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I HAVE no humour to play the Curious in a forraine Commonwealth, or, vnre- quested, to carry any hand in my neighbours affaires. It hath more congruitie with Royall dignitie, whereof God hath giuen mee the honour, to prescribe Lawes at home for my Subiects, rather then to furnish forraine Kingdomes and people with counsels. Howbeit, my late entire affection to K. Henry IV. of happy memorie, my most honoured brother, and my exceeding sorrow for the most detestable parricide acted vpon the sacred person of a King, so complete in all heroicall and Princely vertues; as also the remembrance of my owne dangers, incurred by the practise of conspiracies flowing from the same source, hath wrought mee to sympathize with my friends in their grieuous occurrents: no doubt so much more dangerous, as they are lesse apprehended and left of Kings themselues, euen when the danger hangeth ouer their owne heads. Vpon whom, in case the power and vertue of my aduertisements be not able effectually to worke, at least many millions of children and people yet vn- borne, shall beare me witnesse, that in these dangers of the highest nature and straine, I haue not bene defectiue: and that neither the subuersions of States, nor the murthers of Kings, which may vnhappily betide hereafter, shall haue so free passage in the world for want of timely aduertisement before. For touching my particular, my rest is vp, that one of the maynes for which God hath aduanced me vpon the loftie stage of the supreme Throne, is, that my words vtteredfrom so eminent a placefor Gods honour, most shamefully traduced and vilified in his owne Deputies and Lieutenants, might with greater facilitie be conceiued.

Now touching France, faire was the hope which I conceiued of the States assem- bled in Parliament at Paris: That calling to minde the murthers of their Noble Kings, and the warres of the League which followed the Popes fulminations, as when a great storme of haile powerth downe after a Thunder-cracke, and a world of writings addressed to iustife the parricides, and the dethronings of kings, they would haue ioyned heads, hearts & hands together, to hammer out some apt and wholesome remedy against so many fearefull attempts and practises. To my hope was added no little ioy, when I was giuen to vnderstand the third Estate had preferred an Article or Bill, the tenor and substance whereof was concerning the means whereby the people might bee vnwitched of this pernicious opinion; That Popes may tosse the French King his Throne like a tennis ball, and that killing of Kings is an acte meritorious to the purchase of the crowne of Martyrdome. But in fine, the proiect was en- countred with successe deane contrary to Expectation. For this Article of the third Estate, like a sigh of libertie breathing her last, served only so much the more to in- thrall the Crowne, and to make the bondage more grieuous and sensible then before. Euen as those medicines which worke no ease to the patient, doe leaue the disease in much worse tearmes: so this remedy inuented and tendred by the third Estate, did onely exasperate the present malady of the State; for so much as the operation and vertue of the wholesome remedy was ouermatched with peccant humours, then stirred by the force of thwarting and crossing opposition. Yea much better had it bene, the matter had not bene stirred at all, then after it was once on foot and in motion, to give the Trewth leaue to lye gasping and sprawling vnder the violence of a forraine faction. For the opinion by which the Crownes of Kings are made subiect vnto the Popes will and power, was then auowed in a most Honourable Assembly, by the auerment of a Prelate in great authoritie, and of no lesse learning: He did not plead the cause as a priuate person, but as one by representation that stood for the whole body of the Clergie; was there applauded, and seconded with approbation of the Nobilitie; no resolution taken to the contrary, or in barre to his plea. After praises and thankes from the Pope, followed the printing of his eloquent harangue or Oration, made in full Parliament: a set discourse, maintaining Kings to be deposeable by the Pope, if he speake the word. The said Oration was not onely Printed with the Kings priui- ledge, but was likewise addressed to mee by the Author and Orator himselfe; who presupposed the reading thereof would forsooth driue me to say, Lord Cardinall, in this high subiect your Honour hath satisfied me to the full. All this poysed in the ballance of equall iudgement, why may not I trewly and freely affirme, the said Estates assembled in Parliament, haue set Royall Maiestie vpon a doubtfull chance, or left it resting vpon vncertaine tearmes: and that now if the doctrine there maintained by the Clergie should beare any pawme, it may lawfully be doubted, who is King in France ? For I make no question, hee is but a titular King that raigneth onely at an others discretion, and whose Princely head the Pope hath power to bare of his Regall Crowne. In temporall matters, how can one be Soueraigne, that may be fleeced of all his Temporalties by any superior power? But let men at a neere sight marke the pith and marrow of the Article proposed by the third Estate, and they shall soone perceiue the skilfull Architects thereof aymed onely to make their King a trew and reall King, to bee recognised for Soueraigne within his owne Realme, and that kill- ing their King might no longer passe the muster of workes acceptable to God.

