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OF A KINGS BEHAVIOVR IN INDIFFERENT THINGS.
The Third Booke.

IT is a trew old saying, That a King is as one set on a stage, whose smallest actions and gestures, all the people gazingly doe behold:1 and therefore although a King be neuer so praecise in the discharging of his Office, the people, who seeth but the outward part, will euer iudge of the substance, by the circumstances;2 and according to the outward appearance, if his behauiour bee light or dissolute, will conceiue prae-occupied conceits of the Kings inward intention: which although with time, (the trier of all trewth,) it will euanish, by the euidence of the contrary effects, yet interim patitur iustus; and praeiudged conceits will, in the meane time, breed contempt, the mother of rebellion and disorder.3 And besides that, it is certaine, that all the indifferent actions and behauiour of a man, haue a certaine holding and dependance, either vpon vertue or vice, according as they are vsed or ruled:4 for there is not a middes betwixt them, no more then betwixt their rewards, heauen and hell.

Be carefull then, my Sonne, so to frame all your indifferent actions and out- ward behauiour, as they may serue for the furtherance and forth-setting of your inward vertuous disposition.

The whole indifferent actions of a man, I deuide in two sorts: in his behauiour in things necessary, as food, sleeping, raiment, speaking, writing, and gesture; and in things not necessary, though conuenient and lawfull, as pastimes or exer- cises, and vsing of company for recreation.

As to the indifferent things necessary, although that of themselues they can- not bee wanted, and so in that case are not indifferent; as likewise in-case they bee not vsed with moderation, declining so to the extremitie, which is vice; yet the qualitie and forme of vsing them, may smell of vertue or vice, and be great furtherers to any of them.

To beginne then at the things necessarie; one of the publickest indifferent actions of a King, and that maniest, especially strangers, will narrowly take heed to; is his maner of refection at his Table, and his behauiour thereat. Therefore, as Kings vse oft to eate publickly, it is meete and honourable that ye also doe so, as well to eschew the opinion that yee loue not to haunt companie, which is one of the markes of a Tyrant;5 as likewise, that your delight to eate priuatlie, be not thought to be for private satisfying of your gluttonie; which ye would be ashamed should bee publicklie seene. Let your Table bee honourably serued; but serue your appetite with few dishes, as yong Cyrus6 did: which both is holesommest, and freest from the vice of delicacie, which is a degree of gluttonie.7 And vse most to eate of reasonablie-grosse, and common-meates; aswell for making your bodie strong and durable for trauell at all occasions, either in peace or in warre: as that yee may bee the heartlier receiued by your meane Subiects in their houses, when their cheare may suffice you: which otherwayes would be imputed to you for pride and daintinesse, and breed coldnesse and disdaine in them. Let all your food bee simple, without composition or sauces; which are more like medecines then meate.8 The vsing of them was counted amongst the ancient Romanes a filthie vice of delicacie; because they serue onely for pleasing of the taste, and not for satisfying of the necessitie of nature; abhorring Apicius9 their owne citi- zen, for his vice of delicacie and monsterous gluttonie. Like as both the Grecians and Romanes had in detestation the very name of Philoxenus,10 for his filthie wish of a Crane-craig. And therefore was that sentence vsed amongst them, against these artificiall false appetites, optimum condimentum fames.11 But beware with vsing excesse of meat and drinke; and chiefly, beware of drunkennesse, which is a beastlie vice, namely in a King: but specially beware with it, because it is one of those vices that increaseth with aage. In the forme of your meate-eating, bee neither vnciuill, like a grosse Cynicke; nor affectatlie mignarde, like a daintie dame; but eate in a manlie, round, and honest fashion.12 It is no wayes comely to dispatch affaires, or to be pensiue at meate: but keepe then an open and cheere- full countenance, causing to reade pleasant histories vnto you, that profite may be mixed with pleasure: and when ye are not disposed, entertaine pleasant, quicke, but honest discourses.

And because meat prouoketh sleeping, be also moderate in your sleepe;13 for it goeth much by use: and remember that if your whole life were deuided in four parts, three of them would be found to be consumed on meat, drinke, sleepe, and vnnecessarie occupations.

