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The Second Booke.

BVT as ye are clothed with two callings, so must ye be alike careful for the dis- charge of them both: that as yee are a good Christian, so yee may be a good King, discharging your Office (as I shewed before) in the points of Iustice and Equitie: which in two sundrie waies ye must doe: the one, in establishing and executing, (which is the life of the Law) good Lawes among your people: 1 the other, by your behauiour in your owne person, and with your seruants, to teach your people by your example: 2 for people are naturally inclined to counterfaite (like apes) their Princes maners, according to the notable saying of Plato,3 ex- pressed by the Poet - Componitur orbis
Regis ad exemplum, nec sic infiectere sensus
Humanos edicta valent, quam vita regentis.4

For the part of making, and executing of Lawes, consider first the trew dif- ference betwixt a lawfull good King, and an vsurping Tyran, and yee shall the more easily vnderstand your duetie herein: for contraria iuxta se posita magis elucescunt. The one acknowledgeth himselfe ordained for his people, hauing receiued from God a burthen of gouernment, whereof he must be countable:5 the other thinketh his people ordeined for him, a prey to his passions and inordi- nate appetites, as the fruites of his magnanimitie: 6 And therefore, as their ends are directly contrarie, so are their whole actions, as meanes, whereby they preasse to attaine to their endes. A good King, thinking his highest honour to consist in the due discharge of his calling, emploieth all his studie and paines, to procure and maintaine, by the making and execution of good Lawes, the well-fare and peace of his people; 7 and as their naturall father and kindly Master, thinketh his greatest contentment standeth in their prosperitie, and his greatest suretie in hauing their hearts, subiecting his owne priuate affections and appetites to the weale and standing of his Subiects, euer thinking common interesse his chiefest particular:8 where by the contrarie, an vsurping Tyran, thinking his greatest honour and felicitie to consist in attaining per fas, vel nefas to his ambi- tious pretences, thinketh neuer himselfe sure, but by the dissention and factions among his people, and counterfaiting the Saint while he once creepe in credite, will then (by inuerting all good Lawes to serve onely for his vnrulie priuate affec- tions) frame the common-weale euer to aduance his particular: building his suretie vpon his peoples miserie:9 and in the end (as a step-father and an vncouth hireling) make vp his owne hand vpon the ruines of the Republicke.10 And ac- cording to their actions, so receiue they their reward: For a good King (after a happie and famous reigne) dieth in peace, lamented by his subiects, and admired by his neighbours; and leauing a reuerent renowne behinde him in earth, ob- taineth the Crowne of eternall felicitie in heauen.11 And although some of them (which falleth out very rarelie) may be cut off by the treason of some vnnaturall subiects, yet liueth their fame after them, and some notable plague faileth neuer to ouertake the committers in this life, besides their infamie to all posterities here- after: Where by the contrarie, a Tyrannes miserable and infamous life, armeth in end his owne Subiects to become his burreaux: 12 and although that rebellion be euer vnlawfull on their part, yet is the world so wearied of him, that his fall is little meaned by the rest of his Subjects, and but smiled at by his neighbours.13 And besides the infamous memorie he leaueth behind him here, and the endlesse paine hee sustaineth hereafter, it oft falleth out, that the committers not onely escape vnpunished, but farther, the fact will remaine as allowed by the Law in diuers aages thereafter. It is easie then for you (my Sonne) to make a choise of one of these two sorts of rulers, by following the way of vertue to establish your standing; yea, in case ye fell in the high way, yet should it be with the honourable report, and iust regrate of all honest men.

And therefore to returne to my purpose anent the gouernement of your Sub- iects, by making and putting good Lawes to execution; I remit the making of them to your owne discretion, as ye shall finde the necessitie of new-rising corrup- tions to require them: for, ex malis moribus bonae leges natae sunt: besides, that in this country, wee haue alreadie moe good Lawes then are well execute, and am onely to insist in your forme of gouernment anent their execution. Onely re- member, that as Parliaments haue bene ordained for making of Lawes, so ye abuse not their institution, in holding them for any mens particulars: For as a Parliament is the honourablest and highest iudgement in the land (as being the Kings head Court) if it be well vsed, which is by making of good Lawes in it; so is it the in-iustest Iudgement-seat that may be, being abused to mens particulars: irreuocable decreits against particular parties, being giuen therein vnder colour of generall Lawes, and oft-times th'Estates not knowing themselues whom thereby they hurt.14 And therefore hold no Parliaments, but for necessitie of new Lawes, which would be but seldome: for few Lawes and well put in execution, are best in a well ruled common-weale. As for the matter of fore-faltures, which also are done in Parliament, it is not good tigging with these things; but my aduice is, ye fore-fault none but for such odious crimes as may make them vn- worthie euer to be restored againe:15 And for smaller offences, ye haue other penalties sharpe enough to be vsed against them.

And as for the execution of good Lawes, whereat I left, remember that among the differences that I put betwixt the formes of the gouernment of a good King, and an vsurping Tyran; I shew how a Tyran would enter like a Saint while he found himselfe fast vnder-foot, and then would suffer his vnrulie affections to burst foorth. Therefore be yee contrare at your first entrie to your Kingdome, to that Quinquennium Neronis, with his tender hearted wish, Vellem nescirem literas,16 in giuing the Law full execution against all breakers thereof but excep- tion.17 For since ye come not to your reigne precario, nor by conquest, but by right and due discent; feare no vproares for doing of iustice, since ye may assure your selfe, the most part of your people will euer naturally fauour Iustice: 18 pro- uiding alwaies, that ye doe it onely for loue to Iustice, and not for satisfying any particular passions of yours, vnder colour thereof: 19 otherwise, how iustly that euer the offender deserue it, ye are guiltie of murther before God: For ye must consider, that God euer looketh to your inward intention in all your actions.

And when yee haue by the feueritie of Iustice once setled your countries, and made them know that ye can strike, then may ye thereafter all the daies of your life mixe Iustice with Mercie, punishing or sparing, as ye shall finde the crime to haue bene wilfully or rashly committed, and according to the by-past behauiour of the committer.20 For if otherwise ye kyth your clemencie at the first, the of- fences would soone come to such heapes, and the contempt of you grow so great, that when ye would fall to punish, the number of them to be punished, would exceed the innocent; and yee would be troubled to resolue whom-at to begin: and against your nature would be compelled then to wracke many, whom the chastisement of few in the beginning might haue preserued. But in this, my ouer- deare bought experience may serue you for a sufficient lesson: For I confesse, where I thought (by being gracious at the beginning) to win all mens hearts to a louing and willing obedience, I by the contrary found, the disorder of the coun- trie, and the losse of my thankes to be all my reward.

But as this seuere Iustice of yours vpon all offences would bee but for a time, (as I haue alreadie said) so is there some horrible crimes that yee are bound in conscience neuer to forgiue: such as Witch-craft, wilfull murther, Incest, (es- pecially within the degrees of consanguinitie) Sodomie, poisoning, and false coine. As for offences against your owne person and authoritie, since the fault concern- eth your selfe, I remit to your owne choise to punish or pardon therein, as your heart serueth you, and according to the circumstances of the turne, and the qualitie of the committer.

Here would I also eike another crime to bee vnpardonable, if I should not be thought partiall: but the fatherly loue I beare you, will make mee breake the bounds of shame in opening it vnto you. It is then, the false and vnreuerent writing or speaking of malicious men against your Parents and Predecessors: ye know the command in Gods lawe, Honour your Father and Mother:21 and con- sequently, sen ye are the lawful magistrate, suffer not both your Princes and your Parents to be dishonoured by any; especially, sith the example also toucheth your selfe, in leauing thereby to your successors, the measure of that which they shal mete out againe to you in your like behalfe.22 I graunt wee haue all our faults, which, priuately betwixt you and God, should serue you for examples to meditate vpon, and mend in your person; but should not be a matter of discourse to others whatsoeuer. And sith ye are come of as honourable Predecessours as any Prince liuing, represse the insolence of such, as vnder pretence to taxe a vice in the per- son, seeke craftily to staine the race, and to steale the affection of the people from their posteritie: For how can they loue you, that hated them whom-of ye are come ? Wherefore destroy men innocent young sucking Wolues and Foxes, but for the hatred they beare to their race ? and why wil a coult of a Courser of Naples, giue a greater price in a market, then an Asse-colt, but for loue of the race ? It is therefore a thing monstrous, to see a man loue the childe, and hate the Parents: as on the other part, the infaming and making odious of the parents, is the readiest way to bring the sonne in contempt. And for conclusion of this point, I may also alledge my owne experience: For besides the iudgments of God, that with my eyes I haue seene fall vpon all them that were chiefe traitours to my parents, I may iustly affirme, I neuer found yet a constant biding by me in all my straites, by any that were of perfite aage in my parents dayes, but onely by such as constantly bode by them; I meane specially by them that serued the Queene my mother: for so that I discharge my conscience to you, my Sonne, in reuealing to you the trewth, I care not, what any traitour or treason-allower thinke of it.

