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The Life of Marcus Antonius

  • I. Parentage of ANTONIUS.
  • 2. His early acts.
  • 3. He sides with JULIUS CAESAR.
  • 4. His valorous deeds, and good service at the battle of PHARSALIA.
  • 5. His dissolute manner of life.
  • 6. How he was the unwitting cause of the conspiracy against CAESAR.
  • 7. Murder of CAESAR.
  • 8. Arrival of OCTAVIUS at Rome.
  • 9. Patient bearing of ANTONIUS under adversity.
  • 10. The first triumvirate.
  • 11. Death of BRUTUS and CASSIUS.
  • 12. Evil Influence of Grecian manners.
  • 13. ANTONIUS falls in love with CLEOPATRA; description of her magnificence.
  • 14. Extravagance of ANTONIUS.
  • 15. Sportiveness of CLEOPATRA.
  • 16. Death of FULVIA, and marriage of ANTONIUS with OCTAVIA.
  • 17. Some account of SEXTUS POMPEIUS.
  • 18. Inferiority of ANTONIUS to OCTAVIUS CAESAR.
  • 19. War against the PARTHIANS and triumph of VENTIDIUS.
  • 20. Quarrel between ANTONIUS and OCTAVIUS.
  • 21. ANTONIUS indulges his love for CLEOPATRA, to his own great loss.
  • 22. He besieges PHRAATA, and encounters the PARTHIANS.
  • 23. The PARTHIANS harass his retreat.
  • 24. Great sufferings of the ROMANS during their retreat.
  • 25. Advice of MITHRIDATES the PARTHIAN.
  • 26. The ROMANS still retreat, and cross the ARAXES.
  • 27. ANTONIUS returns to CLEOPATRA.
  • 28. Wars between the PARTHIANS and MEDES.
  • 29. OCTAVIA comes to ATHENS. Wily conduct of CLEOPATRA.
  • 30. ANTONIUS bestows kingdoms on his sons.
  • 31. OCTAVIUS excites the Romans against him.
  • 32. ANTONIUS and CLEOPATRA arrive et SAMOS. He divorces his wife OCTAVIA.
  • 33. The preparations of OCTAVIUS for War.
  • 34. Signs and omens.
  • 35. The battle of ACTIUM.
  • 36. Flight of CLEOPATRA.
  • 37. Events after the battle.
  • 38. ANTONIUS follows the example of TIMON OF ATHENS.
  • 39. CLEOPATRA makes experiments with poisons.
  • 40. Negociations with OCTAVIUS.
  • 41. Death of ANTONIUS.
  • 42. OCTAVIUS captures CLEOPATRA, and takes ALEXANDRIA.
  • 43. ANTONIUS is buried by CLEOPATRA.
  • 44. Interview between, CLEOPATRA and OCTAVIUS.
  • 45. Death of CLEOPATRA.
  • 46. The children of ANTONIUS.


Antonius' parentage.
Antonius, grandfather was that famous orator whom Marius slew because he took Sylla's part. His father was another Antonius surnamed Cretan 1, who was not so famous, nor bare any great sway in the commonwealth: howbeit other wise he was an honest man, and of a very good nature, and specially very liberal in giving, as appeareth by an act he did. He was not very wealthy, and therefore his wife would not let
The liberality of Antonius' father.
him use his liberality and frank nature. One day a friend of his coming to him to pray him to help him to some money, having great need, Antonius by chance had no money to give him, but he commanded one of his men to bring him some water in a silver basin, and after he had brought it him, he washed his beard as though he meant to have shaven it, and then found an arrand 2 for his man to send him out, and gave his friend the silver basin, and bade him get him money with that. Shortly after' there was a great stir in the house among the servants, seeking out of this silver basin. Insomuch as Antonius, seeing his wife marvellously offended for it, and that she would examine all her servants one affair another about it, to know what was be come of it, at length he confessed he had given it away, and prayed her to be contented.