But albeit ordinarie times would commonly bee kept in meate and sleepe, yet vse your selfe some-times so, that any time in the foure and twentie houres may bee alike to you for any of them; that thereby your diet may be accommodate to your affaires, and not your affaires to your diet:14 not therefore vsing your selfe to ouer great softnesse and delicacie in your sleepe, more then in your meate; and specially in-case yee haue adoe with the warres.

Let not your Chalmer be throng and common in the time of your rest, aswell for comelinesse as for eschewing of carrying reports out of the same. Let them that haue the credite to serue in your Chalmer, be trustie and secret; for a King will haue need to vse secrecie in may things :15 but yet behaue your selfe so in your greatest secrets, as yee neede not bee ashamed, suppose they were all proclaimed at the mercate crosse:16 But specially see that those of your Chalmer be of a sound fame, and without blemish.

Take no heede to any of your dreames, for all prophecies, visions, and prophet- icke dreames are accomplished and ceased in Christ: And therefore take no heede to freets either in dreames, or any other things; for that errour proceedeth of ignorance, and is vnworthy of a Christian, who should be assured, Omnia esse pura puris,17 as Paul sayth; all dayes and meates being alike to Christians.18

Next followeth to speake of raiment, the on-putting whereof is the ordinarie action that followeth next to sleepe.19 Be also moderate in your raiment, neither ouer superfluous, like a deboshed waster; nor yet ouer base, like a miserable wretch; not artificially trimmed and decked, like a Courtizane, nor yet ouer sluggishly clothed, like a countrey clowne, not ouer lightly like a Candie souldier or a vaine young Courtier; nor yet ouer grauely, like a Minister: but in your garments be proper, cleanely, comely and honest, wearing your clothes in a care- lesse, yet comely forme: keeping in them a middle forme, inter Togatos & Palu- datos,20 betwixt the grauitie of the one and lightnesse of the other: thereby to signifie, that by your calling yee are mixed of both the professions; Togatus, as a Iudge making and pronouncing the Law; 21 Paludatus, by the power of the sword: as your office is likewise mixed, betwixt the Ecclesiasticall and ciuill estate: For a King is not merè laicus, as both the Papists and Anabaptists would haue him, to the which error also the Puritanes incline ouer farre. But to returne to the purpose of garments, they ought to be vsed according to their first institu- tion by God, which was for three causes: first to hide our nakednesse and shame; next and consequently, to make vs more comely, and thirdly, to preserue vs from the iniuries of heate and colde. If to hide our nakednesse and shamefull parts, then these naturall parts ordained to be hid, should not be represented by any vndecent formes in the cloathes: and if they should helpe our comelinesse, they should not then by their painted preened fashion, serue for baites to filthie lecherie, as false haire and fairding does amongst vnchast women: and if they should preserue vs from the iniuries of heat and colde, men should not, like sense- lesse stones, contemne God, in lightlying the seasons, glorying to conquere honour on heate and colde. And although it be praise-worthy and necessarie in a Prince, to be patiens algoris & aestus, when he shall haue adoe with warres vpon the fields; yet I thinke it meeter that ye goe both cloathed and armed, then naked to the battell, except you would make you light for away-running: and yet for cowards, metus addit alas. And shortly, in your cloathes keepe a proportion, aswell with the seasons of the yeere, as of your aage: in the fashions of them being carelesse, vsing them according to the common forme of the time, some-times richlier, some-times meanlier cloathed, as occasion serueth, without keeping any precise rule therein: 22 For if your mind be found occupied vpon them, it wil be thought idle otherwaies, and ye shall bee accounted in the number of one of these compti iuuenes; 23 which wil make your spirit and iudgment to be lesse thought of. But specially eschew to be effeminate in your cloathes, in perfuming, preening, or such like: and faile neuer in time of warres to bee galliardest and brauest, both in cloathes and countenance. And make not a foole of yourselfe in disguising or wearing long haire or nailes, which are but excrements, of nature, and bewray such misusers of them, to bee either of a vindictiue, or a vaine light naturall. Especially, make no vowes in such vaine and outward things, as concerne either meate or cloathes.

