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37. While the consuls were thus employed in opposite regions, the censors Marcus Livius and Gaius Claudius at Rome meanwhile publicly read the list of senators. Quintus Fabius Maximus was chosen princes for the second time.1 Seven men received their “mark,”2 but no one who had occupied a curule chair. [2] Repairs to public buildings and their roofs they enforced strictly and with the greatest fidelity. They let the contract for the making of a street leading out of the Cattle Market, on both sides of the spectators' stands, as far as the Temple of Venus,3 also for the erection of a Temple of the Great Mother4 on the Palatine. [3] They also established a new revenue from the yearly production of salt. Both at Rome and throughout Italy salt was then sold at one-sixth of an as.The censors let [p. 353]contracts for the sale of salt at the same price at5 Rome, at a higher price even in market-towns and local centres,6 and at prices which varied from place to place. [4] This source of revenue was generally believed to have been devised by only one of the censors, who was angry with the people because he had formerly been condemned by an unjust verdict; [5] and that in the price of salt those tribes by whose efforts he had been condemned were most heavily burdened.7 Hence the cognomen Salinator was bestowed upon Livius.

[6] The ceremony of purification was completed later than usual because the censors had sent men to the various provinces to report the number of Roman citizens in each of the armies. [7] Including these, 214,000 men8 were listed. Gaius Claudius Nero concluded the rite of purification. Then they received the census lists of the twelve colonies9 presented by their own censors, as had never been done before. [8] The purpose was that documents, to show what was their strength in the number of soldiers and what in money, might be found in the public records. Then they began to take the census of the knights; and it happened that both of the censors had horses from the state. [9] When they had reached the Pollia tribe, in which stood the name of [p. 355]Marcus Livius, and while the herald was hesitating10 to summon the censor himself, Nero said, “Summon Marcus Livius!” And whether as still nursing their ancient quarrel, or priding himself on an ill-timed display of strictness because he had been condemned by a verdict of the people, he ordered Marcus Livius to sell his horse.11 [10] Likewise Marcus Livius, when they had reached the Arniensis tribe and the name of his colleague, ordered Gaius Claudius to sell his horse for two reasons: one because he had given false testimony12 against Livius, the other that he had not honestly been reconciled with him. [11] Equally shameful at the close of their censorship was their contest in besmirching each the other's reputation to the detriment of his own. [12] When Gaius Claudius had taken the oath that he had complied with the laws, upon going up into the Treasury and giving the names of those whom he was leaving as mere tax-payers,13 he gave the name of his colleague. [13] Then Marcus Livius came into the Treasury, and except for the Maecia tribe, which had neither condemned him nor after his condemnation voted for him either for consul or for censor, he left the entire Roman people, thirty-four tribes, as mere tax-payers, alleging that they had [14??] both condemned him, an innocent man, and after his condemnation had made him consul and censor, and could not deny that they had erred either once in their verdict or twice in the elections. [15] He said that among the thirty-four tribes Gaius Claudius also would be a mere tax-payer; and that if he had a precedent [p. 357]for twice leaving the same man a mere tax-payer,14 he would have left Gaius Claudius among them with express mention of his name. [16] A perverted contest between the censors in regard to their “marks”; but to the fickleness of the people it was a rebuke worthy of a censor and in keeping with the earnestness of those times. [17] Since the censors were unpopular, Gnaeus Baebius, a tribune of the plebs,15 thinking it an opportunity to advance himself at their expense, named a day for both to appear before the people. That procedure was quashed by unanimity among the senators, lest the censorship should be subject thereafter to the caprice of the populace.

1 Cf. XXVII. xi. 12.

2 The nota of the censors was a mark or stigma affixed (in the revised list of citizens) to the names of such men as had been degraded by the censors, who added the reason in each case. Cf. XXIV. xviii. 2 ff., esp. 9.

3 I.e. Venus Obsequens. Built 295 B.C., near the east end of the Circus Maximus, and on the side toward the Aventine; X. xxxi. 9. The stands for spectators were of wood, as the upper tiers of the Circus always continued to be.