Julia the mother of M. Antonius.
His wife was Julia, of the noble house and family of Julius Caesar: who, for her virtue and chastity, was to be compared with the noblest lady of her time. Marcus Antonius was brought up under her, being married after her first husband's death unto Cornelius Lentulus, whom Cicero put to death with Cethegus and others, for that he was of Catiline's conspiracy against the Commonwealth. And this seemeth to be the original cause and beginning of the cruel and mortal hate Antonius bare unto Cicero. For Antonius self saith, that he 3 would never give him the body of his father-in-law to bury him, before his mother went first to entreat Cicero's wife the which undoubtedly was a flat lie. For Cicero denied burial to none of them whom he executed by law. Now Antonius being a fair young man, and in the prime of his youth,
Antonius corrupted by Curio.
he fell acquainted with Curio, whose friendship and acquaintance (as it is reported) was a plague unto him. For he was a dissolute man, given over to all lust and insolency, who, to have Antonius the better at his commandment, trained 4 him on into great follies and vain expenses upon women, in rioting and banqueting: so that in short time he brought Antonius into a marvellous great debt, and too great for one of his years, to wit 5, of two hundred and fifty talents, for all which sum Curio was surety. His father hearing of it, did put his son from him, and forbad him his house. Then he fell in with Clodius, one of the desperatest and most wicked tribunes at that time in Rome. Him he followed for a time in his desperate attempts, who bred great stir and mischief in Rome: but at length he forsook him, being weary of his rashness and folly, or else for that he was afraid of them that were bent against Clodius. 2. Thereupon he left Italy, and went into Greece, and there bestowed 6 the most part of his time, sometime in wars, and otherwhile in the study of eloquence.
Antonius used in his speaking the Asiatic phrase.
He used a manner of phrase in his speech called Asiatic, which carried the best grace and estimation at that time, and was much like to his manners and life: for it was full of ostentation, foolish bravery 7, and vain ambition.

After he had remained there some time. Gabinius, proconsul, going into Syria, persuaded him to go with him; Antonius told him he would not go as a private man: wherefore

Antonius had charge of horsemen under Gabinius , proconsul, going into Syria.
Gabinius gave him charge of his horsemen, and so took him with him. So, first of all he sent him against Aristobulus, who had made the Jews to rebel, and was the first man himself that got up to the wall of a castle of his, and
Antonius' acts against Aristobulus.
so drove Aristobulus out of all his holds: and with those few men he had with him, he overcame all the Jews in set battle, which were many against one, and put all of them almost to the sword ; and furthermore,
Antonius took Aristobulus prisoner.
took Aristobulus himself prisoner with his son. Afterwards Ptolemy, king of Egypt, that had been driven out of his country, went unto Gabinius to intreat him to go with his army with him into Egypt, to put him again into his kingdom: and promised him, if he would go with him, ten thousand talents. The most part of the captains thought it not best to go thither, and Gabinius himself made it dainty to enter 8 into this war, although the covetousness of these 10,000 talents stuck sorely with him. But Antonius, that sought but for opportunity and good occasion to attempt great enterprises, and that desired also to gratify Ptolemy's request, he went about to persuade Gabinius to go this voyage. Now they were more afraid of the way they should go, to come to the city of Pelusium, than they feared any danger of the war besides because they were to pass through deep sands and desert places, where was no fresh water to be had all the marishes; through, which are called the marishes 9 Serbonides, which the Egyptians call the exhalations or fume, by the which the giant Typhon breathed. But in truth it appeareth to be the overflowing of the Red Sea, which breaketh out under the ground in that place where it is divided in the narrowest place from the sea on this side.
Antonius' acts in Egypt under Gabinius.
So Antonius was sent before into Egypt with his horsemen, who did not only win that passage, but also took the city of Pelusium (which is a great city) with all the soldiers in it: and thereby he cleared the way, and made it safe for all the rest of the army, and the hope of the victory also certain for his captain. Now did the enemies themselves feel the fruits of Antonius' courtesy, and the desire he had to win honour: for when Ptolemy (after he had entered into the city of Pelusium), for the malice he bare unto the city, would have put all the Egyptians in it to the sword, Antonius withstood him, and by no means would suffer him to do it. And in all other great battles and skirmishes which they fought, being many in number, Antonius did many noble acts of a valiant and wise captain: but specially in one battle, where he compassed in the enemies behind, giving them the victory that fought in front, whereby he afterwards had such honourable reward as his valiantness de served.
Antonius' courtesy unto Archelaus being dead.
So was his great courtesy also much commended of all, the which he shewed unto Archelaus: for having been his very friend, he made war with him against his will while he lived; but after his death he fought for his body, and gave it honour able burial. For these respects he wan 10 himself great fame of them of Alexandria, and he was also thought a worthy man of all the soldiers in the Romans' camp.