Let your selfe and all your Court weare no ordinarie armour with your cloathes, but such as is knightly and honourable; I meane rapier-swordes, and daggers: For tuilyesome weapons in the Court, betokens confusion in the countrey. And therefore bannish not onely from your Court, all traiterous offensiue weapons, forbidden by the Lawes, as guns and such like (whereof I spake alreadie) but also all traiterous defensiue armes, as secrets, plate-sleeues, and such like vnseene armour: For, besides that the wearers thereof, may be presupposed to haue a secret euill intention, they want both the vses that defensiue armour is ordained for; which is, to be able to holde out violence, and by their outward glaunsing in their enemies eyes, to strike a terrour in their hearts: Where by the contrary, they can serue for neither, being not onely vnable to resist, but dangerous for shots, and gluing no outward showe against the enemie; beeing onely ordained, for betraying vnder trust, whereof honest men should be ashamed to beare the outward badge, not resembling the thing they are not. And for answere against these arguments, I know none but the olde Scots fashion; which if it be wrong, is no more to be allowed for ancientnesse, then the olde Masse is, which also our forefathers vsed.

The next thing that yee haue to take heed to, is your speaking and language; whereunto I ioyne your gesture, since action is one of the chiefest qualities, that is required in an oratour: 24 for as the tongue speaketh to the eares, so doeth the gesture speake to the eyes of the auditour.25 In both your speaking and your gesture, vse a nturall and plaine forme, not fairded with artifice: 26 for (as the French-men say) Rien contre-faict fin: but eschew all affectate formes in both.

In your language be plaine, honest, naturall, comely, cleane, short, and senten- tious, eschewing both the extremities, aswell in not vsing any rusticall corrupt leide, as booke-language, and pen and inke-horne termes: 27 and least of all mi- gnard and effoeminate tearmes. But let the greatest part of your eloquence consist in a naturall, cleare, and sensible forme of the deliuerie of your minde, builded euer vpon certaine and good grounds; 28 tempering it with grauitie, quickenesse, or merinesse, according to the subiect, and occasion of the time; not taunting in Theologie, nor alleadging and prophaning the Scripture in drinking purposes, as ouer many doe.

Vse also the like forme in your gesture; neither looking sillily, like a stupide pedant; 29 nor vnsetledly, with an vncouth morgue, like a new-comeouer Cavalier: but let your behauiour be naturall, graue, and according to the fashion of the countrey.30 Be not ouer-sparing in your courtesies, for that will be imputed to inciuilitie and arrogancie: 31 nor yet ouer prodigall in iowking or nodding at euery step: for that forme of being popular, becommeth better aspiring Absalons, then lawfull Kings: 32 framing euer your gesture according to your present actions: 33 looking grauely and with a maiestie when yee sit in iudgement, or giue audience to Embassadours, homely, when ye are in priuate with your owne seruants; merily, when ye are at any pastime or merrie discourse; and let your countenance smell of courage and magnanimitie when ye are at the warres. And remember (I say ouer againe) to be plaine and sensible in your language: 34 for besides that it is the tongues office, to be the messenger of the mind, it may be thought a point of imbecillitie of spirit in a King, to speake obscurely, much more vntrewly; as if he stood in awe of any in vttering his thoughts.35

Remember also, to put a difference betwixt your forme of language in reason- ing, and your pronouncing of sentences, or declaratour of your wil in iudgement, or any other waies in the points of your office 36 For in the former case, yee must reason pleasantly and patiently, not like a king, but like a priuate man and a scholer; otherwaies, your impatience of contradiction will be interpreted to be for lacke of reason on your part. Where in the points of your office, ye should ripely aduise indeede, before yee giue foorth your sentence: but fra it be giuen foorth, the suffering of any contradiction diminisheth the maiestie of your au- thoritie, and maketh the processes endelsse37. The like forme would also bee ob- serued by all your inferiour Iudges and Magistrates.38

Now as to your writing, which is nothing else, but a forme of en-registrate speech; vse a plaine, short, but stately stile, both in your Proclamations and missiues, especially to forraine Princes. And if your engine spur you to write any workes, either in verse or in prose, I cannot but allow you to practise it: but take no longsome workes in hand, for distracting you from your calling.