But by the vehement instance and strong current of the Clergie and Nobles, this was borne downe as a pernicious Article, as a cause of Schisme, as a gate which openeth to all sorts of Heresies: yea, there it was maintained tooth and naile, that in case the doctrine of this Article might goefor currant doctrine, it must follow, that for many aages past in sequence, the Church hath beene the kingdome of Antichrist, and the synagogue of Satan. The Pope vpon so good issue of the cause, had reason, I trow, to addresse his Letters of triumph vnto the Nobilitie and Clergie, who had so farre aprrooued themselues faithfull to his Holinesse; and to vaunt withall, that hee had nipped Christian Kings in the Crowne, that hee had giuen them checke with mate, through the magnanimous resolution of this courageous Nobilitie, by whose braue making head, the third Estate had beene so valiantly forced to give ground. In a scornefull reproach hee qualified the Deputies of the third Estate, nebulones ex foece plebis,1 a sort or a number of knaues, the very dregges of the base vulgar, a packe of people, presuming to personate well affected Subiects, and men of deepe vnderstanding, and to reade their masters a learned Lecture. Now it is no wonder, that, in so good an office and loyall cariage towards their King, the third Estate hath outgone the Clergie. For the Clergie denie themselues to haue any ranke among the Subiects of the King: they stand for a Soueraigne out of the Kingdome, to whom as to the Lord Paramount they owe suite and seruice: they are bound to ad- uance that Monarchie, to the bodie whereof they properly apperteine as parts or mem- bers, as elsewhere I have written more at large. But for the Nobilitie, the Kings right arme, to prostitute and set as it were to sale the dignitie of their King, as if the arme should giue a thrust vnto the head; I say for the Nobilitie to hold and main- taine euen in Parliament, their King is liable to deposition by any forreine power or Potentate, may it not passe among the strangest miracles and rarest wonders of the world? For that once granted, this consequence is good and necessarie; That in case the King, once lawfully deposed, shall stand vpon the defensiue, and hold out for his right, he may then lawfully be murthered. Let mee then here freely professe my opinion, and this it is: That now the French Nobilitie may seeme to haue some reason to disrobe themselues of their titles, and to transferre them by resignation vnto the third Estate. For that body of that third Estate alone hath caried a right noble heart: in as much as they could neither be tickled with promises, nor terrified by threatnings, from resolute standing to those fundamentall points and reasons of State, which most concerne the honour of their King, and the securitie of his person.

Of all the Clergie, the man that hath most abandoned, or set his honour to sale, the man to whom France is least obliged, is the Lord Cardinall of Perron: a man other- wise inferiour to few in matter of learning, and in the grace of a sweete style. This man in two seuerall Orations, whereof the one was pronounced before the Nobilitie, the other had audience before the third Estate, hath set his best wits on worke, to draw that doctrine into all hatred and infamie, which teacheth Kings to be indeposeable by the Pope. To this purpose hee termes the same doctrine, a breeder of Schismes, a gate that openeth to make way, and to giue entrance vnto all heresies; in briefe, a doctrine to bee held in so high a degree of detestation, that rather then he and his fellow- Bishops will yeeld to the signing thereof, they will bee contented like Martyrs to burne at a stake. At which resolution, or obstinacie rather in his opinion, I am in a manner amased, more then I can be mooued for the like brauado in many other: for- asmuch as hee was many yeeres together, a follower of the late King, euen when the King followed a contrary Religion, and was deposed by the Pope: as also because not long before, in a certaine Assemblie holden at the Iacobins in Paris, hee withstood the Popes Nuntio to his face, when the said Nuntio laboured to make this doctrine, touching the Popes temporall Soueraigntie, passe for an Article of Faith. But in both Orations, hee singeth a contrary song, and from his owne mouth passeth sentence of condemnation against his former course and profession. I suppose, not without sollide iudgement; as one that heerein hath well accommodated himself to the times: For as in the reigne of the late King, hee durst not offer to broach this doctrine (such was his fore-wit;) so now he is bold to proclaime and publish it in Parliament vnder the reigne of the said Kings sonne; whose tender yeeres and late succession to the Crowne, doe make him lie the more open to iniuries, and the morefacill to be circum- uented: Such is now his afterwisedome.