And although the crime of oppression be not in this ranke of vnpardonable crimes, yet the ouer-common vse of it in this nation, as if it were a vertue, es- pecially by the greatest ranke of subjects in the land, requireth the King to be a sharpe censurer thereof. Be diligent therefore to trie, and awfull to beate downe the hornes of proud oppressours: 23 embrace the quarrell of the poore and distressed, as your owne particular, thinking it your greatest honour to represse the oppressours: 24 care for the pleasure of none, neither spare ye anie paines in your owne person, to see their wrongs redressed: 25 and remember of the honour- able stile giuen to my grand-father of worthie memorie, in being called the poore mans King. And as the most part of a Kings office, standeth in deciding that question of Meum and Tuum, among his subjects; so remember when ye sit in iudgement, that the Throne ye sit on is Gods,26 as Moyses saith, and sway neither to the right hand nor to the left; either louing the rich, or pittying the poore. Iustice should be blinde and friendlesse: it is not there ye should reward your friends, or seeke to crosse your enemies.27

Here now speaking of oppressours and of iustice, the purpose leadeth me to speake of Hie-land and Border oppressions. As for the Hie-lands, I shortly com- prehend them all in two sorts of people: the one, that dwelleth in our maine land, that are barbarous for the most part, and yet mixed with some shewe of ciuilitie: the other, that dwelleth in the Iles, and are alluterly barbares, without any sort or shew of ciuilitie. For the first sort, put straitly to execution the Lawes made alreadie by me against their Ouer-lords, and the chiefes of their Clannes, and it will be no difficultie to danton them. As for the other sort, follow forth the course that I haue intended, in planting Colonies among them of answerable In-lands subiects, that within short time may reforme and ciuilize the best inclined among them; rooting out or transporting the barbarous and stubborne sort, and plant- ing ciuilitie in their roomes.

But as for the Borders, because I know, if ye enioy not this whole Ile, accord- ing to Gods right and your lineall discent, yee will neuer get leaue to brooke this North and barrennest part thereof; no, not your owne head whereon the Crowne should stand; I neede not in that case trouble you with them: for then they will be the middest of the Ile, and so as easily ruled as any part thereof.

And that yee may the readier with wisedome and Iustice gouerne your sub- iects, by knowing what vices they are naturallie most inclined to, as a good Phy- sician, who must first know what peccant humours his Patient naturallie is most subiect vnto, before he can begin his cure:28 I shall therefore shortly note vnto you, the principall faults that euery ranke of the people of this countrey is most affected vnto. And as for England, I will not speake be-gesse of them, neuer hauing been among them, although I hope in that God, who euer fauoureth the right, before I die, to be as well acquainted with their fashions.

As the whole Subiects of our countrey (by the ancient and fundamentall policie of our Kingdome) are diuided into three estates, so is euerie estate hereof generally subiect to some speciall vices; which in a maner by long habitude, are thought rather vertue then vice among them; not that euerie particular man in any of these rankes of men, is subiect vnto them, for there is good and euill of all sorts; but that I meane, I haue found by experience, these vices to haue taken greatest holde with these rankes of men.

And first, that I prejudge not the Church of her ancient priuiledges, reason would shee should haue the first place for orders sake, in this catalogue.

The naturall sickenesse that hath euer troubled, and beene the decay of all the Churches, since the beginning of the world, changing the candlesticke from one to another, as Iohn saith, hath beene Pride, Ambition, and Auarice: and now last, these same infirmities wrought the ouerthrow of the Popish Church, in this countrey and diuers others. But the reformation of Religion in Scotland, being extraordinarily wrought by God, wherin many things were inordinately done by a popular tumult and rebellion, of such as blindly were doing the worke of God, but clogged with their owne passions and particular respects, as well appeared by the destruction of our policie, and not proceeding from the Princes order, as it did in our neighbour countrey of England, as likewise in Denmarke, and sundry parts of Germanie; some fierie spirited men in the ministerie, got such a guiding of the people at that time of confusion, as finding the gust of gouernment sweete, they begouth to fantasie to themselues a Democraticke forme of gouernment: and hauing (by the iniquitie of time) beene ouerwell baited vpon the wracke, first of my Grandmother, and next of mine owne mother, and after vsurping the libertie of the time in my long minoritie, setled themselues so fast vpon that imagined Democracie, as they fed themselues with the hope to become Tribuni plebis: and so in a popular gouernment by leading the people by the nose, to beare the sway of all the rule. And for this cause, there neuer rose faction in the time of my minoritie, nor trouble sen-syne, but they that were vpon that factious part, were euer carefull to perswade and allure these vnruly spirits among the ministerie, to spouse that quarrell as their owne: where-through I was ofttimes calumniated in their populare Sermons, not for any euill or vice in me, but because I was a King, which they thought the highest euill. And because they were ashamed to professe this quarrel, they were busie to look narrowly in all my actions; and I warrant you a mote in my eye, yea a false report, was matter enough for them to worke vpon: and yet for all their cunning, whereby they pretended to distinguish the lawfulnesse of the office, from the vice of the person, some of them would sometimes snapper out well grossely with the trewth of their intentions, informing the people, that all Kings and Princes were naturally enemies to the libertie of the Church, and could neuer patiently beare the yoke of Christ: with such sound doctrine fed they their flockes. And because the learned, graue, and honest men of the ministerie, were euer ashamed and offended with their temeritie and pre- sumption, preassing by all good meanes by their authoritie and example, to re- duce them to a greater moderation; there could be no way found out so meete in their conceit, that were turbulent spirits among them, for maintaining their plots, as paritie in the Church: whereby the ignorants were emboldened (as bairdes) to crie the learned, godly, and modest out of it: paritie the mother of confusion, and enemie to Vnitie, which is the mother of order: For if by the example thereof, once established in the Ecclesiasticall gouernment, the Politicke and ciuill estate should be drawen to the like, the great confusion that thereupon would arise may easily be discerned. Take heede therefore (my Sonne) to such Puritanes, verie pestes in the Church and Common-weale, whom no deserts can oblige, neither oathes or promises binde, breathing nothing but sedition and calumnies, aspiring without measure, railing without reason, and making their owne imaginations (without any warrant of the word) the square of their con- science. I protest before the great God, and since I am here as vpon my Testa- ment, it is no place for me to lie in, that ye shall neuer finde with any Hie-land or Border-theeues greater ingratitude, and moe lies and vile periuries, then with these phanaticke spirits: And suffer not the principals of them to brooke your land, if ye like to sit at rest; except yee would keepe them for trying your pa- tience, as Socrates did an euill wife.29

And for preseruatiue against their poison, entertaine and aduance the godly, learned and modest men of the ministerie, whom-of (God be praised) there lacketh not a sufficient number: and by their prouision to Bishoprickes and Benefices (annulling that vile acte of Annexation, if ye finde it not done to your hand) yee shall not onely banish their conceited paritie, whereof I haue spoken, and their other imaginarie grounds; which can neither stand with the order of the Church, nor the peace of a commonweale and well ruled Monarchie: but ye shall also re- establish the olde institution of three Estates in Parliament, which can no other- wise be done: But in this I hope (if God spare me dayes) to make you a faire entrie, alwayes where I leaue, follow ye my steps.

And to end my aduice anent the Church estate, cherish no man more then a good Pastor, hate no man more then a proude Puritane; thinking it one of your fairest styles, to be called a louing nourish-father to the Church, seeing all the Churches within your dominions planted with good Pastors, the Schooles (the seminarie of the Church) maintained, the doctrine and discipline preserued in puritie, according to Gods word, a sufficient prouision for their sustentation, a comely order in their policie, pride punished, humilitie aduanced, and they so to reuerence their superiours, and their flockes them, as the flourishing of your Church in pietie, peace, and learning, may be one of the chiefe points of your earthly glory, being euer alike ware with both the extremities; as well as yee re- presse the vaine Puritane, so not to suffer proude Papall Bishops; but as some for their qualities will deserue to bee preferred before others, so chaine them with such bondes as may preserue that estate from creeping to corruption.

The next estate now that by order commeth in purpose, according to their rankes in Parliament, is the Nobilitie, although second in ranke, yet ouer farre first in greatnesse and power, either to doe good or euill, as they are inclined.