Flatter not your selfe in your labours, but before they bee set foorth, let them first bee priuily censured by some of the best skilled men in that craft, that in these workes yee meddle with.39 And because your writes will remaine as true pictures of your minde, to all posterities; let them bee free of all vncomelinesse and vn-honestie: and according to Horace his counsell - Nonumquam premantur in annum.40 I meane both your verse and your prose; letting first that furie and heate, wherewith they were written, coole at leasure; and then as an vncouth iudge. and censour, reuising them ouer againe, before they bee published, - quia nescit vox missa reuerti.41

If yee would write worthily, choose subiects worthie of you, that bee not full of vanitie, but of vertue; eschewing obscuritie, and delighting euer to bee plaine and sensible. And if yee write in verse, remember that it is not the principal part of a Poeme to rime right, and flowe well with many pretie wordes: but the chiefe commendation of a Poeme is, that when the verse shall bee shaken sundrie in prose, it shall bee found so rich in quicke inuentions, and poeticke flowers, and in faire and pertinent comparisons; as it shall retaine the lustre of a Poeme, although in prose.42 And I would also aduise you to write in your owne language: for there is nothing left to be saide in Greeke and Latine alreadie; and ynew of poore schollers would match you in these languages; and besides that, it best becommeth a King to purifie and make famous his owne tongue; wherein he may goe before all his subjects; as it setteth him well to doe in all honest and lawfull things.

And amongst all vnnecessarie things that are lawfull and expedient, I thinke exercises of the bodie most commendable to be vsed by a young Prince, in such honest games or pastimes, as may further abilitie and maintaine health: 43 For albeit I graunt it to be most requisite for a King to exercise his engine, which surely with idlenesse will ruste and become blunt; yet certainely bodily exercises and games are very commendable;44 as well for bannishing of idlenesse (the mother of all vice) as for making his bodie able and durable for trauell, which is very necessarie for a King.45 But from this count I debarre all rough and violent exercises, as the footeball; meeter for laming, then making able the vsers thereof:46 as likewise such tumbling trickes as only serue for Comoedians and Balladines, to win their bread with. But the exercises that I would haue you to vse (although but moderately, not making a craft of them) are running, leaping, wrastling,, fencing, dancing, and playing at the caitch or tennise, archerie, palle maille, and such like other faire and pleasant field-games.47 And the honourablest and most commendable games that yee can vse, are on horsebacke:48 for it becommeth a Prince best of any man, to be a faire and good horse-man.49 Vse therefore to ride and danton great and couragious horses; that I may say of you, as Philip said of great Alexander his sonne, Μακεδονία οὐ σε χωρεῖ.50 And specially vse such games on horse-backe, as may teach you to handle your armes thereon; such as the tilt, the ring, and low-riding for handling of your sword.

I cannot omit heere the hunting, namely with running hounds; which is the most honourable and noblest sorte thereof: for it is a theeuish forme of hunting to shoote with gunnes and bowes; and greyhound hunting is not so martiall a game: But because I would not be thought a partiall praiser of this sport, I remit you to Xenophon,51 an olde and famous writer, who had no minde of flatter- ing you or me in this purpose: and who also setteth downe a faire paterne, for the education of a yong king, vnder the supposed name of Cyrus.52

As for hawking I condemne it not, but I must praise it more sparingly, because it neither resembleth the warres so neere as hunting doeth, in making a man hardie, and skilfully ridden in all grounds, and is more vncertaine and subiect to mischances; and (which is worst of all) is therethrough an extreme stirrer vp of passions: But in vsing either of these games, obserue that moderation, that ye slip not therewith the houres appointed for your affaires, which ye ought euer precisely to keepe;53 remembring that these games are but ordained for you, in enabling you for your office, for the which ye are ordained.