But besides all this,

Antonius' shape and presence.
he had a noble presence, and shewed a countenance of one of a noble house: he had a goodly thick beard, a broad forehead, crooked nosed, and there appeared such a manly look in his countenance, as is commonly seen in Hercules, pictures, stamped or graven in metal. Now it had been a speech of old time,
The house of the Antonii descended from Hercules.
that the family of the Antonii were descended from one Anton the son of Hercules, whereof the family took name. This opinion did Antonius seek to confirm in all his doings: not only resembling him in the likeness of his body, as we have said before, but also in the wearing of his garments. For when he would openly shew him self abroad before many people, he would always wear his cassock 11: girt down low upon his hips, with a great sword hanging by his side, and upon 12 that, some ill-favoured cloak. Further more, things that seem intolerable in other men, as to boast commonly, to jest with one or other, to drink like a good fellow with everybody, to sit with the soldiers when they dine, and to eat and drink with them soldier-like, it is incredible what wonderful love it wan 13 him amongst them. And furthermore, being given to love, that made him the more desired, and by that means he brought many to love him. For he would further everyman's love, and also would not be angry that men should merrily tell him of those he loved. But besides all this, that which
Antonius' liberality.
most procured his rising and advancement, was his liberality, who gave all to the soldiers, and kept nothing for himself: and when he was grown to great credit, then was his authority and power also very great, the which notwithstanding himself did overthrow by a thousand other faults he had. In this place I will shew you one example only of his wonderful liberality. He commanded one day his cofferer 14 that kept his money, to give a friend of his five and twenty myriads, which the Romans call in their tongue decies. His cofferer marvelling at it, and being angry withal in his mind, brought him all this money in a heap together, to shew him what a marvellous mass of money it was. Antonius seeing it as he went by, asked what it was: the cofferer answered him, "It was the money he willed him to give unto his friend." Then Antonius, perceiving the spite of his man, "I thought," said he, "that decies had been a greater sum of money than it is, for this is but a trifle:" and therefore he gave his friend as much more another time, but that was afterwards.

3. Now the Romans maintaining two factions at Rome at that time, one against the other, of the which they that took part with the Senate did join with Pompey, being then in Rome: and the contrary side, taking part with the people, sent for Caesar to aid them, who made wars in Gaul: then Curio, Antonius' friend, that had changed his garments, and at that time took part with Caesar, whose enemy he had been before, he wan Antonius; and so handled the matter, partly through the great credit and sway he bare amongst the people, by reason of his eloquent tongue, and partly also by his exceeding expense of money he made which Caesar gave him, that