The naturall sickenesse that I haue perceiued this estate subiect to in my time, hath beene, a fectlesse arrogant conceit of their greatnes and power; drinking in with their very nourish-milke, that their honor stood in committing three points of iniquitie: to thrall by oppression, the meaner sort that dwelleth neere them, to their seruice and following, although they holde nothing of them: to maintaine their seruants and dependers in any wrong, although they be not answerable to the lawes (for any body will maintaine his man in a right cause) and for anie dis- pleasure, that they apprehend to be done vnto them by their neighbour, to take vp a plaine feide against him; and (without respect to God, King, or common- weale) to bang it out brauely, hee and all his kinne, against him and all his: yea they will thinke the King farre in their common, in-case they agree to grant an assurance to a short day, for keeping of the peace: where, by their naturall dewtie, they are oblished to obey the lawe, and keepe the peace all the daies of their life, vpon the perill of their verie craigges.

For remeid to these euils in their estate, teach your Nobilitie to keepe your lawes as precisely as the meanest; 30 feare not their orping or beeing discontented, as long as yee rule well; for their pretended reformation of Princes taketh neuer effect, but where euill gouernement precedeth. Acquaint your selfe so with all the honest men of your Barrons and Gentlemen, and be in your giuing accesse so open and affable to euery ranke of honest persons, as may make them peart with- out scarring at you, to make their owne suites to you themselues, and not to em- ploy the great Lordes their intercessours; 31 for intercession to Saints is Papistrie: so shall ye bring to a measure their monstrous backes. And for their barbarous feides, put the lawes to due execution made by mee there-anent; beginning euer rathest at him that yee loue best, and is most oblished vnto you; to make him an example to the rest. For yee shall make all your reformations to beginne at your elbow, and so by degrees to flow to the extremities of the land. And rest not, vntill yee roote out these barbarous feides; that their effects may bee as well smoared downe, as their barbarous name is vnknowen to anie other nation: For if this Treatise were written either in French or Latine, I could not get them named vnto you but by circumlocution. And for your easier abolishing of them, put sharpelie to execution my lawes made against Gunnes and traiterous Pisto- lets; thinking in your heart, tearming in your speech, and vsing by your punish- ments, all such as weare and vse them, as brigands and cut-throates.

On the other part, eschew the other extremitie, in lightlying and contemning your Nobilitie. Remember howe that errour brake the King my grand-fathers heart. But consider that vertue followeth oftest noble blood: the worthinesse of their antecessors craueth a reuerent regard to be had vnto them:32 honour them therfore that are obedient to the law among them, as Peeres and Fathers of your land: the more frequently that your Court can bee garnished with them; thinke it the more your honour; 33 acquainting and employing them in all your greatest affaires; sen it is, they must be your armes and executers of your lawes: and so vse your selfe louinglie to the obedient, and rigorously to the stubborne, as may make the greatest of them to thinke, that the chiefest point of their honour, stand- eth in striuing with the meanest of the land in humilitie towards you, and obedi- ence to your Lawes: beating euer in their eares, that one of the principall points of seruice that ye craue of them, is, in their persons to practise, and by their power to procure due obedience to the Law; without the which, no seruice they can make, can be agreeable vnto you.

But the greatest hinderance to the execution of our Lawes in this countrie, are these heritable Shirefdomes and Regalities, which being in the hands of the great men, do wracke the whole countrie: For which I know no present remedie, but by taking the sharper account of them in their Offices; vsing all punishment against the slouthfull, that the Law will permit: 34 and euer as they vaike, for any offences committed by them, dispone them neuer heritably againe: preassing, with time, to draw it to the laudable custome of England: which ye may the easilier doe, being King of both, as I hope in God ye shall.

And as to the third and last estate, which is our Burghes (for the small Bar- rones are but an inferiour part of the Nobilitie and of their estate) they are com- posed of two sorts of men; Merchants and Craftes-men: either of these sorts being subiect to their owne infirmities.

The Merchants thinke the whole common-weale ordeined for making them vp; and accounting it their lawfull gaine and trade, to enrich themselues vpon the losse of all the rest of the people, they transport from vs things necessarie; bringing backe sometimes vnnecessary things, and at other times nothing at all. They buy for vs the worst wares, and sell them at the dearest prices: and albeit the victuals fall or rise of their prices, according to the aboundance or skantnesse thereof; yet the prices of their wares euer rise, but neuer fall: being as constant in that their euill custome, as if is were a setled Law for them. They are also the speciall cause of the corruption of the coyne, transporting all our owne, and bring ing in forraine, vpon what price they please to set on it: For order putting to them, put the good Lawes in execution that are already made anent these abuses; but especially doe three things: Establish honest, diligent, but few Searchers, for many hands make slight worke; and haue an honest and diligent Thesaurer to take count of them: Permit and allure forraine Merchants to trade here: 35 so shall ye haue best and best cheape wares, not buying them at the third hand: And set euery yeere downe a certaine price of all things; considering first, how it is in other countries: and the price set reasonably downe, if the Merchants will not bring them home on the price, cry forrainers free to bring them.

And because I haue made mention here of the coyne, make your money of fine Gold and Siluer; causing the people be payed with substance, and not abused with number: so shall ye enrich the common-weale, and haue a great treasure laid vp in store, if ye fall in warres or in any straites: For the making it baser, will breed your commoditie; but it is not to bee vsed, but at a great necessitie.

And the Craftes-men thinke, we should be content with their worke, how bad and deare soeuer it be: 36 and if they in any thing be controlled, vp goeth the blew-blanket: But for their part, take example by ENGLAND, how it hath flour- ished both in wealth and policie, since the strangers Craftes-men came in among them: Therefore not onely permit, but allure strangers to come heere also;37 taking as strait order for repressing the mutining of ours at them, as was done in ENGLAND, at their first in-bringing there.

But vnto one fault is all the common people of this Kingdome subiect, as well burgh as land; which is, to iudge and speake rashly of their Prince, setting the Common-weale vpon foure props, as wee call it; euer wearying of the present estate, and desirous of nouelties.382 For remedie whereof (besides the execution of Lawes that are to be used against vnreuerent speakers) I know no better meane, then so to rule, as may iustly stop their mouthes from all such idle and vnreuerent speeches; and so to prop the weale of your people, with prouident care for their good gouernment, that iustly, Momus himselfe may haue no ground to grudge at: and yet so to temper and mixe your seueritie with mildnes, that as the vniust railers may be restrained with a reuerent awe; so the good and louing Subjects, may not onely liue in suretie and wealth, but be stirred vp and inuited by your benigne courtesies, to open their mouthes in the iust praise of your so well mod- erated regiment.39 In respect whereof, and therewith also the more to allure them to a common amitie among themselues, certaine dayes in the yeere would be ap- pointed, for delighting the people with publicke spectacles of all honest games, and exercise of armes: 40 as also for conueening of neighbours, for entertaining friendship and heartlinesse, by honest feasting and merrinesse: For I cannot see what greater superstition can be in making playes and lawfull games in Maie, and good cheere at Christmas, then in eating fish in Lent, and vpon Fridayes, the Papists as well vsing the one as the other: so that alwayes the Sabboths be kept holy, and no vnlawfull pastime be vsed: And as this forme of contenting the peoples mindes, hath beene vsed in all well gouerned Republicks: so will it make you to performe in your gouernment that olde good sentence, Omne tulit punctum, qui miscuit vtile dulci.41

Ye see now (my Sonne) how for the zeale I beare to acquaint you with the plaine and single veritie of all things, I haue not spared to be something Satyricke, in touching well quickly the faults in all the estates of my kingdome: But I protest before God, I doe it with the fatherly loue that I owe to them all; onely hating their vices, whereof there is a good number of honest men free in euery estate.

And because, for the better reformation of all these abuses among your estates, it will be a great helpe vnto you, to be well acquainted with the nature and humours of all your Subjects, and to know particularly the estate of euery part of your dominions;42 I would therefore counsell you, once in the yeere to visite the principall parts of the countrey, ye shal be in for the time: 43 and because I hope ye shall be King of moe countries then this, once in the three yeeres to visite all your Kingdomes; not lipening to Vice-royes, but hearing your selfe their complaints; and hauing ordinarie Councels and iustice-seates in euerie Kingdome, of their owne countriemen: and the principall matters euer to be de- cided by your selfe when ye come in those parts.