Of these two Orations, that made in presence of the Nobilitie he hath, for feare of incurring the Popes displeasure, cautelously suppressed. For therein he hath beene somewhat prodigall in affirming this doctrine maintained by the Clergie, to bee but problematicall; and in taking vpon him to auouch, that Catholikes of my Kingdome are bound to yeeld me the honour of obedience: Whereas on the other side, he is not ignorant, how this doctrine of deposing Princes and Kings, the Pope holdeth for meerely necessarie, and approoueth not by any means Alleagiance to bee performed vnto mee by the Catholikes of my Kingdome. Yea if credit may be giuen vnto the abridgement of his other Oration published, wherein he paralells the Popes power in receiuing honours in the name of the Church, with the power of the Venetian Duke in receiuing honours in the name of that most renowned Republike; no marueile that when this Oration was dispatched to the presse, he commanded the same to be gelded of this clause and other like, for feare of gluing his Holinesse any offensiue distaste.

His pleasure therefore was, and content withall, that his Oration imparted to the third Estate, should be put in Print, and of his courtesie he vouchsafed to addresse vnto me a copie of the same. Which after I had perused, Ifoorthwith well perceiued, what and how great discrepance there is betweene one man that perorateth from the ingenuous and sincere disposition of a sound heart, and an other that flaunteth in nourishing speech with inward checkes of his owne conscience: For euery where he contradicts himselfe, and seemes to be afraid lest men should picke out his right meaning.

First, he grants this Question is not hitherto decided by the holy Scriptures, or by the Decrees of the ancient Church, or by the analogie of other Ecclesiasticall proceed- ings: and neuerthelesse hee confidently doeth affirme, that whosoeuer maintaine this doctrine to be wicked and abhominable, that Popes haue no power to put Kings by their supreame Thrones, they teach men to beleeue, there hath not bene any Church for many aages past, and that indeed the Church is the very Synagogue of Antichrist.2 Secondly, he exhorts his hearers to hold this doctrine at least for problematicall, and not necessary: and yet herein he calls them to all humble submission vnto the iudgement of the Pope and Clergie, by whom the cause hath bene already put out of all question, as out of all hunger and cold.

Thirdly, he doeth auerre, in case this Article be authorized, it makes the Pope in good consequence to bee the Antichrist: and yet he grants that many of the French are tolerated by the Pope to dissent in this point from his Holinesse; 3 prouided, their doctrine be not proposed as necessary, and materiall to faith; As if the Pope in any sort gaue toleration to hold any doctrine contrary to his owne, and most of all that doctrine which by consequence inferres himselfe to be the Antichrist.

Fourthly, he protesteth forwardnesse to vndergoe the flames of Martyrdome, rather then to signe this doctrine, which teacheth Kings Crownes to sit faster on their heads, then to be stirred by any Papal power whatsoeuer: and yet saith withal, the Pope winketh at the French, by his toleration to hold this dogmaticall point for prob- lematicall. And by this meanes, the Martyrdome that hee affecteth in this cause, will prooue but a problematicall Martyrdome, whereof question might grow very well, whether it were to be mustered with grieuous crimes, or with phreneticall passions of the braine, or with deserued punishments.

