-named Calagurris to be that place, and the latter one to be the present Calahorra.
53 The people of Ilerda, the present Lerida, on the Sicoris or Segre. It is memorable for its siege by Cæsar, when the Pompeian forces under Afranius and Petreius had retired thither. It was a most flourishing city, though in the times of the later Roman emperors it had fallen into decay.
54 The people of the present Huesca.
55 The inhabitants of Turiazo, the present Tarazona, five leagues south of Tudela.
56 The people of Cascantum, the present town of Cascante in Navarre.
57 The people of Ergavica. Its ruins, at the confluence of the Guadiela and Tagus, are still to be seen, and are called Santaver. By some writers this place is considered to be the same as the modern Fraga, on the river Cinca, five leagues from Lerida.
58 The people of Graccuris. Its former name of Ilurcis was changed in honour of Sempronius Gracchus, who placed new settlers there after the conquest of Celtiberia. It is supposed to be the same as the modern Agreda, four leagues from Tarazona.
59 The people of Leonica, probably the modern Alcaniz, on the river Guadalope, in Arragon.
60 The people of Tarraga, the present Tarrega, nine leagues east of Lerida, in Catalonia.
61 The people of Arcobriga, now Los Arcos, in Navarre, five leagues south of Estella.
62 Perhaps the same as the Andosini, a people mentioned by Polybius, B. iii. c. 35, as situate between the Iberus and the Pyrenees. There is a small town of Navarre called Androilla.
63 The people probably of the site now occupied by Huarte Araquil, six leagues to the west of Pampeluna.
64 Probably the same as the Bursaones of Livy, the Bursavolenses of Hirtius, and the Bursadenses of Ptolemy. Their exact locality is unknown.
65 Mention has been made of Calagurris Fibularensis or Fibulicensis under Calagurris Nassica: see p. 168.
66 The people of Complutum, the modern Alcala de Henares, on the river Henares, six leagues to the east of Madrid. It is not quite certain whether it stood on the exact site of Alcala, or on the hill of Zulema, on the other side of the Henares.
67 The town of Cares, adjoining the more modern one of Puente la Reyna, probably marks their site.
68 Probably so called from the river Cinga, the modern Cinca: or they may have given their name thereto.
69 The people probably of the present Mediana on the Ebro, six leagues below Zaragoza.
70 Their town was Larnum, situate on a river of the same name. It was probably the present Torderas, situate on the river of that name.
71 Of this people nothing appears to be known. In the old editions the next people mentioned are the "Ispalenses," but since the time of Hardouin, they have been generally omitted, as wrongly introduced, and as utterly unknown. Spanish coins have however been more recently discovered with the name 'Sblaie' or 'Splaie,' inscribed in Celliberian characters, and numismatists are of opinion that they indicate the name of the town of this people, which in Latin would be Ispala. This at all events is the opinion of M. de Saulcy.
72 The people of the present town of Lumbier in Navarre, called by its inhabitants Irumberri.
73 The people of the present city of Pampeluna.
74 Carthago Nova, or New Carthage.
75 The colony of Acci was called Colonia Julia Gemella Accitana. The town of Acci or Accis was on the site of the present Guadix el Viejo, between Granada and Baza. It was colonized by the third and sixth legions under Julius or Augustus, from which it obtained the name of' Gemella,' the origin of which name is previously mentioned, p. 161.
76 The ruins of this place are supposed to be those seen at Lebazuza or Lezuza, not far from the city of Cuença.
77 The "jus Italicum" or "Italiæ," "Italian rights" or "privileges," differed from the "jus Latinum." It was granted to provincial towns which were especially favoured by the magistracy of Rome, and consisted of exemption from taxes, a municipal constitution, after the manner of the Italian towns, and many other rights and exemptions.
78 According to Hardouin, the people of the town formerly called Saliotis, now Cazorla. They are called "Cæsari venales," from the circumstance of their territory having been purchased by Cæsar.—Castulo or Cazlona has been previously mentioned.
79 The people of Sætabis, now Xativa in Valencia. This town was famous for its manufacture of fine table-napkins, to which reference is made by Pliny at the beginning of his Introduction addressed to Titus, in his quotation from the lament of Catullus on the loss of his table-napkins which his friends had filched from him. See p. 1 of the present volume.
80 According to some writers, the present Cuença was the ancient Valeria; but perhaps it was situate at the present village of Valera la Vieja, or Old Valeria, eight leagues south of Cuença.
81 The people of Alaba, not far from the present town of Ergavica.
82 They were so called from their town of Basti, now Baza, on the river Guadalentin in Granada.
83 Their town was probably the present Consuegra, twelve leagues from the city of Toledo.
84 So called from the promontory Dianium or Artemisium, named from a temple of Diana there situate, and having in its vicinity a town of the same name. The present town of Denia still retains nearly the original name. Its lake, now called Albufera de Valencia, has been previously mentioned, p. 166.