Ye haue also to consider, that yee must not onely bee carefull to keepe your subiects, from receiuing anie wrong of others within; but also yee must be care- ful to keepe them from the wrong of any forraine Prince without: sen the sword is giuen you by God not onely to reuenge vpon your owne subiects, the wrongs committed amongst themselues; but further, to reuenge and free them of for- raine iniuries done vnto them: And therefore warres vpon iust quarrels are law- ful: but aboue all, let not the wrong cause be on your side.44

Vse all other Princes, as your brethren, honestly and kindely: Keepe precisely your promise vnto them, although to your hurt: Striue with euerie one of them in courtesie and thankefulnesse: 45 and as with all men, so especially with them, bee plaine and trewthfull; keeping euer that Christain rule, to doe as yee would be done to: especially in counting rebellion against any other Prince, a crime against your owne selfe, because of the preparatiue. Supplie not therefore, nor trust not other Princes rebels; but pittie and succour all lawfull Princes in their troubles. But if any of them will not abstaine, notwithstanding what-soeuer your good deserts, to wrong you or your subjects, craue redresse at leasure; 46 heare and doe all reason: and if no offer that is lawfull or honourable, can make him to abstaine, nor repaire his wrong doing; then for last refuge, commit the iustneffe of your cause to God, giuing first honestly vp with him, and in a publicke and honourable forme.47

But omitting now to teach you the forme of making warres, because that arte is largely treated of by many, and is better learned by practise then speculation; I will onely set downe to you heere a few precepts therein. Let first the iustnesse of your cause be your greatest strength; and then omitte not to vse all lawfull meanes for backing of the same.48 Consult therefore with no Necromancier nor false Prophet, vpon the successe of your warres, remembring on king Saules 49 miserable end: but keepe your land cleane of all South-sayers, according to the commaund in the Law of God,50 dilated by Ieremie. Neither commit your quarrell to bee tried by a Duell: for beside that generally all Duell appeareth to bee vn- lawful, committing the quarrell, as it were, to a lot; whereof there is no warrant in the Scripture, since the abrogating of the olde Lawe: it is specially moste vn- lawfull in the person of a King;51 who being a publicke person hath no power therefore to dispose of himselfe, in respect, that to his preseruation or fall, the safetie or wracke of the whole common-weale is necessarily coupled, as the body is to the head.

Before ye take on warre, play the wise Kings part described by Christ; fore- seeing how ye may beare it out with all necessarie prouision: 52 especially remem- ber, that money is Neruus belli. Choose old experimented Captaines, and yong able souldiers. Be extreamely strait and seuere in martiall Discipline, as well for keeping of order, which is as requisite as hardinesse in the warres, and punishing of slouth, which at a time may put the whole armie in hazard; as likewise for repressing of mutinies, which in warres are wonderfull dangerous. And looke to the Spaniard, whose great successe in all his warres, hath onely come through straitnesse of Discipline and order: for such errours may be committed in the warres, as cannot be gotten mended againe.53

Be in your owne person walkrife, diligent, and painefull; vsing the aduice of such as are skilfullest in the craft, as ye must also doe in all other. Be homely with your souldiers as your companions, for winning their hearts; and extreamly liberall, for then is no time of sparing. Be cold and foreseeing in deuising, con- stant in your resolutions, and forward and quicke in your executions.54 Fortifie well your Campe, and assaile not rashly without an aduantage: neither feare not lightly your enemie.55 Be curious in deuising stratagems, but alwayes honestly: for of any thing they worke greatest effects in the warres, if secrecie be ioyned to inuention.56 And once or twise in your owne person hazard your selfe fairely; but, hauing acquired so the fame of courage and magnanimitie, make not a daily souldier of your selfe, exposing rashly your person to euery perill: but conserue your selfe thereafter for the weale of your people, for whose sake yee must more care for your selfe, then for your owne.57

And as I haue counselled you to be slow in taking on a warre, so aduife I you to be slow in peace-making.58 Before ye agree, looke that the ground of your warres be satisfied in your peace; and that ye see a good suretie for you and your people: otherwaies a honourable and iust warre is more tollerable, then a dis- honourable and dis-aduantageous peace.59

But it is not enough to a good King, by the scepter of good Lawes well execute to gouerne, and by force of armes to protect his people; if he ioyne not there- with his vertuous life in his owne person, and in the person of his Court and com- pany; by good example alluring his Subiects to the loue of vertue, and hatred of vice. And therefore (my Sonne) sith all people are naturally inclined to follow their Princes example (as I shewed you before) let it not be said, that ye command others to keepe the contrary course to that, which in your owne person ye prac- tise, making so your wordes and deeds to fight together: 60 but by the contrary, let your owne life be a law-booke and a mirrour to your people; that therein they may read the practise of their owne Lawes; and therein they may see, by your image, what life they should leade.

And this example in your owne life and person, I likewise diuide in two parts: The first, in the gouernment of your Court and followers, in all godlinesse and vertue: the next, in hauing your owne minde decked and enriched so with all vertuous qualities, that therewith yee may worthily rule your people: For it is not ynough that ye haue and retaine (as prisoners) within your selfe neuer so many good qualities and vertues, except ye employ them, and set them on worke, for the weale of them that are committed to your charge: Virtutis enim laus omnis in actione consistit.61

First then, as to the gouernment of your Court and followers, King Dauid sets downe the best precepts, that any wise and Christian King can practise in that point: For as yee ought to haue a great care for the ruling well of all your Subiects, so ought yee to haue a double care for the ruling well of your owne seruants;62 since vnto them yee are both a Politicke and Oeconomicke gouernour. And as euery one of the people will delite to follow the example of any of the Courteours, as well in euill as in good:63 so what crime so horrible can there be committed and ouer-seene in a Courteour, that will not be an exemplare excuse for any other boldly to commit the like ? And therfore in two points haue ye to take good heed anent your Court and houshold: first, in choosing them wisely; next, in carefully ruling them whom ye haue chosen.

It is an olde and trew saying, That a kindly Auer will neuer become a good horse: for albeit good education and company be great helpes to Nature,64 and education be therefore most iustly called altera natura, yet is it euill to get out of the flesh,65 that is bred in the bone, as the olde prouerbe sayth. Be very ware then in making choice of your seruants and companie: - Nam
Turpius eiicitur, quam non admittitur hospes:

66 and many respects may lawfully let an admission, that will not be sufficient causes of depriuation.

All your seruants and Court must be composed partly of minors, such as young Lords, to be brought vp in your company, or Pages and such like; and partly of men of perfit aage, for seruing you in such roumes, as ought to be filled with men of wisedome and discretion. For the first sort, ye can doe no more, but choose them within aage, that are come of a good and vertuous kinde,67 In fide parentum, as Baptisme is vsed: For though anima non venit ex traduce,68 but is immediatly created by God, and infused from aboue; yet it is most certaine, that vertue or vice will oftentimes, with the heritage, be transferred from the parents to the posteritie, and runne on a blood (as the Prouerbe is) the sickenesse of the minde becomming as kindly to some races, as these sickenesses of the body, that infect in the seede:69 Especially choose such minors as are come of a trew and hon- est race, and haue not had the house whereof they are descended, infected with falsehood.70

And as for the other sort of your companie and seruants, that ought to be of perfit aage; first see that they be of a good fame and without blemish,71 otherwise, what can the people thinke, but that yee haue chosen a company vnto you, ac- cording to your owne humour, and so haue preferred these men, for the loue of their vices and crimes, that ye knew them to be guiltie of ? For the people that see you not within, cannot iudge of you, but according to the outward appearance of your actions and companie, which onely is subiect to their sight:72 And next, see that they be indued with such honest qualities, as are meete for such offices, as ye ordaine them to serue in; that your iudgement may be knowen in imploy- ing euery man according to his giftes: 73 And shortly, follow good king Dauids counsell in the choise of your seruants, by setting your eyes vpon the faithfull and vpright of the land to dwell with you.74

But here I must not forget to remember, and according to my fatherly authori- tie, to charge you to preferre specially to your seruice, so many as haue trewly serued me, and are able for it: the rest, honourably to reward them, preferring their posteritie before others, as kindliest: so shall ye not onely be best serued, (for if the haters of your parents cannot loue you, as I shewed before, it followeth of necessitie their louers must loue you) but further, ye shall kyth your thankefull memorie of your father, and procure the blessing of these olde seruants, in not missing their olde master in you; which otherwise would be turned in a prayer for me, and a curse for you. Vse them therefore when God shall call me, as the testimonies of your affection towards me; trusting and aduancing those farthest, whom I found faithfullest: which ye must not discerne by their rewards at my hand (for rewards, as they are called Bona fortune, so are they subiect vnto for- tune) but according to the trust I gaue them; hauing oft-times had better heart then hap to the rewarding of sundry: And on the other part, as I wish you to kyth your constant loue towards them that I loued, so desire I you to kyth in the same measure, your constant hatred to them that I hated: I meane, bring not home, nor restore not such, as ye finde standing banished or fore-faulted by me. The contrary would kyth in you ouer great a contempt of me, and lightnesse in your owne nature: for how can they be trew to the Sonne, that were false to the Father ?

But to returne to the purpose anent the choise of your seruants, yee shall by this wise forme of doing, eschew the inconuenients, that in my minoritie I fell in, anent the choise of my seruants: For by them that had the command where I was brought vp, were my seruants put vnto mee; not choosing them that were meetest to serue me, but whom they thought meetest to serue their turne about me, as kythed well in many of them at the first rebellion raised against mee, which com- pelled mee to make a great alteration among my seruants. And yet the example of that corruption made mee to be long troubled there-after with solliciters, recommending seruants vnto me, more for seruing in effect, their friends that put them in, then their master that admitted them. Let my example then teach you to follow the rules here set downe, choosing your seruants for your owne vse, and not for the vse of others: 75 And since ye must bee communis parens to all your people, so choose your seruants indifferently out of all quarters; not respect- ing other mens appetites, but their owne qualities: For as ye must command all, so reason would, ye should be serued out of al, as ye please to make choice.