Antonius tribune of the people and augur.
Antonius was chosen tribune, and afterwards made augur. But this was a great help and furtherance to Caesar's practices 15. For so soon as Antonius became tribune, he did oppose himself against those things which the Consul Marcellus preferred (who ordained that certain legions which had been already levied and billed 16, should be given unto Cneus Pompey, with further commission and authority to levy others unto them), and set down an order, that the soldiers which were already levied and assembled should be sent into Syria, for a new supply unto Marcus Bibulus, who made war at that time against the Parthians. And further gave a prohibition that Pompey should levy no more men, and also that the soldiers should not obey him. Secondly, where Pompey's friends and followers would not suffer Caesar's letters to be received and openly read in the senate,
Antonius acts for Caesar.
Antonius, having power and warrant by his person, through the holiness of his tribuneship, did read them openly, and made divers men change their minds: for it appeared to them that Caesar by his letters required no unreasonable matters. At length, when they preferred two matters of consideration unto the Senate, whether they thought good that Pompey or Caesar should leave their army, there were few of the senators that thought it meet Pompey should leave his army, but they all in manner 17 commanded Caesar to do it. Then Antonius rising up, asked whether they thought it good that Pompey and Caesar both should leave their armies. Thereupon all the senators jointly together gave their whole consent, and with a great cry commending Antonius, they prayed him to refer it to the judgment of the senate. But the Consuls would not allow of that. Therefore Caesar's friends preferred other reasonable demands and requests again, but Cato spake against them: and Lentulus, one of the Consuls, crave Antonius by force out of the Senate, who at his going out made grievous curses against him.
Antonius flieth from Rome unto Caesar.
After that, he took a slave's gown, and speedily fled to Caesar, with Quintus Cassius, in a hired coach. When they came to Caesar, they cried out with open mouth, that all went hand over head 18 at Rome: for the tribunes of the people might not speak their minds; and were driven away in great danger of their lives, as many as stood with 19 law and justice.

Hereupon Caesar went incontinently 20 into Italy with his army, which made Cicero say in his Philippides: "That, as Helen was cause of the war of Troy, so was Antonius the author of the civil wars;"

Cicero reproved for lying.
which indeed was a stark 21 lie. For Caesar was not so fickle-headed, nor so easily carried away with anger, that he would so suddenly have gone and made war with his country, upon the sight only of Antonius and Cassius, being fled to him in miserable apparel, and in a hired coach, had he not long before determined it with himself. But sith indeed Caesar looked of long time but for some colour 22, this came as he wished, and gave him just occasion of war. But to say truly, nothing else moved him to make war with all the world as he did, but one self wooed 23 cause which first
Alexander, Cyrus and Caesar all contended to reign.
procured Alexander and Cyrus also before him, to wit, an insatiable desire to reign, with a senseless covetousness to be the best man in the world; the which he could not come unto, before he had first put down Pompey and utterly overthrown him. Now after that
Caesar's ambition the only cause of the civil war.
Caesar had gotten Rome at his commandment, and had driven Pompey out of Italy, he purposed first to go into Spain against the legions Pompey had there, and in the mean time to make provision for ships and marine preparation, to follow Pompey. In his absence, he left Lepidus, that was Praetor, governor of Rome; and Antonius, that was tribune, he gave him charge of all the soldiers and of Italy.
Caesar gave the charge of Italy unto Antonius.
Then was Antonius straight marvellously commended and beloved of the soldiers, because he commonly exercised himself among them, and would oftentimes eat and drink with them, and also be liberal unto them, according to his ability.
Antonius' vices.
But then in contrary manner, he purchased divers other men's evil wills, because that through negligence he would not do them justice that were injured, and dealt very churlishly with them that had any suit unto him: and besides all this, he had an ill name to intice 24 men's wives. To conclude, Caesar's friends, that governed under him, were cause why they hated Caesar's government (which indeed in respect of himself was no less than tyranny) by reason of the great insolencies and outrageous parts that were committed: amongst whom Antonius, that was of greatest power, and that also committed greatest faults, deserved most blame.

But Caesar, not withstanding, when he returned from the wars of Spain, made no reckoning of the complaints that were put up against him: but contrarily, because he found him a hardy man, and a valiant captain, he employed him in his chiefest affairs, and was no whit deceived in his opinion of him. 4. So he passed over the Ionian sea unto Brundusium being but slenderly accompanied, and sent unto Antonius and Gabinius, that they should imbark 25 their men as soon as they I could, and pass them over into Macedon. Gabinius was afraid to take the sea, because it was very rough, and in the winter time: and therefore fetched a great compass 26 about by land. But Antonius, fearing some danger might come unto Caesar, be cause he was compassed in with a great number of enemies first of all he drave away Libo, who rode at anchor with a great army before the haven of Brundusium. For he manned out such a number of pinnaces, barks, and other small boats about every one of his galleys, that he crave him thence.