Fiftly, he denounceth Anathema, dischargeth maledictions like haile-shot, against parricides of Kings: and yet elsewhere hee layes himselfe open to speake of Kings onely so long as they stand Kings. But who doeth not know that a King deposed is no longer King ? And so that limme of Satan, which murthered Henry the III. then vn-king'd by the Pope, did not stabbe a King to death.

Sixtly, he doeth not allow a King to be made away by murder: and yet he thinks it not much out of the way, to take away al meanes whereby he might be able to stand in defence of his life.

Seuenthly, hee abhorreth killing of Kings by apposted throat-cutting, for feare lest body and soule should perish in the same instant: and yet he doth not mislike their killing in a pitcht field, and to haue them slaughtered in a set battaile: For he presupposeth, no doubt out of his charitable mind, that by this meanes the soule of a poore King so dispatched out of the way, shall instantly flie vp to heauen.4

Eightly, he saith a King deposed, retaineth stil a certaine internal habitude and politike impression, by vertue and efficacie whereof he may, being once reformed and become a new man, he restored to the lawfull vse and practise of Regalitie. Whereby hee would beare vs in hand, that when aforraine Prince hath inuaded and rauenously seised the kingdome into his hands, he will not onely take pittie of his predecessour to saue his life, but will also proue so kindhearted, vpon sight of his repentance, to re- store his kingdome without fraud or guile.

Ninthly, he saith euery where in his Discourse, that he dealeth not in the cause, otherwise then as a problematicall discourser, and without any resolution one way or other: and yet with might and maine hee contends for the opinion, that leaues the States and Crownes of Kings controulable by the Pope: refutes objections, propounds the authoritie of Popes and Councils, by name the Lateran Councill vnder Innocent. III. as also the consent of the Church. And to crosse the Churches iudgement, is, in his opinion to bring in schisme, and to leave the world without a Church for many hundred yeeres together: which (to my vnderstanding) is to speake with resolution, and without all hesitation.

Tenthly, he acknowledgeth none other cause of sufficient validitie for the deposing of a King, besides heresie, apostasie, and infidelitie: neuerthelesse that Popes haue power to displace Kings for heresie and apostasie, hee proueth by examples of Kings whom the Pope hath curbed with deposition, not for heresie, but for matrimoniall causes, for ciuill pretences, and for lacke of capacitie.

Eleuenthly, hee alledgeth euerywhere passages, as well of holy Scripture, as of the Fathers and moderne histories; but so impertinent, and with so little trewth, as here- after wee shall cause to appeare, that for a man of his deepe learning and knowledge, it seemeth not possible so to speake out of his iudgement.

Lastly, whereas all this hath bene hudled and heaped together into one masse, to currie with the Pope: yet hee suffereth diuers points to fall from his lips, which may well distast his Holinesse in the highest degree. As by name, where he prefers the authoritie of the Councill before that of the Pope, and makes his iudgement inferiour to the iudgement of the French; as in fit place hereafter shalbe shewed. Againe, where he representeth to his hearers the decrees of Popes and Councils already passed concerning this noble subiect; and yet affirmes that he doth not debate the question, but as a Questionist, and without resolution: As if a Cardinal should be afraid to be positiue, and to speake in peremptory straines, after Popes and Councils haue once decided the Question: Or as if a man should perorate vpon hazard, in a causefor the honour whereof, he would make no difficultie to suffer Martyrdome. Adde here- unto, that his Lordship hath alwayes taken the contrary part heretofore, and this totall must needs arose, that before the third Estate, his lips looked one way, and his con- science another.