And as for sitting house-pastimes, wherewith men by driuing time, spurre a free and fast ynough running horse (as the prouerbe is) although they are not profitable for the exercise either of minde or body,54 yet can I not vtterly condemne them; since they may at times supply the roome, which being emptie, would be patent to pernicious idlenesse, quia nihil potest esse vacuum.555 I will not there- fore agree with the curiositie of some learned men in our aage, in forbidding cardes, dice, and other such like games of hazard; although otherwayes surely I reuerence them as notable and godly men: For they are deceiued therein, in founding their argument vpon a mistaken ground, which is, that the playing at such games, is a kind of casting of lot, and therefore vnlawfull; wherein they deceiue themselues: For the casting of lot was vsed for triall of the trewth in any obscure thing, that otherwayes could not be gotten cleared; and therefore was a sort of prophecie: where by the contrary, no man goeth to any of these playes, to cleare any obscure trewth, but onely to gage so much of his owne money, as hee pleaseth, vpon the hazard of the running of the cardes or dice, aswell as he would doe vpon the speede of a horse or a dog, or any such like gaigeour: And so, if they be vnlawfull, all gaigeours vpon vncertainties must likewayes be condemned: Not that thereby I take the defence of vaine carders and dicers, that waste their moyen, and their time (whereof fewe consider the pretiousnesse) vpon prodigall and continuall playing:56 no, I would rather allow it to be discharged, where such corruption can- not be eschewed. But only I cannot condemne you at some times, when ye haue no other thing adoe (as a good King will be seldome) and are wearie of reading, or euill disposed in your person, and when it is foule and stormie weather; then, I say, may ye lawfully play at the cardes or tables: For as to dicing, I thinke it becommeth best deboshed souldiers to play at, on the head of their drums, being onely ruled by hazard, and subiect to knauish cogging. And as for the chesse, I thinke it ouer fond, because it is ouer-wise and Philosophicke a folly. For where all such light playes, are ordained to free mens heads for a time, from the fashious thoughts on their affaires; it by the contrarie filleth and troubleth mens heads, with as many fashious toyes of the play, as before it was filled with thoughts on his affaires.

But in your playing, I would haue you to keepe three rules: first, or ye play, consider yee doe it onely for your recreation, and resolue to hazard the losse of all that ye play; and next, for that cause play no more then yee care to cast among Pages: and last, play alwaies faire play precisely, that ye come not in vse of tricking and lying in ieast: otherwise, if yee cannot keepe these rules, my coun- sell is that yee allutterly abstaine from these playes: For neither a madde passion for losse, nor falshood vsed for desire of gaine, can be called a play.

Now, it is not onely lawfull, but necessarie, that yee haue companie meete for euery thing yee take on hand, as well in your games and exercises, as in your graue and earnest affaires: But learne to distinguish time according to the oc- casion, choosing your companie accordingly.57 Conferre not with hunters at your counsell, nor in your counsell affaires: nor dispatch not affaires at hunting or other games. And haue the like respect to the seasons of your aage, vsing your sortes of recreation and companie therefore, agreeing thereunto: For it becom- meth best, as kindliest, euery aage to smell of their owne qualitie, insolence and vnlawful things beeing alwaies eschewed:58 and not that a colt should draw the plough, and an olde horse run away with the harrowes. But take heede specially, that your companie for recreation, be chosen of honest persons, not defamed or vicious, mixing filthie talke with merrinesse, Corrumpunt bonos mores colloquia praua. And chiefly abstaine from haunting before your mariage, the idle companie of dames, which are nothing else, but irritamenta libidinis. Bee warre likewaies to abuse your selfe, in making your sporters your counsellers: and delight not to keepe ordinarily in your companie, Comoedians or Balladines:59 for the Tyrans delighted most in them, glorying to bee both authors and actors of Comoedies and Tragedies themselues: Whereupon the answere that the poet Philoxenus dis- dainfully gaue to the Tyran of Syracuse there-anent, is now come in a prouerbe, reduc me in latomias.60 And all the ruse that Nero made of himselfe when he died, was Qualis artifex pereo?61 meaning of his skill in menstrally, and playing of Tragoedies; as indeede his whole life and death, was all but one Tragoedie.

