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FIRST, the Pope expresseth herein his sorrow, for that persecution which the Catholiques sustaine for the faiths sake. Wherein, besides the maine vntrewth whereby I am so iniuriously vsed, I must euer auow and maintaine, as the trewth is according to mine owne knowledge, that the late Queene of famous memory, neuer punished any Papist for Religion, but that their owne punishment was euer extorted out of her hands against her will, by their owne misbehauiour, which both the time and circumstances of her actions will manifestly make proofe of. For before Pius Quintus his excommunication giuing her ouer for a prey, and setting her Subiects at libertie to rebell, it is well knowne she neuer medled with the blood or hard punishment of any Catholique, nor made any rigorous Lawes against them. And since that time, who list to compare with an indifferent eye, the mani- fold intended inuasions against her whole kingdome, the forreine practises, the internall publike rebellions, the priuate plots and machinations, poysonings, murthers, and all sorts of deuises, & quid non ? daily set abroach; and all these wares continually fostered and fomented from Rome; together with the con- tinuall corrupting of her Subiects, as well by temporall bribes, as by faire and specious promises of eternall felicitie; and nothing but booke vpon booke pub- likely set foorth by her fugitiues, for approbation of so holy designes: who list, I say, with an indifferent eye, to looke on the one part, vpon those infinite and intol- lerable temptations, and on the other part vpon the iust, yet moderate punish- ment of a part of these hainous offendors; shall easily see that that blessed defunct LADIE was as free from persecution, as they shall free these hellish Instruments from the honour of martyrdome. 5. But now hauing sacrificed (if I may so say) to the Manes of my late Pre- decessour, I may next with Saint Pavl iustly vindicate mine owne fame, from those innumerable calumnies spread against me, in testifying the trewth of my behauiour toward the Papists: wherein I may trewly affirme, That whatsoeuer was her iust and mercifull Gouernement ouer the Papists in her time, my Gouerne- ment ouer them since hath so farre exceeded hers, in Mercie and Clemencie, as not onely the Papists themselues grewe to that height of pride, in confidence of my mildnesse, as they did directly expect, and assuredly promise to themselues libertie of Conscience, and equalitie with other of my Subiects in all things; but euen a number of the best and faithfulliest of my sayde Subiects, were cast in great feare and amazement of my course and proceedings, euer prognosticating and iustly suspecting that sowre fruite to come of it, which shewed it selfe clearely in the Powder-Treason. How many did I honour with Knighthood, of knowen and open Recusants ? How indifferently did I giue audience, and accesse to both sides, bestowing equally all fauours and honours on both professions ? How free and continuall accesse, had all rankes and degrees of Papists in my Court and company ? And aboue all, how frankely and freely did I free Recusants of their ordinarie paiments ? Besides, it is euident what strait order was giuen out of my owne mouth to the Iudges, to spare the execution of all Priests, (notwithstanding their conuiction,) ioyning thereunto a gracious Proclamation, whereby all Priests, that were at libertie, and not taken, might goe out of the contrey by such a day: my generall Pardon hauing beene extended to all conuicted Priestes in prison: whereupon they were set at libertie as good Subiects: and all Priests that were taken after, sent over and set at libertie there. But time and paper will faile me to make enumeration of all the benefits and fauours that I bestowed in generall and particular vpon Papists: in recounting whereof, euery scrape of my penne would serue but for a blot of the Popes ingratitude and iniustice, in meating me with so hard a measure for the same. So as I thinke I haue sufficiently, or at least with good reason wiped the teares1 from the Popes eyes, for complaining vpon such persecution, who if hee had beene but politickely wise, although hee had had no respect to Iustice and Veritie, would haue in this complaint of his, made a dif- ference betweene my present time, and the time of the late Queene: And so by his commending of my moderation, in regard of former times, might haue had hope to haue mooued me to haue continued in the same clement course: For it is a trew saying, that alledged kindnesse vpon noble mindes, doeth euer worke much. And for the maine vntrewth of any persecution in my time, it can neuer bee prooued, that any were, or are put to death since I came to the Crowne for cause of Conscience; except that now this discharge giuen by the Pope to all Catholiques to take their Oath of Allegiance to me, be the cause of the due punishment of many: which if it fall out to be, let the blood light vpon the Popes head, who is the onely cause thereof.