But specially take good heed to the choice of your seruants, that ye preferre to the offices of the Crowne and estate: for in other offices yee haue onely to take heede to your owne weale; 76 but these concerne likewise the weale of your people; for the which yee must bee answerable to God. Choose then for all these Offices, men of knowen wisedome, honestie, and good conscience; well practised in the points of the craft, that yee ordaine them for, and free of all factions and partiali- ties; but specially free of that filthie vice of Flatterie, the pest of all Princes, and wracke of Republicks: 77 For since in the first part of this Treatise, I fore-warned you to be at warre with your owne inward flatterer 4LXavrta, how much more should ye be at war with outward flatterers, who are nothing so sib to you, as your selfe is; by the selling of such counterfeit wares, onely preassing to ground their greatnesse vpon your ruines ? 78 And therefore bee carefull to preferre none, as yee will bee answerable to God but onely for their worthinesse: But specially choose honest, diligent, meane, but responsall men, to bee your receiuers in money matters: meane I say, that ye may when yee please, take a sharpe ac- count of their intromission, without perill of their breeding any trouble to your estate: for this ouersight hath beene the greatest cause of my mis-thriuing in money matters. Especially, put neuer a forrainer, in any principall office of estate: for that will neuer faile to stirre vp sedition and enuie in the countrey- mens hearts, both against you and him: But (as I saide before) if God prouide you with moe countries then this; choose the borne-men of euery countrey, to bee your chief counsellers therein.79

And for conclusion of my aduice anent the choice of your feruants, delight to be serued with men of the noblest blood that may bee had: for besides that their seruice shall breed you great good-will and least enuie, contrarie to that of start- vps; ye shall oft finde vertue follow noble races, as I haue said before speaking of the Nobilitie.80

Now, as to the other point, anent your gouerning of your seruants when yee haue chosen them; make your Court and companie to bee a patterne of godlinesse and all honest vertues, to all the rest of the people 81. Bee a daily watch-man ouer your seruants, that they obey your lawes precisely: 82 For how can your lawes bee kept in the countrey, if they be broken at your eare ? Punishing the breach thereof in a Courteour, more seuerely, then in the person of any other of your subiects: and aboue all, suffer none of them (by abusing their credite with you) to oppresse or wrong any of your subiects. Be homely or strange with them, as ye thinke their behauiour deserueth, and their nature may beare with.83 Thinke a quarrellous man a pest in your companie. Bee carefull euer to preferre the gentilest natured and trustiest, to the inwardest Offices about you, especially in your chalmer.84 Suffer none about you to meddle in any mens particulars, but like the Turkes Ianisares, let them know no father but you, nor particular but yours.85 And if any will medde in their kinne or friends quarrels, giue them their leaue: for since ye must be of no surname nor kinne, but equall to all honest men; it becommeth you not to bee followed with partiall or factious seruants. Teach obedience to your seruants, and not to thinke themselues ouer-wise: 86 and, as when any of them deserueth it, ye must not spare to put them away, so, without a seene cause, change none of them. Pay them, as all others your subiects, with praemium or paena as they deserue, which is the very ground-stone of good gouerne- ment. Employ euery man as ye thinke him qualified, but vse not one in all things, lest he waxe proude, and be enuied of his fellowes. Loue them best, that are plainnest with you, and disguise not the trewth for all their kinne: suffer none to be euill tongued, nor backbiters of them they hate: command a hartly and brotherly loue among all them that serue you.87 And shortly, maintaine peace in your Court, bannish enuie, cherish modestie, bannish deboshed insolence, foster humilitie, and represse pride: setting downe such a comely and honourable order in all the points of your seruice; that when strangers shall visite your Court, they may with the Queene of Sheba, admire your wisedome in the glorie of your house,88 and comely order among your seruants.

But the principall blessing that yee can get of good companie, will stand in your marrying of a godly and vertuous wife: for shee must bee nearer vnto you, then any other companie, being Flesh of your flesh, and bone of your bone,89 as Adam saide of Heuah. And because I know not but God may call me, before ye be readie for Mariage; I will shortly set downe to you heere my aduice therein.

First of all consider, that Mariage is the greatest earthly felicitie or miserie, that can come to a man, according as it pleaseth God to blesse or curse the same. Since then without the blessing of GOD, yee cannot looke for a happie successe in Mariage, yee must bee carefull both in your preparation for it, and in the choice and vsage of your wife, to procure the same. By your preparation, I meane, that yee must keepe your bodie cleane and vnpolluted, till yee giue it to your wife, whom-to onely it belongeth. For how can ye iustly craue to bee ioyned with a pure virgine, if your bodie be polluted ? why should the one halfe bee cleane, and the other defiled ? And although I know, fornication is thought but a light and a veniall sinne, by the most part of the world, yet remember well what I said to you in my first Booke anent conscience, and count euery sinne and breach of Gods law, not according as the vaine world esteemeth of it, but as God the Iudge and maker of the lawe accounteth of the same. Heare God commanding by the mouth of Paul, to abstaine from fornication, declaring that the fornicator shall not inherite the Kingdome of heauen: 90 and by the mouth of Iohn, reckoning our fornication amongst other grieuous sinnes, that debarre the committers amongst dogs and swine, from entry in that spirituall and heauenly Ierusalem.91 And consider, if a man shall once take vpon him, to count that light, which God calleth heauie; and veniall that, which God calleth grieuous; beginning first to measure any one sinne by the rule of his lust and appetites, and not of his conscience; what shall let him to doe so with the next, that his affections shall stirre him to, the like reason seruing for all: and so to goe forward till he place his whole corrupted affections in Gods roome ? And then what shall come of him; but, as a man giuen ouer to his owne filthy affections, shall perish into them ? And because wee are all of that nature, that sibbest examples touch vs neerest, consider the difference of successe that God granted in the Mariages of the King my grand-father, and me your owne father: the reward of his incontinencie, (proceeding from his euill education) being the suddaine death at one time of two pleasant yong Princes; and a daughter onely borne to succeed to him, whom hee had neuer the hap, so much as once to see or blesse before his death: leauing a double curse behinde him to the land, both a Woman of sexe, and a new borne babe of aage to reigne ouer them. And as for the blessing God hath bestowed on mee, in granting me both a greater continencie, and the fruits following there-upon, your selfe, and sib folkes to you, are (praise be to God) sufficient witnesses: which, I hope the same God of his infinite mercie, shall continue and increase, without repentance to me and my posteritie. Be not ashamed then, to keepe cleane your body, which is the Temple of the holy Spirit,92 notwithstanding all vaine allurements to the contrary, discerning trewly and wisely of euery vertue and vice, according to the trew qualities thereof, and not according to the vaine conceits of men..

As for your choise in Mariage, respect chiefly the three causes, wherefore Mariage was first ordeined by God; and then ioyne three accessories, so farre as they may be obtained, not derogating to the principalles.

The three causes it was ordeined for, are, for staying of lust, for procreation of children, and that man should by his Wife, get a helper like himselfe. Deferre not then to Marie till your aage: for it is ordeined for quenching the lust of your youth:93 Especially a King must tymouslie Marie for the weale of his people.94 Neither Marie yee, for any accessory cause or worldly respects, a woman vnable, either through aage, nature, or accident, for procreation of children: for in a King that were a double fault, as well against his owne weale, as against the weale of his people. Neither also Marie one of knowne euill conditions, or vicious education: for the woman is ordeined to be a helper, and not a hinderer to man.

The three accessories, which as I haue said, ought also to be respected, with- out derogating to the principall causes, are beautie, riches, and friendship by alliance, which are all blessings of God. For beautie increaseth your loue to your Wife, contenting you the better with her, without caring for others: and riches and great alliance, doe both make her the abler to be a helper vnto you.95 But if ouer great respect being had to these accessories, the principall causes bee ouer- seene (which is ouer oft practised in the world) as of themselues they are a blessing being well vsed; so the abuse of them will turne them in a curse. For what can all these worldly respects auaile, when a man shall finde himselfe coupled with a diuel, to be one flesh with him, and the halfe marrow in his bed ? Then (though too late) shall he finde that beautie without bountie, wealth without wisdome, and great friendship without grace and honestie; are but faire shewes, and the deceitfull masques of infinite miseries.