Delight not also to bee in your owne person a player vpon instruments; especially on such as commonly men winne their liuing with: nor yet to be fine of any mechanicke craft: Leur esprit s'en fuit au bout des doigts, saith Du Bartas: 62 whose workes, as they are all most worthie to bee read by any Prince, or other spare not some-times by merie company, to be free from importunitie; for ye should be euer mooued with reason, which is the onely qualitie whereby men differ from beasts; and not with importunitie: 63 For the which cause (as also for augmenting your Maiestie) ye shall not be so facile of accesse-giuing at all times, as I haue beene; and yet not altogether retired 64 or locked vp,65 like the Kings of Persia; appointing also certaine houres for publicke audience.66

And since my trust is, that God hath ordained you for moe Kingdomes then this (as I haue oft alreadie said) preasse by the outward behauiour as well of your owne person, as of your court, in all indifferent things, to allure piece and piece, the rest of your kingdomes, to follow the fashions of that kingdome of yours, that yee finde most ciuill, easiest to be ruled, and most obedient to the Lawes: for these outward and indifferent things will serue greatly for allurements to the people, to embrace and follow vertue. But beware of thrawing or constraining them thereto; letting it bee brought on with time, and at leisure; specially by so mixing through alliance and daily conuersation, the inhabitants of euery kingdom with other, as may with time make them to grow and welde all in one: Which may easily be done betwixt these two nations, being both but one Ile of Britaine, and alreadie ioyned in vnitie of Religion and language. So that euen as in the times of our ancestours, the long warres and many bloodie battels be- twixt these two countreys, bred a naturall and hereditarie hatred in euery of them, against the other: the vniting and welding of them hereafter in one, by all sort of friendship, commerce, and alliance, will by the contrary produce and maintaine a naturall and inseparable vnitie of loue amongst them. As we haue already (praise be to God) a great experience of the good beginning hereof, and of the quenching of the olde hate in the hearts of both the people; procured by the meanes of this long and happy amitie, betweene the Queene my dearest sister and me; which during the whole time of both our Reignes, hath euer beene inuiolably obserued.

And for conclusion of this my whole Treatise, remember my Sonne, by your trew and constant depending vpon God, to looke for a blessing to all your actions in your office: by the outward vsing thereof, to testifie the inward vprightnesse of your heart; and by your behauiour in all indifferent things, to set foorth the viue image of your vertuous disposition; and in respect of the greatnesse and weight of your burthen, to be patient in hearing, keeping your heart free from praeoccupation, ripe in concluding, and constant in your resolution: 67 For better it is to bide at your resolution, although there were some defect in it, then by daily changing, to effectuate nothing: 68 taking the paterne thereof from the mi- crocosme of your owne body; wherein ye haue two eyes, signifying great foresight and prouidence, with a narrow looking in all things; and also two eares, signify- ing patient hearing, and that of both the parties: but ye haue but one tongue, for pronouncing a plaine, sensible, and vniforme sentence; and but one head, and one heart, for keeping a constant & vniforme resolution, according to your appre- hension: hauing two hands and two feete, with many fingers and toes for quicke execution, in employing all instruments meet for effectuating your deliberations.

But forget not to digest euer your passion, before ye determine vpon any- thing, since Ira furor breuis est:69 vttering onely your anger according to the Apostles rule, Irascimini, sed ne peccetis: 70 taking pleasure, not only to reward, but to aduance the good, which is a chiefe point of a Kings glory (but make none ouer-great, but according as the power of the countrey may beare) and punishing the euill; but euery man according to his owne offence: 71 not punish- ing nor blaming the father for the sonne, nor the brother for the brother; 72 much lesse generally to hate a whole race for the fault of one: for noxa caput sequitur.73

And aboue all, let the measure of your loue to euery one, be according to the measure of his vertue; letting your fauour to be no longer tyed to any, then the continuance of his vertuous disposition shall deserue: not admitting the excuse vpon a iust reuenge, to procure ouersight to an iniurie: For the first iniurie is committed against the partie; but the parties reuenging thereof at his owne hand, is a wrong committed against you, in vsurping your office, whom-to onely the sword belongeth, for reuenging of all the iniuries committed against any of your people.

