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18 Premising the above, I will speak first of emollients, almost all of which were invented, not for the purpose of cooling but for heating. There is, however, one kind which can cool, being suitable for hot podagras. It is a cupful of oak-galls, unripe or otherwise, coriander seed, hemlock, dried poppy-tears, and gum, of each 63 cc.; of washed cerate called by the Greeks πεπλυμένον, 168 grams.

Almost all the rest are heating. But some disperse the diseased matter, some extract it and are called epispastic; most are designed rather for particular parts of the body.

If diseased matter has to be extracted, as in the case of a dropsy, pleurisy, incipient abscession, also in cases of moderate suppuration, the following emollient is suitable which contains: dried resin, soda, ammoniacum, galbanum, 336 grams, each, wax 336 grams. Or that one which contains: scrapings of verdigris and frankincense, each 8 grams, ammoniac salt 24 grams, copper scales, wax, each 32 grams, dried resin 48 grams, 42 cc of vinegar. Cumin meal with soap-wort and honey serves the same purpose.

If there is pain in the liver apply the emollient which consists of balsam tears 48 grams, costmary, cinnamon, casia bark, myrrh, saffron, round rush, balsam seeds, Illyrian iris, cardamon, amomum, nard,[p. 19] each 64 grams. To these is added nard ointment until the consistency is that of a cerate. And this is for use whilst fresh; but if it is to be kept, turpentine resin 64 grams, and wax 40 grams, are pounded up together in mild wine, and then mixed with the above.

But if there is acute pain of the spleen the rind of the nut, called by the Greeks βάλανος μυρεψικήν, and soda are pounded together in equal proportions and sprinkled with sharpest vinegar; when of the consistency of a cerate this is spread on lint previously moistened in cold water, and so applied, with barley-meal dusted over it; but it should not be kept on longer than six hours, lest it consume the spleen; it is better to apply it two or three times.

Lysias compounded an emollient equally useful the liver and spleen and for abscesses and scrofulous tumours, for parotid swellings and joints, for heels suppurating or otherwise painful, even for promoting digestion, from the following: opopanax, storax, galbanum, resin, each 8 grams, ammoniacum, bdellium, wax, beef suet, dried iris, each 16 grams, cachry, 63 cc, and 40 peppercorns, all pounded with iris ointment to the right consistency.

Again, for pains in the sides there is the composition of Apollophanes: turpentine-resin and frankincense root, each 16 grams, bdellium, ammoniacum, iris, calf's or goat's kidney-suet, mistletoe juice, each 16 grams. This composition relieves pain of all kinds, softens indurations, and is moderately heating.

The emollient of Andreas is for like use; and it also relaxes, draws out humour, matures pus, and[p. 21] when it is matured ruptures the skin, and brings a scar over. It is applied with advantage to abscesses, both small and large, likewise to joints and so both to the hips and feet when painful; further, it repairs any part of the body that is contused; also softens the praecordia when hard and swollen; draws outwards splinters of bone — in short, is of service in all cases which heat can benefit. It is composed of wax 4 grams, mistletoe juice, and tears of sycaminus, also called sycomorus, 4 grams each, round and long pepper, ammoniacum for fumigation, bdellium, Illyrian iris, cardamon, amomum balsam wood, male frankincense, myrrh, dried resin, 0 grams each, pyrethrum, Cnidian berries, scum of soda, ammoniac salt, Cretan aristolochia, wild cucumber root, liquid turpentine and resin, 80 grams each, to which is added a sufficiency of iris ointment to give it proper consistency.

A special emollient for relaxing parts constricted, for softening parts indurated, and for dispersing any collection is ascribed to Polyarchus. It contains square rush, cardamon, frankincense soot, amomum, wax and liquid resin in equal quantities.

Another emollient for the same purpose is that of Nileus: crocomagma, which is as it were saffron-lees, 16 grams, ammoniacum for fumigating, and wax, 80 grams each. Of these the first two are rubbed up in vinegar, the wax is liquefied by melting in rose-oil, and then all are mixed together.

Especially useful for softening induration is an emollient said to have been invented by Moschus. It contains galbanum 28 grams, frankincense soot 56 grams, wax and ammoniacum for fumigation, 112 grams each, dried pitch 672 grams, vinegar 750 cc.

[p. 23] We have also one ascribed to medius for dispersing collections of matter. It contains wax 56 grams, panax 168 grams, copper scales, round alum, split alum, 336 grams each, calcined lead 504 grams.

Pantaenus used for the same purpose, quicklime 168 grams, pounded mustard, also fenugreek and alum, 336 grams each, ox-suet 840 grams.

For scrofulous tumour I find many emollients. Now I think that the worse this disease, and the less easy its dispersal, the most have been the remedies tried, with results varying according to the several patients. Andrias invented the following: nettle-seed 4 grams, round pepper, bdellium, galbanum, ammoniacum for fumigation, dried resin, 16 grams each, with equal parts of liquid resin, wax, pyrethrum, long pepper, seed of sea spurge, unheated sulphur, which is called apyron. Nicon's emollient contains dried vinegar lees, soda-scum, ammoniac salt, mustard, cardamon, wild cucumber root, resin, 32 grams each. These are pounded up together in mild wine.

A more active emollient for the same purpose contains mistletoe juice, ape's dung, resin, untreated sulphur, equal parts; another emollient contains sulphur 4 grams, the stone called pyrites 16 grams, and 63 cc of cumin. In another are pyrites one part, sulphur two parts, turpentine resin three parts.

An emollient, the invention of a certain Arab, serves to disperse scrofulous swelling, and the sprouting small tumours which are called phymata. It contains myrrh, ammoniac salt, incense, resin both liquid and dried, crocomagma, was, 4 grams each, [p. 25] the stone called pyrites 16 grams, to which some add sulphur 672 grams.