But haue ye respect, my Sonne, to these three speciall causes in your Mariage, which flow from the first institution thereof, & caetera omnia adjicientur vobis.96 And therefore I would rathest haue you to Marie one that were fully of your owne Religion; her ranke and other qualities being agreeable to your estate. For although that to my great regrate, the number of any Princes of power and ac- count, professing our Religion, bee but very small; and that therefore this aduice seemes to be the more strait and difficile: yet ye haue deeply to weigh, and con- sider vpon these doubts, how ye and your wife can bee of one flesh, and keepe vnitie betwixt you, being members of two opposite Churches: disagreement in Religion bringeth euer with it, disagreement in maners; and the dissention be- twixt your Preachers and hers, wil breed and foster a dissention among your subiects, taking their example from your family; besides the perill of the euill education of your children. Neither pride you that ye wil be able to frame and make her as ye please: that deceiued Salomon the wisest King that euer was; the grace of Perseuerance, not being a flower that groweth in our garden.

Remember also that Mariage is one of the greatest actions that a man doeth in all his time, especially in taking of his first Wife: and if hee Marie first basely beneath his ranke, he will euer be the lesse accounted of thereafter. And lastly, remember to choose your Wife as I aduised you to choose your seruants: that she be of a whole and cleane race, not subiect to the hereditary sicknesses, either of the soule or the body: For if a man wil be careful to breed horses and dogs of good kinds, how much more careful should he be, for the breed of his owne loines?97 So shal ye in your Mariage haue respect to your conscience, honour, and naturall weale in your successours.

When yee are Maried, keepe inuiolably your promise made to God in your Mariage; which standeth all in doing of one thing, and abstayning from another: to treat her in all things as your wife, and the halfe of your selfe; and to make your body (which then is no more yours, but properly hers) common with none other.98 I trust I need not to insist here to disswade you from the filthy vice of adulterie: remember onely what solemne promise yee make to God at your Mari- age: and since it is onely by the force of that promise that your children succeed to you, which otherwayes they could not doe; aequitie and reason would, ye should keepe your part thereof.99 God is euer a seuere auenger of all periuries; and it is no oath made in iest, that giueth power to children to succeed to great kingdomes. Haue the King my grand-fathers example before your eyes, who by his adulterie, bred the wracke of his lawfull daughter and heire; in begetting that bastard, who vnnaturally rebelled, and procured the ruine of his owne Souerane and sister. And what good her posteritie hath gotten sensyne, of some of that vn- lawfull generation, Bothuell his treacherous attempts can beare witnesse. Keepe praecisely then your promise made at Mariage, as ye would wish to be partaker of the blessing therein.

And for your behauiour to your Wife, the Scripture can best giue you counsell therein: Treat her as your owne flesh, command her as her Lord, cherish her as your helper, rule her as your pupill, and please her in all things reasonable; but teach her not to be curious in things that belong her not: 1004 Ye are the head, shee is your body; It is your office to command, and hers to obey; but yet with such a sweet harmonie, as shee should be as ready to obey, as ye to command; as willing to follow, as ye to go before; your loue being wholly knit vnto her, and all her affections louingly bent to follow your will.

And to conclude, keepe specially three rules with your Wife: first, suffer her neuer to meddle with the Politicke gouernment of the Commonweale, but holde her at the Oeconomicke rule of the house; and yet all to be subiect to your direc- tion:101 keepe carefully good and chaste company about her, for women are the frailest sexe; and be neuer both angry at once, but when ye see her in passion, ye should with reason danton yours: for both when yee are setled, ye are meetest to iudge of her errours; and when she is come to her selfe, she may be best made to apprehend her offence, and reuerence your rebuke.

If God send you succession, be carefull for their vertuous education: loue them as ye ought, but let them know as much of it, as the gentlenesse of their nature will deserue; contayning them euer in a reuerent loue and feare of you. And in case it please God to prouide you to all these three Kingdomes, make your eldest sonne Isaac, leauing him all your kingdomes; and prouide the rest with priuate possessions: Otherwayes by deuiding your kingdomes, yee shall leaue the seed of diuision and discord among your posteritie; 102 as befell to this Ile, by the diuision and assignement thereof, to the three sonnes of Brutus, Locrine, Albanact, and Camber.103 But if God giue you not succession, defraud neuer the nearest by right, what-soeuer conceit yee haue of the person: For Kingdomes are euer at Gods disposition, and in that case we are but liue-rentars, lying no more in the Kings, nor peoples hands to dispossesse the righteous heire.

And as your company should be a paterne to the rest of the people, so should your person be a lampe and mirrour to your company: 104 giuing light to your seruants to walke in the path of vertue, and representing vnto them such worthie qualities, as they should preasse to imitate.

I need not to trouble you with the particular discourse of the foure Cardinall vertues, it is so troden a path: but I will shortly say vnto you; make one of them, which is Temperance, Queene of all the rest within you. I meane not by the vulgar interpretation of Temperance, which onely consists in gustu & tactu, by the moderating of these two senses: 105 but, I meane of that wise moderation, that first commaunding your selfe, shall as a Queene, command all the affections and passions of your minde, and as a Phisician, wisely mixe all your actions according thereto. Therefore, not onely in all your affections and passions, but euen in your most vertuous actions, make euer moderation to be the chiefe ruler: For although holinesse be the first and most requisite qualitie of a Christian, as pro- ceeding from a feeling feare and trew knowledge of God: yet yee remember how in the conclusion of my first booke, I aduised you to moderate al your outward actions flowing there-fra. The like say I now of Iustice, which is the greatest vertue that properly belongeth to a Kings office.

Vse Iustice, but with such moderation, as it turne not in Tyrannie: otherwaies summum Ius, is summa iniuria.1066 As for example: if a man of a knowen honest life, be inuaded by brigands or theeues for his purse, and in his owne defence slay one of them, they beeing both moe in number, and also knowen to bee deboshed and insolent liuers; where by the contrarie, hee was single alone, beeing a man of sound reputation: yet because they were not at the home, or there was no eye-witnesse present that could verifie their first inuading of him, shall hee there- fore lose his head ? And likewise, by the law-burrowes in our lawes, men are prohibited vnder great pecuniall paines, from any wayes inuading or molesting their neighbours person or bounds: if then his horse breake the halter, and pastour in his neighbours medow, shall he pay two or three thousand pounds for the wantonnesse of his horse, or the weaknesse of his halter ? Surely no: for lawes are ordained as rules of vertuous and sociall liuing, and not to bee snares to trap your good subjects: and therefore the lawe must be interpreted according to the meaning, and not to the literall sense thereof: Nam ratio est anima legis.107

And as I said of Iustice, so say I of Clemencie, Magnanimitie, Liberalitie, Constancie, Humilitie, and all other Princely vertues; Nam in medio stat virtus. And it is but the craft of the Diuell that falsly coloureth the two vices that are on either side thereof, with the borrowed titles of it, albeit in very deede they haue no affinitie therewith and the two extremities themselues, although they seeme contrarie, yet growing to the height, runne euer both in one: For in infinitis omnia concurrunt; and what difference is betwixt extreame tyrannie, delighting to destroy all mankinde; and extreame slackenesse of punishment, permitting euery man to tyrannize ouer his companion ? Or what differeth extreame pro- digalitie, by wasting of all to possesse nothing; from extreame niggardnesse, by hoarding vp all to enioy nothing; like the Asse that carying victuall on her backe, is like to starue for hunger, and will bee glad of thrissels for her part? And what is betwixt the pride of a glorious Nebuchadnezzar, and the preposterous hu- militie of one of the proud Puritanes, claiming to their Paritie, and crying, Wee are all but vile wormes, and yet will iudge and giue Law to their King, but will be iudged nor controlled by none ? Surely there is more pride vnder such a ones blacke bonnet, then vnder Alexander the great his Diademe, as was said of Diogenes in the like case.

But aboue all vertues, study to know well your owne craft, which is to rule your people. And when I say this, I bid you know all crafts: For except ye know euery one, how can yee controll euery one, which is your proper office ? Therefore besides your education, it is necessarie yee delight in reading, and seek- ing the knowledge of all lawfull things; but with these two restrictions: 108 first, that yee choose idle houres for it, not interrupting therewith the discharge of your office: and next, that yee studie not for knowledge nakedly, but that your princi- pall ende be, to make you able thereby to vse your office; 109 practising according to your knowledge in all the points of your calling: not like these vaine Astrolo- gians, that studie night and day on the course of the starres, onely that they may, for satisfying their curiositie, know their course.110 But since all Artes and sciences are linked euery one with other, their greatest principles agreeing in one (which mooued the Poets to faine the nine Muses to be all sisters) studie them, that out of their harmonie, ye may sucke the knowledge of all faculties; and consequently be on the counsell of all crafts, that yee may be able to containe them all in order, as I haue alreadie said: For knowledge and learning is a light burthen, the weight whereof will neuer presse your shoulders.