Antonius taketh sea with his army at Brundusium, and goeth unto Caesar.
After that, he imbarkcd 27 into ships 20,000 footmen, and 800 horsemen, and with this army he hoised 28 sail. When the enemies saw him, they made out to follow him: but the sea rose so high, that the billows put back their galleys that they could not come near him, and so he scaped that danger. But withal he fell upon the rocks with his whole fleet, where the sea wrought very high, so that he was out of all hope to save himself. Yet, by good fortune, suddenly the wind turned south-west, and blew from the gulf, driving the waves of the river into the main sea. Thus Antonius, loosing from the land, and sailing with safety at his pleasure, soon after he saw all the coasts full of shipwracks 29. For the force and boisterousness of the wind did cast away the galleys that followed him: of the which, many of them were broken and splitted 30, and divers also cast away; and Antonius took a great number of them prisoners, with a great sum of money also. Be sides all these, he took the city of Lyssus, and brought Caesar a great supply of men, and made him courageous, coming at a pinch with so great a power to him.

Antonius' manhood in war.
Now there were divers hot skirmishes and encounters, in the which Antonius fought so valiantly, that he carried the praise from them all: but specially at two several times, when Caesar's men turned their backs, and fled for life. For he stepped before them, and compelled them to return again to fight: so that the victory fell on Caesar's side. For this cause he had the second p]ace in the camp among the soldiers, and they spake of no other man unto Caesar, but of him: who shewed plainly what opinion he had of him, when at the last battle of Pharsalia (which indeed was the last trial of all, to give the conqueror the whole empire of the world) he himself did lead the right wing of his army, and
Antonius led the left wing of Caesar's battle at Pharsalia, where Pompey lost the field.
gave Antonius the leading of the left wing, as the valiantest man and skilfullest soldier of all those he had about him. After Caesar had won the victory, and that he was created Dictator, he followed Pompey step by step: howbeit, before, he named Antonius general of the horse men, and sent him to Rome.
The dignity of the general of the horsemen.
The general of the horsemen is the second office of dignity, when the Dictator is in the city: but when he is abroad, he is the chiefest man, and almost the only man that remaineth, and all the other officers and magistrates are put down, after there is a Dictator chosen.

Notwithstanding, Dolabella, being at that time tribune, and a young man desirous of change and innovation, he preferred 31 a law which the Romans call Novas Tabulas (as much to say, as a cutting off and cancelling of all obligations and specialities; and were called New Tables, because they were driven then to make books of daily receipt and expense), and persuaded Antonius his friend (who also gaped 32 for a good occasion to please and gratify the common people)to aid him to pass this law. But Trebellius and Asinius dissuaded from it all they could possible. So by good hap it chanced that Antonius mistrusted 33 Dolabella for 34 keeping of his wife, and took such a conceit of it, that he thrust his wife out of his house, being his cousin-german, and the daughter of C. Antonius, who was Consul with Cicero; and joining