There is also an emollient efficacious for scrofulous swellings, and for those boils which are slow to come to a head, also for those which are called carcinoid. It contains sulphur 8 grams, soda 16 grams, myrrh 24 grams, frankincense soot 3.3 grams, ammoniac salt 56 grams, wax 336 grams.

Protarchus, for parotid swellings, and for those small tumours which are named melicerides favi or phymata, and bad ulcerations, mixed together: pumice, liquid pine-resin, frankincense soot, soda-scum, iris, each 32 grams, along with wax 36 grams, to which are added 63 cc. of oil.

But against panus at any stage and when incipient, the condition called by the Greeks phygetron, and against any small tumour called phyma, the ochre named Attic is mixed with equal parts of wheat flour, and whilst these are being stirred together, honey is dropped in until the consistency is that of an emollient.

Also all the small tumours called phymata are dispersed by an emollient containing quicklime, soda-scum, round pepper, each 4 grams, galbanum 8 grams, salt 16 grams, which are taken up in a cerate made of rose oil.

Any abscession is suppressed by galbanum and crushed beans, each 4 grams, myrrh, frankincense, caper root bark, each 16 grams. And calcined murex well pounded, with vinegar gradually added, is sufficient to disperse an abscession when forming.

[p. 27] But if sufficient blood comes up, it is right to apply a remedy which is also useful against phymata. It consists of the following ingredients: bdellium, storax, ammoniacum, galbanum, pine-resin liquid and dried, also lentiscus-resin, frankincense, iris, 8 grams each.

But the phymata called carcinoid are relieved by the following: galbanum, mistletoe juice, ammoniacum, turpentine-resin, 4 grams each, beef suet 168 grams, of burnt wine-lees as large an amount as can be added without making the mass too dry for an emollient.

But after a blow on the face there is discolouration and bruising, the following prescription applied night and takes it away: aristolochia and thapsia, each 8 grams, bdellium, storax, ammoniacum for fumigation, galbanum, dried resin, liquid from lentiscus-resin, male frankincense, Illyrian iris wax, each 16 grams. The application of bean-meal also has the same effect.

There are certain emollients called by the Greeks anastomotica, because they have the property of opening the pores. Of these one contains long pepper and soda-scum, each 8 grams, hedge mustard 16 grams, these are mixed together with honey. They are also suitable for scrofulous tumours. Of this class is . . . a yet more powerful one of this kind is that which consists of lime 16 grams, 6 peppercorns; soda and wax, each 48 grams, honey 56 grams, and 250 cc. of oil.

[p. 29] There is also a prescription of Nicon which relaxes, opens and cleans. It contains coral, sulphur, soda, and pumice, equal parts, to which pitch and wax are added to the consistency of a cerate.

Again, for the hard parts there is the emollient of Aristogenes made from the following: sulphur 4 grams, turpentine-resin, soda-scum, the inner part of a quill-bulb, washed lead, 8 grams each, frankincense soot 32 grams, the ripest figs and beef-suet, 32 grams each, wax 48 grams, Macedonian iris 24 grams, parched sesame 63 cc.

And most of all is an emollient suitable for sinews and joints. Thus still that of Euthycleus, suitable for joints and for any kind of pain, including that of the bladder, and for joints contracted by recent scarring which the Greeks call ancylae: it consists of frankincense soot 63 cc., of resin the same, galbanum without stalks 42 grams, ammoniacum and bdellium, of each 12 grams. . . . of each 56 grams, wax 168 grams. Another for similar pain in the fingers contains ammoniacum, galbanum, and soda, each 56 grams, liquid resin 24 grams, wax 64 grams.

The emollient of Sosagoras for pain in joints contains calcined lead, poppy tears, hyoscyamus bark, storax, sulphurwort, suet, resin and wax, equal parts.

That of Chrysippus contains liquid resin, sandarach, 48 grams each, to which a little wax is added.

That of Clesiphon consists of Cretan wax, turpentine resin, the reddest soda, 168 grams each, and [p. 31] 126 cc. of oil. But this soda is pounded up beforehand over a period of three days, water being added drop by drop, and then boiled in half a litre of water until all fluid has gone. This composition too can be applied to parotid swellings, phymata, scrofulous tumours, and to soften any collection of humour.

Some apply to joints with good effect part of a dried fig mixed with catmint; or black bryony berries without the seeds, with pennyroyal.

The same are good for podagra. But for this there is also Ariston's emollient which consists of nard, cinnamon, casia, chameleon, angular rush, 32 grams each, goat's suet in liquid iris oil 80 grams, iris which should have been steeped in the sharpest vinegar for 20 days, 4 grams: this emollient also disperses recent phymata and pain of all sorts.

But Theoxenus for pain in the feet mixed one part of kidney-suet with two parts of salt and applied a thin membrane smeared with these, then poured over it ammoniacum for fumigation dissolved in vinegar.

But Numenius used to soften podagra and all cases of indurated joints with an emollient consisting of southernwood, dried rose-leaves and poppy-tears, 12 grams each, turpentine-resin 16 grams, frankincense and soda-scum, 32 grams each, iris and aristolochia, 48 grams each, wax 1 kilogram, to which is added of cedar-oil 42 cc., of laurel-oil 126 cc., of bitter olive-oil 500 cc.

If at any time callus has formed in joints, Dexius advised an application of lime 16 grams, white lead 32 grams, pine-resin 80 grams, 30 peppercorns, wax 56 grams. While these are being pounded together 250 cc. of mild wine is dropped in.

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