85 The modern Yniesta marks the site of their town.
86 The people probably of Eliocroca, now Lorca, on the high road from Carthago Nova to Castulo.
87 There were two places of the name of Mentesa, one in the district of the Oritani, and the other in that of the Bastitani or Bastuli.
88 Ptolemy, B. ii., mentions a city of this nation, called 'Oretum Grermanorum.' It has been supposed that it was the present Calatrava, five leagues from Ciudad Real.
89 Supposed to be in the vicinity of the present Calatajud.
90 The present Toledo.
91 Their town is supposed to have stood on the site of the present Murcia.
92 Now Coruña del Conde.
93 The people of the present Alava on the Ebro.—A small town there still bears the name of Alvana.
94 This nation is not mentioned elsewhere. Possibly they are the Murbogi, mentioned by Ptolemy.
95 Their town Segisamon was either the present Veyzama in Guipuzcoa, or, more probably, Sasamon, eight leagues north-west of Burgos.
96 The people of Carissa, on the site of the present Carixa near Seville.
97 Strabo assigns the Numantini to the Arevacæ, and not the Pelendones. The ruins of the city of Numantia were still to be seen at Puente Garray near the city of Soria, in Hardouin's time, the 17th century.
98 D'Anville places their city, Intercatia, at the place called Villa nueva de Azuague, forty miles from the present Astorga; others again make it to have been sixty miles from that place.
99 Their town was on the site of the modern city of Palencia, on the river Carion.
100 The people of Cauca, the present Coca, situate between Segovia and Valladolid, on the river Eresma.
101 This was the chief city of the Cantabri. It has been already mentioned, but we may add that it stood near the sources of the Ebro, on the eminence of Retortillo, south of Reynosa. Five stones still mark the boundaries which divided the territory from that of the Fourth Legio.
102 Supposed to be the present Briviesca; the site of Tritium does not appear to be known, but it has been suggested that it was near Najara, in the vicinity of Logrono.
103 It does not appear to be certain whether the Areva was the present Ucero, or the Arlanzon, which flows near Valladolid.
104 The modern Siguenza.
105 Now El Burgo d'Osma, in the province of Soria.
106 This must not be mistaken for the modern Segovia, between Madrid and Valladolid: it was a small town in the vicinity of Numantia.
107 Probably the present Lerma, on the river Arlanza.
108 The people of Asturica Augusta, now Astorga, in the province of Leon. The ruins of this fine city are said still to give a perfect idea of a fortified Roman town.
109 Their chief city stood on the site of the present Cigarrosa, or San Estevan de Val de Orres. Its ruins are still to be seen, and a Roman bridge, the people preserving a tradition that an old town once stood there called Guigurra.
110 The people of Lance or Lancia, probably the present Lollanco or Mansilla; though Oviedo has been suggested. This however may be the Ovetum mentioned by Pliny in B. xxxiv. c. 17.
111 Mentioned by Pliny in B. xix. c. 2, as famous for their flax. Their locality near the coast does not appear to be exactly known. The Pæsici previously mentioned were situate on the peninsula of Cabo de Penas.
112 Now the city of Lugo in Gallicia.
113 The people of Bracara Augusta, now Braga. Among the ruins of the ancient city are the remains of an aqueduct and an amphitheatre. This people probably derived their name from their fashion of wearing braccæ, "breeches" or "trowsers," like their neighbours of Gallia Braccata. The exact localities of the various other tribes here mentioned do not appear to be exactly known.
114 Our author is mistaken here, even making allowance for the shortness of the Roman mile (1618 yards), as the length is only 470 miles. Coastwise it is 620.
115 Now Oyarzun. It is also mentioned in B. iv. c. 34.
116 He is also in error here; for, taken in a straight line, this distance is but 210 miles.
117 The distance is about 560 miles.
118 It may be worth while here to take some notice of the mineral productions of Spain in modern times, from which we shall be able to form a more accurate judgement as to the correctness of the statement here made by Pliny. Grains of gold are still to be found in the rivers Tagus and Douro; but there is not found sufficient of the precious metal to pay for the search. Silver is found in the mines of the Guadal canal. Copper and lead are to be found in abundance. There is a mine of plumbago four leagues from Ronda; and tin is found in Gallicia. In every province there are iron mines, those in Biscay being the most remarkable. Lodestone is found in Seville, cobalt on the Pyrenees, quicksilver and cinnabar at Almaden, arsenic in Asturias, and coal in Asturias and Arragon. There are salt-mines at Mingrilla and Cardona; alum is found in Arragon, antimony at Alcaraz. On the Sierra Morena, and in Gallicia, there is saltpetre in numerous localities; amber in Asturias and Valencia, and sulphur in Murcia, Arragon, and Seville. Pipe-clay of a peculiar quality is found in the vicinity of Andujar. Gypsum and marble are found in great abundance, and stone for building purposes, of the best quality. Amethysts, white cornelians, rubies, agates, garnets, and rock crystals, with other precious stones, are also found in abundance and of the finest quality.
119 Transparent stone. Further mention is made of it by Pliny in B. xxxv. c. 45.
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