First of all then, study to be well seene in the Scriptures, as I remembred you in the first booke; 111 as well for the knowledge of your owne saluation, as that ye may be able to containe your Church in their calling, as Custos vtriusque Tabulae. For the ruling them well, is no small point of your office; taking specially heede, that they vague not from their text in the Pulpit: and if euer ye would haue peace in your land, suffer them not to meddle in that place with the estate or policie; but punish seuerely the first that presumeth to it. Doe nothing towards them without a good ground and warrant, but reason not much with them: for I haue ouer- much surfeited them with that, and it is not their fashion to yeeld. And suffer no conuentions nor meetings among Church-men, but by your knowledge and permission.

Next the Scriptures, studie well your owne Lawes: for how can ye discerne by the thing yee know not? But preasse to draw all your Lawes and processes, to be as short and plaine as ye can: assure your selfe the longsomnesse both of rights and processes, breedeth their vnsure loosenesse and obscuritie, the shortest being euer both the surest and plainest forme,112 and the longsomnesse seruing onely for the enriching of the Aduocates and Clerkes, with the spoile of the whole countrey :113 And therefore delite to haunt your Session, and spie carefully their proceedings; taking good heede, if any briberie may be tried among them, which cannot ouer seuerely be punished. Spare not to goe there, for gracing that farre any that yee fauour, by your presence to procure them expedition of Iustice; although that should be specially done, for the poore that cannot waite on, or are debarred by mightier parties. But when yee are there, remember the throne is Gods and not yours, that ye sit in, and let no fauour, nor whatsoeuer respects mooue you from the right. Ye sit not there, as I shewe before, for rewarding of friends or seruants, nor for crossing of contemners, but onely for doing of Iustice.114 Learne also wisely to discerne betwixt Iustice and equitie; and for pitie of the poore, rob not the rich, because he may better spare it, but giue the little man the larger coat if it be his; eschewing the errour of young Cyrus115 therein: For Iustice, by the Law, giueth euery man his owne; and equitie in things arbitrall, giueth euery one that which is meetest for him.

Be an ordinarie sitter in your secret Counsell: that iudicature is onely ordained for matters of estate, and repressing of insolent oppressions. Make that iudge- ment as compendious and plaine as ye can; and suffer no Aduocates to be heard there with their dilatours, but let euery partie tell his owne tale himselfe: and wearie not to heare the complaints of the oppressed, aut ne Rex sis.116 Remit euery thing to the ordinary iudicature, for eschewing of confusion: but let it be your owne craft, to take a sharpe account of euery man in his office.

And next the Lawes, I would haue you to be well versed in authentick histories, and in the Chronicles of all nations, but specially in our owne histories Ne sis peregrinus domi) the example whereof most neerely concernes you: I meane not of such infamous inuectiues, as Buchanans or Knoxes Chronicles: and if any of these infamous libels remaine vntill your dayes, vse the Law vpon the keepers thereof: For in that point I would haue you a Pythagorist,117 to thinke that the very spirits of these archibellouses of rebellion, haue made transition in them that hoardes their bookes, or maintaines their opinions; punishing them, euen as it were their authours risen againe.118 But by reading of authenticke histories and Chronicles, yee shall learne experience by Theoricke, applying the bypast things to the present estate, quia nihil nouum sub sole:119 such is the continuall volubilitie of things earthly, according to the roundnesse of the world, and reuolution of the, heauenly circles: which is expressed by the wheeles in Ezechiels visions,120 and counterfeited by the Poets in rota Fortunae. And likewise by the knowledge of histories, yee shall knowe how to behaue your selfe to all Embassadours and strangers; being able to discourse with them vpon the estate of their owne coun- trey. And among al prophane histories, I must not omit most specially to recom- mend vnto you, the Commentaries of Caesar; both for the sweete flowing of the stile, as also for the worthinesse of the matter it selfe: For I haue euer beene of that opinion, that of all the Ethnick Emperors, or great Captaines that euer were, he hath farthest excelled, both in his practise, and in his precepts in martiall affaires.

As for the studie of other liberall artes and sciences, I would haue you reason- ably versed in them, but not preassing to bee a passe-master in any of them: for that cannot but distract you from the points of your calling, as I shewed you be- fore:121 and when, by the enemie winning the towne, yee shall bee interrupted in your demonstration, as Archimedes 122 was; your people (I thinke) will looke very bluntly vpon it. I graunt it is meete yee haue some entrance, specially in the Mathematickes; for the knowledge of the arte militarie, in situation of Campes, ordering of battels, making Fortifications, placing of batteries, or such like.123 And let not this your knowledge be dead without fruites, as Saint Iames speaketh of Faith: but let it appeare in your daily conuersation, and in all the actions of your life.124

Embrace trew magnanimitie, not in beeing vindictiue, which the corrupted iudgements of the world thinke to be trew Magnanimitie;125 but by the contrarie, in thinking your offendour not worthie of your wrath, empyring ouer your owne passion, and triumphing in the commaunding your selfe to forgiue: 126 husbanding the effects of your courage and wrath, to be rightly employed vpon repelling of iniuries within, by reuenge taking vpon the oppressours; and in reuenging iniuries without, by iust warres vpon forraine enemies. And so, where ye finde a notable iniurie, spare not to giue course to the torrents of your wrath. The wrath of a King, is like to the roaring of a Lyon.127

Foster trew Humilitie, in bannishing pride, not onely towards God (consider- ing yee differ not in stuffe, but in vse, and that onely by his ordinance, from the basest of your people) but also towards your Parents.128 And if it fall out that my Wife shall out-liue me, as euer ye thinke to purchase my blessing, honour your mother: set Beersheba in a throne on your right hand: offend her for nothing, much lesse wrong her: remember her Quae longa decem tulerit fastidia menses; and that your flesh and blood is made of hers: and beginne not, like the young lordes and lairdes, your first warres vpon your Mother; but presse earnestly to deserue her blessing. Neither deceiue your selfe with many that say, they care not for their Parents curse, so they deserue it not. 0 inuert not the order of nature, by iudging your superiours, chiefly in your owne particular! But assure your selfe, the blessing or curse of the Parents, hath almost euer a Propheticke power ioyned with it: and if there were no more, honour your Parents, for the lengthning of your owne dayes, as GOD in his Law129 promiseth. Honour also them that are in loco Parentum vnto you, such as your gouernours, vp-bringers, and Praeceptours: 130 be thankefull vnto them and reward them, which is your dewtie and honour.

But on the other part, let not this trew humilitie stay your high indignation to appeare, when any great oppressours shall presume to come in your presence;131 then frowne as ye ought: And in-case thay vse a colour of Law in oppressing their poore ones, as ouer-many doe, that which ye cannot mend by Law, mend by the withdrawing of your countenance from them: 132 and once in the yeere crosse them, when their erands come in your way, recompencing the oppressour, according to Christs parable of the two debtours.133

Keepe trew Constancie, not onely in your kindenesse towards honest men; but being also inuicti animi against all aduersities: not with that Stoicke insensi- ble stupiditie, wherewith many in our dayes, preassing to winne honour, in imitat- ing that ancient sect, by their inconstant behauiour in their owne liues, belie their profession.134 But although ye are not a stocke, not to feele calamities; yet let not the feeling of them, so ouer-rule and doazen your reason, as may stay you from taking and vsing the best resolution for remedie, that can be found out.

Vse trew Liberalitie in rewarding the good, and bestowing frankly for your honour and weale: but with that proportionall discretion, that euery man may be serued according to his measure, wherein respect must be had to his ranke, deserts, and necessitie: And prouide how to haue, but cast not away without cause. In speciall, empaire not by your Liberalitie the ordinarie rents of your crowne; whereby the estate Royall of you, and your successours, must be main- tained, ne exhauriasfontem liberalitatis: for that would euer be kept sacrosanctum & extra commercium: 135 otherwaies, your Liberalitie would decline to Prodigalitie, in helping others with your, and your successours hurt. And aboue all, enrich not your selfe with exactions vpon your subiects; but thinke the riches of your people your best treasure, by the sinnes of offenders, where no praeuention can auaile, making iustly your commoditie.136 And in-case necessitie of warres, or other extraordinaries compell you to lift Subsidies, doe it as rarely as ye can: employing it onely to the vse it was ordained for; and vsing your selfe in that case, as fidus depositarius to your people.137

And principally, exercise trew Wisedome; in discerning wisely betwixt trew and false reports: First, considering the nature of the person reporter; Next, what entresse he can haue in the weale or euill of him, of whom hee maketh the report; Thirdly, the likely-hood of the purpose it selfe; And, last, the nature and by-past life of the dilated person: and where yee finde a tratler, away with him.138 And although it bee true, that a Prince can neuer without secrecie doe great things, yet it is better ofttimes to try reports, then by credulitie to foster suspicion vpon an honest man. For since suspition is the Tyrants sickenesse, as the fruites of an euill Conscience, potius in alteram partem peccato: 139 I meane, in not mistrusting one, whom-to no such vnhonestie was knowne before. But as for such as haue slipped before, former experience may iustly breed praeuention by fore-sight.