Dissension betwixt Antonius and Dolabella.
with Asinius, he resisted Dolabella, and fought with him. Dolabella had gotten the market-place, where the people do assemble in council, and had filled it full of armed men, intending to have this law of the New Tables to pass by force. Antonius, by commandment of the senate, who had given him authority to levy men and to use force against Dolabella, went against him, and fought so valiantly, that men were slain on both sides. 5. But by this means he got the ill will of the common people; and on the other side, the noblemen (as Cicero saith) did not only mislike him, but also hate him for his naughty 35 life: for they did abhor his banquets and drunken feasts he made at unseasonable times, and his extreme wasteful expenses upon vain light huswives 36; and then in the day-time he would sleep or walk out his drunkenness, thinking to wear away the fume of the abundance of wine which he had taken over night.
Antonius' abominable life.
In his house they did nothing but feast, dance, and mask: and himself passed away the time in hearing of foolish plays, and in marrying these players, tumblers, jesters, and such sort of people. As for proof hereof it is reported, that at Hippias' marriage, one of his jesters, he drank wine so lustily all night, that the next morning, when he came to plead before the people assembled in council, who had sent for him,
Antonius laid up his stomach before the whole assembly.
he being queasy-stomached 37 with his surfeit he had taken, was compelled to lay up 38 all before them, and one of his friends held him his gown instead of a basin. He had another pleasant player called Sergius, that was one of the chiefest men about him, and a woman also called Cytheride, of the same profession, whom he loved dearly:
Antonius' insolency.
he carried her up and down in a litter unto all the towns he went, and had as many men waiting upon her litter (she being but a player) as were attending upon his own mother. lt grieved honest men also very much to see that, when he went into the country, he carried with him a great number of cupboards full of silver and gold plate openly in the face of the world, as 39 it had been the pomp or shew of some triumph: and that eftsoons 40 in the middest 41 of his journey he would set up his hals 42 and tents hard by some green grove or pleasant river, and there his cooks should prepare him a sumptuous dinner. And furthermore, lions were harnessed in trases 43 to draw his carts: and besides also, in honest men's houses, in the cities where he came, he would have common harlots, courtesans, and these tumbling gillots 44 lodged. Now it grieved men much to see that Caesar should be out of Italy following of his enemies, to end this great war with such greet peril and danger, and that others in the mean time, abusing his name and authority, should commit such insolent and outrageous parts upon their citizens.

This methinks was the cause that made the conspiracy against Caesar increase more and more, and laid the reins of the bridle upon the soldiers' necks, whereby they durst more boldly commit many extortions, cruelties, and robberies. And therefore Caesar after his return pardoned Dolabella, and

Caesar and Lepidus, consuls.
being created Consul the third time, he took not Antonius, but chose Lepidus his colleague and fellow-consul. Afterwards when
Antonius buyeth Pompey's house.
Pompey's house was put to open sale, Antonius bought it: but when they asked him money for it, he made it very strange 45, and was offended with them; and writeth himself that he would not go with Caesar into the wars of Africa, because he was not well recompensed for the service he had done him before. Yet Caesar did somewhat bridle his madness and insolency, not suffering him to pass his faults so lightly away, making as though he saw them not. And therefore he left his dissolute manner of life,
Antonius married Fulvia, Claudius' widow.
and married Fulvia that was Clodius' widow, a woman not so basely minded to 46 spend her time in spinning and housewifery; and was
Fulvia ruled Antonius at home and abroad.
not contented to master her husband at home, but would also rule him in his office abroad, and commanded him that commanded legions and great armies: so that Cleopatra was to give Fulvia thanks for that she had taught Antonius this obedience to women, that learned so well to be at their commandment. Now, because Fulvia was somewhat sour and crooked of condition 47, Antonius devised to make her pleasanter, and somewhat better disposed: and therefore he would play her many pretty youthful parts to make her merry. As he did once, when Caesar returned the last time of all conqueror out of Spain, every man went out to meet him, and so did Antonius with the rest. But on the sudden there ran a rumour through Italy, that Caesar was dead, and that his enemies came again with a great army. Thereupon he returned with speed to Rome, and took one of his men's gowns, and so apparelled came home to his house in a dark night, saying, that he had brought Fulvia letters from Antonius. So he was let in and brought to her muffled as he was, for 48 being known: but she, taking the matter heavily, asked him if Antonius were well. Antonius gave her the letters, and said never a word. So when she had opened the letters, and began to read them, Antonius ramped 49 on her neck, and kissed her. We have told you this tale for example's sake only, and so could we also tell you of many such like as these.