Thus hoping in the goodnes of God, that your naturall inclination shall haue a happy sympathie with these precepts, making the wise-mans scholemaster, which is the example of others, to bee your teacher, according to that old verse, Faelix quem faciunt aliena pericula cautum; eschewing so the ouer-late repentance by your owne experience, which is the schoole-master of fooles; I wil for end of all, require you my Sonne, as euer ye thinke to deserue my fatherly blessing, to keepe continually before the eyes of your minde, the greatnesse of your charge:74 making the faithfull and due dis- charge thereof, the principal butt ye shoot at in all your actions:75 counting it euer the principall, and all your other actions but as accessories, to be emploied as middesses for the furthering of that principall. And being content to let others excell in other things, let it be your chiefest earthly glory, to excell in your owne craft: according to the worthy counsel and charge of Anchises to his pos- teritie, in that sublime and heroicall Poet, wherein also my dicton is included; Excudent alij spirantia mollius aera,
Credo equidem, & viuos ducent de marmore vultus,
Orabunt causas melius, caelique meatus
Describent radio, & surgentia sydera dicent.
Tu; regere imperio populos, Romane, memento
(Hae tibi erunt artes) pacique imponere morem,
"Parcere subiectis, & debellare superbos.76

1 C. ph. 8. 3. de leg. Ouid. ad Liu.

2 Quin. 4. decl.

3 Arist. 5. pol.

4 Plato in Phil. & 9. de leg.

5 Xen. in Cyr.

6 Xen. 1. Cyr.

7 Plut. in Apoth.

8 Sen. ep. 96.

9 Sen. de consol. ad Alb.; Iuuen. sat. 2.

10 Arist. 4. eth.

11 Xen. de dict. & fact. Socr.; Laert. in Socr.; Cic.5. Tus.; Plat. 6. de Leg.; Plin. l. 14.

12 Cic. 1. Off.

13 Pla. 7. de leg.

14 Pla. 6. de leg.

15 Val. 2; Cur. 4.

16 Pla. 6. de leg.

17 Rom. 14.

18 Titus 1.

19 Isocr. de reg.

20 Cic. 1. Offic.

21 Plat. de rege.

22 Cic. 1. Off.

23 Ar. ad Alex.

24 Arist. 3. ad Theod.

25 Cic. in orat. ad Q. frat. & ad Bren.

26 Cic. 1. Offic.

27 Id. eod.

28 Cic. ad Q. frat. & ad Brut.

29 Idem. 1. Off.

30 Phil. ad Alex.

31 Cic. 2. Off.

32 Arist. 4. aeth.

33 Cic. ad At.

34 Isoc. de reg. & in Euagr.

35 Cic. 3. Off.

36 Id. 1. Off.

37 Isoc. ad Nic.

38 Cic. ad Q. frat.

39 Cic. 1. Off.

40 De arte Poetica.

41 Idem eod.

42 Ar. de art. Poet.

43 Xen. 1. Cyr.

44 Plat. 6. de leg.

45 Ar. 7. & 3. pol.

46 Cic. 1. Off.

47 P1. eod.

48 Xen. in Cyr.

49 Is. de iug.

50 Plut. in Alex.

51 In Cyn. 1. Cyr. & de rep. Lac.; Cic. 1. Offic.

52 Cyropoedia.

53 Arist. 10. Eth.

54 Arist. 8. pol.

55 Dan. de lus. al.

56 Cic. 1. Offic.

57 Isoc. de reg.; Cic. 1. Off.

58 Ar. 2. ad Theod.

59 P1. 3. de rep.; Ar. 7. & 8. pol.; Sen. 1. ep. Dyon.

60 Suidas.

61 Suet. in Ner.

62 1. Sep.

63 Curt. 8.

64 Liu. 35.

65 Xen. in Ages.

66 Cic. ad Q. frat.

67 Thuc. 6.

68 Dion. 52.

69 Hor. lib. I. epist.

70 Ephes. 4.

71 Arist. 5. pol.

72 Dion. 52.

73 Plat. 9. de leg.

74 Plat. in pol.

75 Cic. 5. de rep.

76 Virg 6. AEn.

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