As for the next point contained in his Breue concerning his discharge of all Papists to come to our Church, or frequent our rites and ceremonies, I am not to meddle at this time with that matter, because my errand now onely is to publish to the world the Iniurie and Iniustice done vnto me, in discharging my subiects to make profession of their obedience vnto mee. Now as to the point where the Oath is quarrelled, it is set downe in few, but very weighty words; to wit, That it ought to be cleare vnto all Catholiques, that this Oath cannot bee taken with safetie of the Catholique Faith, and of their soules health, since it containeth many things that are plainely and directly contrarie to their faith and saluation. To this, the old saying fathered vpon the Philosopher, may very fitly bee applied, Multa dicit, sed pauca probat; nay indeed, Nihil omnino probat: For how the profession of the naturall Allegiance of Subiects to their Prince can be directly opposite to the faith and saluation of soules, is so farre beyond my simple reading in Diuinitie, as I must thinke it a strange and new Assertion, to proceed out of the mouth of that pretended generall Pastor of all Christian soules. I reade indeede, and not in one, or two, or three places of Scripture, that Subiects are bound to obey their Princes for conscience sake, whether they were good or wicked Princes. So said the people to Ioshua,2 As wee obeyed Moses in all things, so will wee obey thee. So the Pro- phet3 commanded the peoples to obey the King of Babel, saying, Put your neckes vnder the yoke of the King of Babel, and serue him and his people, that yee may liue. So were the children of Israel, vnto Pharaoh,4 desiring him to let them goe: so to Cyrus,5 obtaining leaue of him to returne to build the Temple: and in a word, the Apostle willed all men to bee subiect to the higher powers for conscience sake.6 Agreeable to the Scriptures did the Fathers teach. Augustine7 speaking of Iulian, saith, Iulian was an vnbeleeuing Emperour: was hee not an Apostata, an Oppressour, and an Idolater ? Christian Souldiers serued that vnbeleeuing Emperour: when they came to the cause of CHRIST, they would acknowledge no Lord, but him that is in heauen. When hee would haue them to worship Idoles and to sacrifice, they preferred GOD before him: But when he said, Goe forth to fight, inuade such a nation, they presently obeyed. They distinguished their eternall Lord from their temporall, and yet were they subiect euen vnto their temporall Lord, for his sake that was their eternall Lord and Master. Tertullian8 fayth, A Christian is enemie to no man, much lesse to the Prince, whom hee knoweth to bee appointed of God; and so of necessitie must loue, reuerence and honour him, and wish him safe with the whole Romane Empire, so long as the world shall last: for so long shall it endure. Wee honour therefore the Emperour in such sort, as is lawfull for vs, and expedientfor him, as a man, the next vnto God, and obtaining from God, whatsoeuer hee hath, and onely inferiour vnto God. This the Emperour himselfe would: for so is hee greater then all, while hee is inferiour onely to the trew God. Iustine Martyr;9 Wee onely adore the Lord, and in all other things cheerefully performe seruice to you, professing that you are Emperours and Princes of men. Ambrose;10 I may lament, weepe, and sigh: My tears are my weapons against their armes, souldiers, and the Gothes also: such are the weapons of a Priest: Otherwise, neither ought I, neither can I resist. Optatus;11 Ouer the Emperour, there is none but onely God, that made the Emperour. And Gregory12 writing to Mauritius about a certaine Law, that a Souldier should not be receiued into a Monasterie, nondum expleta militia, The Almightie God, sayeth hee, holdes him guiltie, that is not vpright to the most excellent Emperour in all things that hee doeth or speaketh. And then calling himselfe the vnworthy seruant of his Godlinesse, goeth on the whole Epistle to shewe the iniustice of that Lawe, as hee pretendeth: and in the end concludes his Epistle with these wordes; I being subiect to your command, haue caused the same Law to be sent through diuers parts of your Dominions: and because the Law it selfe doeth not agree to the Law of the Almightie God, I haue signified the same by my Letters to your most excellent Lord- ship: so that on both parts I haue payed what I ought; because I haue yeelded obedience to the Emperour, and haue not holden my peace, in what I thought for God. Now how great a contrarietie there is, betwixt this ancient Popes action in obey- ing an Emperour by the publication of his Decree, which in his owne conscience hee thought vnlawfull, and this present Popes prohibition to a Kings Subiects from obedience vnto him in things most lawfull and meere temporall; I remit it to the Readers indifferencie. And answerably to the Fathers, spake the Councels in their Decrees. As the Councell of Arles,13 submitting the whole Councell to the Emperour in these wordes; These things wee haue decreed to be presented to our Lord the Emperour, beseeching his Clemencie, that if wee haue done lesse then wee ought, it may be supplyed by his wisdome: if any thing otherwise then reason re- quireth, it may be corrected by his iudgement: if any thing be found fault with by vs with reason, it may be perfected by his aide with Gods fauourable assistance.

But why should I speak of Charles the great, to whome not one Councell, but sixe seuerall Councels, Frankeford, Arles, Tours, Chalons, Ments and Rhemes did wholly submit themselues ? and not rather speake of all the generall Councels, that of Nice, Constantinople, Ephesus, Chalcedon, and the foure other commonly so reputed, which did submit themselues to the Emperours wisedome and piety in all things ? Insomuch as that of Ephesus repeated it foure seuerall times, That they were summoned by the Emperours Oracle, becke, charge and command, and betooke themselues to his Godlinesse; beseeching him, that the Decrees made against Nestorius and his followers, might by his power have their full force and validitie,14 as appeareth manifestly in the Epistle of the generall Councell of Ephesus written ad Augustos. I also reade that Christ said, His kingdome15 was not of this world, bidding, Giue to Caesar what was Caesars,16 and to God what was Gods. And I euer held it for an infallible Maxime in Diuinitie, That temporall obedience to a tem- porall Magistrate, did nothing repugne to matters of faith or saluation of soules: But that euer temporall obedience was against faith and saluation of soules, as in this Breue is alledged, was neuer before heard nor read of in the Christian Church. And therefore I would haue wished the Pope, before hee had set downe this com- mandement to all Papists here, That, since in him is the power by the infabillity of his spirit, to make new Articles of Faith when euer it shall please him; he had first set it downe for an Article of Faith, before he had commended all Catho- likes to beleeue and obey it. I will then conclude the answere to this point in a Dilemma.