6. Now when Caesar was returned from his last war in Spain, all the chiefest nobility of the city rode many days journey from Rome to meet him, where Caesar made marvellous much of Antonius above all the men that came unto him. For he always took him into his coach with him throughout all Italy, and behind him Brutus Albinus and Octavius the son of his niece, who afterwards was called Caesar, and became Emperor of Rome long time after. So Caesar being afterwards chosen Consul the fift 50time,

Caesar and Antonius, consuls.
he immediately chose Antonius his colleague and companion; and desired, by deposing himself of his consulship, to make Dolabella Consul in his room, and had already moved it to the senate. But Antonius did stoutly withstand it, and openly reviled Dolabella in the Senate, and Dolabella also spared him as little. Thereupon Caesar being ashamed of the matter, he let it alone. Another time also, when Caesar attempted again to substitute Dolabella Consul in his place, Antonius cried out, that the signs of the birds were against it: so that at length Caesar was compelled to give him place, and to let Dolabella alone, who was marvellously offended with him. Now in truth Caesar made no great reckoning of either of them both. For it is reported that Caesar answered one that did accuse Antonius and Dolabella unto him for some matter of conspiracy: "Tush," said he, "they be not those fat fellows and fine combed men that I fear, but I mistrust rather these pale and lean men," meaning by 51 Brutus and Cassius, who afterwards conspired his death and slew him.
Antonius unwittingly gave Caesar's enemies occasion to conspire against him.

Antonius, unawares, afterwards gave Caesar's enemies just occasion 52 and colour 53 to do as they did: as you shall hear. The Romans by chance celebrated the feast called Lupercalia, and Caesar, being apparelled in his triumphing robe, was set in the Tribune where they use to make their orations to the people, and from thence did behold the sport of the runners. The manner of this running was thus. On that day there are many young men of noble house, and those specially that be chief officers for that year, who running naked up and down the city, anointed with the oil of olive, for pleasure do strike them they meet in their way with white leather thongs they have in their hands. Antonius, being one among the rest that was to run, leaving the ancient ceremonies and old customs of that solemnity, he ran to the tribune where Caesar was set, and carried a laurel crown in his hand, having a royal band or diadem wreathed about it, which in old time was the ancient mark and token of a king. When he was

Antonius Lupercian putteth the diadem upon Caesar's head.
come to Caesar, he made his fellow-runners with him lift him up, and so he did put his laurel crown upon his head, signifying thereby that he had deserved to be king. But Caesar, making as though he refused it, turned away his head. The people were so rejoiced at it, that they all clapped their hands for joy. Antonius again did put it on his head: Caesar again refused it ; and thus they were striving off and on a great while together. he oft as Antonius did put this laurel crown unto him, a few of his followers rejoiced at it: and as oft also as Caesar refused it, all the people together clapped their hands. And this was a wonderful thing, that they suffered all things subjects should do by commandment of their kings: and yet they could not abide the name of a king, detesting it as the utter destruction of their liberty. Caesar, in a rage, arose out of his seat, and plucking down the collar of his gown from his neck, he shewed it naked, bidding any man strike off his head that would. This laurel crown was afterwards put upon the head of one of Caesar's statues or images, the which one of the tribunes plucked off. The people liked his doing therein so well, that they waited on him home to his house, with great clapping of hands. Howbeit Caesar did turn them out of their offices for it.


Brutus and Cassius conspire Caesar's death.
This was a good encouragement for Brutus and Cassius to conspire his death, who fell into a consort 54 with their trustiest friends, to execute their enterprise, but yet stood doubtful whether they should make Antonius privy to it or not. All the rest liked of 55 it, saving Trebonius only. He told them that, when they rode to meet Caesar at his return out of Spain, Antonius and he always keeping company, and lying together by the way, he felt his mind afar off: but Antonius, finding his meaning, would hearken no more unto it, and yet notwithstanding never made Caesar acquainted with this talk, but had faith fully kept it to himself.
Consultation about the murther of Antonius with Caesar.
After that, they consulted whether they should kill Antonius with Caesar. But Brutus would in no wise consent to it, saying, that venturing on such an enterprise as that, for the maintenance of law and justice, it ought to be clear from all villany. Yet they, fearing Antonius' power, and the authority of his office, appointed certain of the conspiracy, that when Caesar were gone into the senate, and while others should execute their enterprise, they should keep Antonius in a talk out of the senate-house.