All these points, by the discourse which is to follow, and by the ripping vp of his Oration (which by Gods assistance I will vndertake) tending to the reproch of Kings, and the subuersion of kingdomes, I confidently speake it, shalbe made manifest. Yet doe I not conceiue it can any way make for my honour, to enter the lists against a Cardinall: For I am not ignorant howfarre a Cardinals Hat, commeth vnder the Crowne and Scepter of a King; For well I wot vnto what sublimitie the Scripture hath exalted Kings, when it styles them Gods; Whereas the dignitie of a Cardinall is but a late vpstart inuention of man; as I haue elsewhere prooued.5 But I have im- barqued my selfe in this action, mooued thereunto: First, by the common interest of Kings in the cause it selfe: Then by the L. Cardinall, who speaketh not in this Ora- tion as a priuate person, but as one representing the body of the Clergie and Nobilitie by whom the cause hath bene wonne, and the garland borne awayfrom the third Estate: Againe, by mine owne particular; because he is pleased to take me vp for a sower of dissention, and a persecutour, vnder whom the Church is hardly able to fetch her breath; yea, for one by whom the Catholikes of my Kingdome are compelled to endure all sorts of punishments; and withal he tearmes this Article of the third Estate, a monster with a fishes taile that came swimming out of England: Last of all, by the present state of France; because France being now reduced to so miserable tearmes, that it is now become a crime for a Frenchman to stand for his King; it is a necessary duetie of her neighbours to speak in her cause, and to make triall whether they can put life into the trweth now dying, and ready to be buried by the power of violence, that it may resound and ring againe from remote regions.

I haue no purpose once to touch many prettie toyes which the ridges of his whole booke are sowen withall: Such are his allegations of Pericles, Agesilaus, Aristotle, Minos, the Druides, the French Ladies, Hannibal, Pindarus, and Poeticall fables: All resembling the red and blew flowers that pester the corne when it standeth in the fields, where they are more noysome to the growing crop, then beautifull to the behold- ing eye. Such pettie matters, nothing at all beseemed the dignitie of the Assembly and of the maine subiect, or of the Orator himselfe: For it was no Decorum to enter the Stage with a Pericles in his mouth, but with the sacred Name of God; nor should hee haue marshalled the passage of a Royall Poet, after the example of an heathen Oratour.

Neither will I giue any touch to his conceit of the Romane conquests, which the L. Cardinall 6 bestoweth in the list of Gods graces and temporall blessings, as a recom- pence of their zeale to the service and worship of Idols: As if God were a recompencer of wickednes, or as if the forcible electing of Tenants out of their farmes and other possessions, might be reckoned among the blessings of God.

Nor to that of the Milesian Virgins, dragged stark-naked after they were dead; which the L. Cardinall drawes into his discourse for an example of the eternall tor- ments denounced by the Lawes Ecclesiasticall, to be inflicted after this life.7

Nor to his exposition of the word Problematicall;8 where he giueth to vnder- stand that by Problematicall, hee meaneth such things as are of no necessitie to matter of faith; and in case men shall beleeue the contradictory of the said points, they are not bound for such beleefe, to vndergoe the solemne curse of the Church, and the losse of communion: Whereas Aristotle,9 of whom all Schooles haue borrowed their tearmes, hath taught vs that euery proposition is called a Probleme, when it is pro- pounded in a formall doubt, though in its proper nature it containes a necessary trewth, concerning the matter thereof; As for example, to say in forme of question, Whether is there but one God ? or, Whether is man a creature indued with rea- son ? By which examples it is plaine, that propositions in problematicall forme, doe not forgoe the necessitie of their nature; and that many times the contradictory binds the beleeuers thereof to Anathema and losse of communion. There is a con- fused heape or bundle of other like toyes, which my purpose is to passe ouer in silence, that I may now come to cast anchor, as it were in the very bottome and substance of the cause.

1 I haue receiued aduertisement from diuers parts, that in the Popes letters to the Nobitie these wordes were extant, howsoeuer they haue bin left out in the impression, & rased out of the copies of the said letters.

2 In 12. seuerall passages the L. Card. seemeth to speake against his owne conscience. Pag. 85.

3 Pag. 99.

4 Pag. 95. 97.

5 In the Preface to my Apologie.

6 Pag. 4.

7 Pag. 7. & 8.

8 Pag. 13.

9 Aristot. i. top. cap. 4. [3.] πρότασις καί πρόβλημα, sound both one thing, Απὸ πάσης γὰρ προτάσεως πρόβλημα ποιήσεις, prouided the word πότερον or vtrùm, do stand before, as, Vtrùm homo sit animal.

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