Either it is lawfull to obey the Soueraigne in temporal things, or not.

1. If it be lawfull (as I neuer heard nor read it doubted of) then why is the Pope so vniust, and so cruell towards his owne Catholikes, as to command them to disobey their Soueraignes lawfull commandement ?

2. If it be vnlawfull, why hath hee neither expressed any one cause or reason thereof, nor yet will giue them leaue (nay rather hee should command and per- swade them in plaine termes) not to liue vnder a King whom vnto they ought no obedience ?

And as for the vehement exhortation vnto them to perseuere in constancie, and to suffer Martyrdome and all tribulation for this cause; it requireth no other answer then onely this, That if the ground be good whereupon hee hath com- maunded them to stand, then exhortation to constancie is necessarie: but if the ground be vniust and naught (as indeed it is, and I haue in part already proued) then this exhortation of his can worke no other effect, then to make him guilty of the blood of so many of his sheepe, whom hee doeth thus wilfully cast away; not onely to the needlesse losse of their liues, and ruine of their families, but euen to the laying on of a perpetuall slander vpon all Papists; as if no zealous Papist could be a trew subiect to his Prince; and that the profession of that Religion, and the Temporall obedience to the Ciuill Magistrate, were two things repugnant and incompatible in themselues. But euill information, and vntrew reports17 (which being caried so farre as betweene this and Rome, cannot but increase by the way) might haue abused the Pope, and made him dispatch this Breue so rashly: For that great Citie, Queene of the World, and as themselues confesse,18 mystically Babylon, cannot but be so full of all sorts of Intelligencies. Besides, all complainers (as the Catholikes here are) be naturally giuen to exaggerate their owne griefs, and multiply thereupon: So that it is no wonder, that euen a iust ludge sitting there, should vpon wrong information, giue an vnrighteous sentence; as some of their owne partie doe not sticke to confesse, That Pius Quintus was too rashly caried vpon wrong information, to pronounce his thunder of Excommuni- cation vpon the late Queene. And it may be, the like excuse shall hereafter be made for the two Breues, which Clemens Octauus 19 sent to England immediatly before her death, for debarring me of the Crowne, or any other that either would professe, or any wayes tolerate the professours of our Religion; contrary to his manifold vowes and protestations, simul & eodem tempore, and as it were, deliuered vno & eodem spiritu, to diuers of my ministers abroad, professing such kindnesse, and shewing such forwardnesse to aduance me to this Crowne. Nay, the most part of Catholikes here, finding this Breue when it came to their handes to bee so farre against Diuinitie, Policie, or naturall sense, were firmely perswaded that it was but a counterfeit Libell, deuised in hatred of the Pope; or at the farthest, a thing hastily done vpon wrong information, as was before said. Of which opinion were not onely the simpler sort of Papists, but euen some amongst them of best account, both for learning and experience; whereof the Archpriest himselfe was one: But for soluing of this obiection, the Pope himselfe hath taken new paines by sending foorth a second Breue, onely for gluing faith and confirmation to the former; That whereas before, his sinne might haue beene thought to haue pro- ceeded from rashnesse and mis-information, he will now willfully and willingly double the same; whereof the Copy followeth.

1 Magno cum animi moerore, &c.

2 Iosh. 1.7.

3 Iere. 27. 12.

4 Exod. 5. 1.

5 Ezra 1. 3.

6 Rom. 13. 5.

7 August. in Psalm. 124.

8 Tertull. ad Scap.

9 Iust. Martyr. Apol. 2. ad Ant. Imperat.

10 Amb. in orat. cont. Auxentium, de basilicis traden. habetur lib. 5. epist. Ambr.

11 Optat. contra Parmen. lib. 3.

12 Greg. Mag. Epist. lib 2. indict. 11. Epist. 61.

13 Concil. Arelatense sub Carolo Mag. Can. 26.

14 Vide Epistolam generalis Conc. Ephes. ad August.

15 Iohn 18. 36.

16 Matt. 22. 21.

17 Famavires acquirit eundo.

18 Eusebius, Oecumenius and Leo hold, that by Babylon, in 1. Pet. 5. 13. Rome is meant, as the Rhemists themselues confesse.

19 See the Relation of the whole proceedings against the Traitours, Garnet and his confederates.

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