4 For thirteen years longer she was to remain in the Temple of Victory; cf. xiv. 14; XXXVI. xxxvi. 3 f.

5 B.C. 204

6 On these petty localities v. - Vol. VI. p. 356, n. 1. In the Lex Iulia municipalis (45 B.C.) they are repeatedly mentioned as the lowest grades of communities, inferior to municipia, coloniae and praefecturae, which are implied here in alibi, as we cannot believe that any towns however small escaped the higher price. In Rome alone was the previous “ceiling” continued.

7 How to reconcile this statement with the status of Livius' own Maecia (§ 13) as one of the rustic tribes and hence bound to pay the higher price is a futile question, since the whole story bears the stamp of fiction. The state owned all salt works, but they were operated by contractors, who with prices raised could now pay more for their concessions. This amounted to putting a tax on salt except in Rome. Cf. Dio Cassius frag. 57. 70.

8 Compared with 137,108 four years before; Vol. VII. p. 355, n. 3.

9 Cf. xv. 5 ff., esp. 10.

10 B.C. 204

11 The horse had been bought out of an allowance (aes equestre) from the state, but was not public property; Mommsen, Staatsrecht III. 256, n. 3.

12 In the trial before the popular assembly, cf. Vol. VII. p. 347 and note 1.

13 Cf. Vol. VI. p. 231. Any action taken by a censor without approval of his colleague was void; Mommsen op. cit. II.3 358; cf. e.g. XLV. xv. 8.

14 B.C. 204

15 Baebius Tamphilus reached the consulship in 182 B.C.; XXXIX. lvi. 4.

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  • Commentary references to this page (39):
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 31-32, commentary, 31.10
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 31-32, commentary, 31.2
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 31-32, commentary, 31.49
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 31-32, commentary, 31.50
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 31-32, commentary, 32.7
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 33-34, commentary, 34.1
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 33-34, commentary, 34.10
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 33-34, commentary, 34.44
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 33-34, commentary, 34.44
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 33-34, commentary, 34.56
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 33-34, commentary, 34.56
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 35-38, commentary, 35.19
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 35-38, commentary, 36.36
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 35-38, commentary, 36.36
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 35-38, commentary, 38.28
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 35-38, commentary, 38.28
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 35-38, commentary, 38.36
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 39-40, commentary, 39.3
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 39-40, commentary, 39.3
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 39-40, commentary, 39.41
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 39-40, commentary, 39.42
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 39-40, commentary, 39.44
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 39-40, commentary, 39.44
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 39-40, commentary, 40.46
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 39-40, commentary, 40.51
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 39-40, commentary, 40.51
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 41-42, commentary, 41.27
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 41-42, commentary, 41.5
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 41-42, commentary, 42.1
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 41-42, commentary, 42.3
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 43-44, commentary, 43.15
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 43-44, commentary, 43.16
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 43-44, commentary, 43.16
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, books 43-44, commentary, 44.16
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, book 45, commentary, 45.1
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, book 45, commentary, 45.15
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, book 45, commentary, 45.15
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, book 45, commentary, 45.29
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita libri, erklärt von M. Weissenborn, book 45, commentary, 45.37
  • Cross-references to this page (38):
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, Lustrum
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, M. Livius
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, Maecia
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, Matris Magnae
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, Narnienses
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, Palatium
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, Pollia
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, Salaria
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, Salinator
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, Salis
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, Senatus
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, Tribus
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, Aedes Aesculapii Carthagine
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, Aerarii
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, Vectigal
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, Cn. Baebius Tamphilus
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, C. Claudius Nero
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, Censores
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, Censura
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, Census
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, Comitia
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, Equites:
    • Titus Livius (Livy), Ab urbe condita, Index, Forum
    • Harper's, Decem Primi
    • Harper's, Salinātor, Livius
    • A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890), CENSOR
    • A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890), COMIT´IA
    • A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890), DECEM PRIMI
    • A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890), E´QUITES
    • A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890), EXE´RCITUS
    • A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890), INFA´MIA
    • A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890), SALINAE
    • A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890), TABULA´RIUM
    • A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890), TRIBUS
    • Smith's Bio, Ma'ximus, Fa'bius
    • Smith's Bio, Nero
    • Smith's Bio, Salina'tor, Li'vius
    • Smith's Bio, Ta'mphilus
  • Cross-references in notes to this page (1):
  • Cross-references in general dictionaries to this page (23):
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