And to conclude my aduice anent your behauiour in your person; consider that GOD is the authour of all vertue, hauing imprinted in mens mindes by the very light of nature, the loue of all morall vertues; as was seene by the vertuous liues of the old Romanes: 140 and preasse then to shine as farre before your people, in all vertue and honestie; as in greatnesse of ranke: that the vse thereof in all your actions, may turne, with time, to a naturall habitude in you; and as by their hearing of your Lawes, so by their sight of your person, both their eyes and their eares, may leade and allure them to the loue of vertue, and hatred of vice.

1 Plato in Polit.

2 Isocr. in Sym.

3 Plato in Polit.

4 Claudian in 4. cons. Hon.

5 Plato in Polit.

6 Arist. 5. Polit.

7 Xen. 8. Cyr.

8 Cic. lib. 5. de Rep.

9 Arist. 5. Polit.

10 Tacit. 4. hist.

11 Cic. 6. de Rep.

12 Arist. 5. Polit.

13 Isocr. in Sym.

14 L. 12. Tab.

15 Cic. 3 de leg. pro D. s. & pro Sest.

16 Sen. de cl.

17 Plato 2. & 10 de Repub.

18 Ar. 7. pol.

19 Cic. ad Q. fr.

20 Plato in Pol. & 9. de L. Sal. orat. ad Caesar.

21 Exod. 20. 12.

22 Plat. 4. de Legib.

23 Arist. 5. polit.

24 Isocr. de reg.

25 Cic. in Of. & ad Q. fr.

26 Deut. 1.

27 Plat. in polit.; Cic. ad Q. frat.; Arist. 1. Ret.; Plat. in Is.

28 Plato in polit.

29 Xantippe.

30 Arist. 5. Polit.

31 Zeno in Cyr.; Iso. in Eu.; Cic. ad Q. fra.

32 Plat. in 1. Al. in pol. & 5. de 1. Arist. 2. oecon.

33 Zeno in Cyr.

34 Ar. 2. pol.

35 P1. 2. de Rep. 8. & 11 . de leg.

36 Plat. 11 . de leg.

37 Plat. 9. de leg.

38 Sal. in Iug.

39 Arist 5. pol.

40 Isoc. in paneg.

41 Hor. de art. poet.

42 Plat. in pol. & Min.

43 Tacit. 7. an. Mart.

44 Xeno. 8. Cyr.; Arist. 5. pol.; Polib. 6; Dion. Hal. de Romul.

45 Isoc. in Plat. & Parag.

46 Arist. ad A.; Varr. 11. de V. P. R.; Cic. 2. Of.; Liu. lib. 4.

47 Liu. lib. 1; Cic. eod.

48 Prop. 4. Eleg.; Lucan 7; Varro 11. de V. P. R.

49 1. Sam. 31.

50 Deut. 18.

51 Plutar. in Sert. & Ant.

52 Luke 14.

53 Thuc. 2. Sal. in lug.; Cic. pro 1. Man.; Demost. olyn. 2; Liu. li. 30; Vegct 1; Caes. I. &3. de bel. ciuili; Proh. in Thras.

54 Caes. 1. de bello ciu.; Liu. 1. 7.; Xen. 1 & 5; Cyr. & de discip. mi.; Xen. in Ages.

55 Pol. l. 5.

56 Xen. 1. Cyr.; Thuc. 5.

57 Isoc. ad Phil.; Pla. 9. de leg.; Liu. l. 22. & 31; Tac. 2. his.; Plut. de fort.

58 Isocr. in Arch.

59 Polib. 3.; Cic. 1. Of. & 7. Phil.; Tac. 4. his.

60 Pl. in po. & 4. de leg.

61 Plat. in Theae. & Euth.; Arist. . Eth.; Cic. in Offic.

62 Psal. 101.

63 Cic. ad Q frat.

64 Plat. 5. de Leg.

65 Arisr. 2. cecon.

66 Ouid. 5. de Trist.

67 Arist. 1. & 5. polit.

68 Cic. ad Q. frat.

69 Witnesse the experience of the late house of Gowrie.

70 Plat. 6. de Leg.; Arist. 2. cecon. & 1. pol.

71 Plat. 6. de leg.; Isocr. in pan.; Arist. 5. pol.

72 Dem. 2. ph.

73 Plat. 7. de Rep.; 3. et 12. de Leg.; Arist. 5. et 6. polit.

74 Psal. 101.

75 Arist. 2. pol.

76 Plat. de repub.; Cic. ad Q. frat.; Isoc. Panath. ad Nic. & de pace.

77 Thuc. 6; Plutar. in pol.

78 Plat. in Phedr. & Menex.; Arist. 5 pol.; Isoc. in in Sym.; Tacit. 3. hist.; Curt. 8.

79 Arist. 5. pol.; Cic. ad Q. frat.

80 Plat. in 1. Al. in pol. & 5. de legib.; Arist. 2. oecon.

81 Isocr. in Areop.

82 Idem in Panath.

83 Arist. 2. pol.; Tacit. 1. hist.

84 Val. lib. 2; Curt. 4.

85 Demost. 8. phil.; Sal. in Cat.; Liu. 22.

86 Tacit eod. & 1. An.

87 Ar. 5. polit.; Tacit. in Ag.; Dion li. 52;Xeno. in Ages.; Isoc. in Sym. et ad Ph.;Id. de permutat.; .Cic. ad Q. frat.

88 1. King. 10.

89 Gen. 2. 23.

90 1. Cor. 6. 10.

91 Reuel. 22. 15.

92 1. Cor. 6. 19.

93 Arist. 7. pol.

94 Id. eod.

95 AEg. Ro. 2. de reg. pr.

96 Matth. 13.

97 Pla. 5. de Rep.; Cic. 2. de Diu.; Arist. de gen. An.; Lucr. 4.

98 Pl. 11. de leg.; Is. in Sym.

99 Cic. 2. de leg.

100 Arist. 8. AEth. & 1. Pol.; Xen. & Arist. in oeco.

101 Arist. 1. rhet.; Plu. in Menon.; AEgid. R. de reg. pr. Plu. 5. de Rep. & 7. de leg.

102 Plu. in Thes. 4. & 5. deRep. & 6. & 7. de l. Arist. 7. pol.

103 Polid. 1.

104 Plu. in Pol.; Cic. ad Q. frat.

105 Arist. 5. pol.; Pol. 6.; Cic. 1. off. 2. de inuen. & in Par.

106 Pla. 4. de Leg.; Arist. 1. mag. mor.; Cic. pro Rab. & ad Q. frat.; Seneca de cl.

107 Arist. 5. aeth. & 1. rhet.; Cicer. pro Cac.

108 Plat. in pol. 5. de Rep. & Epist. 7; Cic. ad Q. frat. & de or.

109 Id. 1. de fin.

110 Id. 1. Offic.

111 Deut. 17.

112 Plat. 4. de Rep. & 6. de Leg.; Arist. 1. rhet.

113 Cic. 1. de Orat.; Sen. in Lud.

114 Plat. in pol.; Arist. 1. Rhet.; Cic. ad Q. frat.; Plut. in Is.

115 Xen. 1. Cyr.

116 Q. frat.; Tac. i.hist.; Demet.

117 Plat. in Menon.

118 Arist. 1. Rhet.; Polit. 1; Plut. in Timo.; Cic. 2. de Or.

119 Eccles. 1.

120 Ezech. 1.

121 Sen. ep. 84.

122 Liu. I. 24; Plut. in Marc.

123 Pl. 7. de leg.; Arist. 2. Meta.

124 Iam. 2. 17.

125 Arist. 4. eth. Sen. de cl.

126 Cic. 1. off.; Virg. 6. AEn.

127 Prou. 20.

128 Plat. 4. de Leg.; Xen. 2. de dict. & fact. Soc.

129 Exod. 20.

130 Xen. 1. & 3. Cyr.

131 Cic. ad Q. frat.

132 Arist. 5. pol.

133 Matth. 18.

134 Arist. 4. eth.; Thuc. 3. 6; Cic. . Of. & ad Q. f.; Brut. ad Cic.

135 Cic. 1. &2. Of.; Sal. in Iug.; Sen. 4. de ben.

136 Isoc. epist. 7; Xen. 8. Cyr.; Phil. Com. 10.

137 Arist. 5. pol.

138 Isocr. ad Ph. in Panath. & de per.; Cic. ad Q. fr.; Plut. de cursos.

139 Isoc. de pac.; Cic. 3. Of.

140 Cicer. 3. Tusc.

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