Even as they had devised these matters, so were they executed: and Caesar was slain in the middest 56 of the Senate. Antonius being put in a fear withal, cast a slave's gown upon him, and hid himself. But afterwards when it was told him that the murtherers 57 slew no man else, and that they went only into the Capitol, he sent his son unto them for a pledge, and bade them boldly come down upon his word. The selfsame day he did bid Cassius to supper, and Lepidus also bade Brutus. The next morning the senate was assembled, and Antonius himself preferred 58 a law, that all things past should be forgotten, and that they should appoint provinces unto Cassius and Brutus: the which the senate confirmed, and further ordained, that they should cancel none of Caesar's laws. Thus went Antonius out of the senate more praised and better esteemed than ever man was, because it seemed to every man that he had cut off all occasion of civil wars, and that he had shewed himself a marvelous wise governor of the common wealth, for the appeasing of these matters of so great weight and importance. But not the opinion he conceived of himself after he had a little felt the good-will of the people towards him, hoping thereby to make himself the chiefest man if he might overcome Brutus, did easily make him alter his first mind. And therefore, when Caesar's body was brought to the place where it should be-buried, he made a funeral oration in commendation of Caesar, according to the ancient custom of praising noble men at their funerals. When he saw that the people were very glad and desirous also to hear Caesar spoken of, and his praises uttered, he mingled his oration with lament able words ; and by amplifying of matters did greatly move their hearts and affections unto pity and compassion. In fine 59, to conclude his oration, he unfolded before the whole assembly the bloody garments of the dead, thrust through in many places with their swords, and called the malefactors cruel and cursed murtherers.

Antonius maketh uproar among the people, for the murther of Caesar.
With these words he put the people into such a fury, that they presently 60took Caesar's body, and burnt it in the market-place, with such tables and forms as they could get together. Then when the fire was kindled, they took firebrands, and ran to the murtherers' houses to set them on fire, and to make them come out to fight.

Brutus therefore and his accomplices, for safety of their persons, were driven to fly the city. Then came all Caesar's friends unto Antonius, and

Calpurnia, Caesar's wife.
specially his wife Calpurnia, putting their trust in him, she brought the most part of her money into his house, which amounted to the sum of 4000 talents; and furthermore brought him all Caesar's books and writings, in the which were his memorials of all that he had done and ordained. Antonius did daily mingle with them such as he thought good, and by that means he created new officers, made new senators, called home some that were banished, and delivered those that were prisoners: and then he said, that all those things were so appointed and ordained by Caesar. There fore the Romans, mocking them that were so moved,
Charonites, why so-called.
they called them Charonites, because that, when they were overcome' they had no other help but to say, that thus they were found in Caesar's memorials, who had sailed in Charon's boat, and was departed.
M. Antonius Consul. Caius Antonius Praetor. Lucius Antonius Tribune; all three brethren.
Thus Antonius ruled absolutely also in all other matters, because he was Consul, and >Caius, one of his brethren' Praetor, and Lucius the other, Tribune.

8. Now things remaining in this state at Rome, Octavius Caesar the younger came to Rome, who was the son of Julius Caesar's niece, as you have heard before, and was left his lawful heir by will, remaining, at the time of the death of his great uncle that was slain, in the city of Apollonia This young man at his first arrival went to salute Antonius, as one of his late dead father Caesar's friends, who by his last will and testament had made him his heir; and withal, he was presently in hand with him for money and other things which were left of trust in his hands; because Caesar had by will bequeathed unto the people of Rome threescore and fifteen silver drachmas to be given to every man, the which he as heir stood- charged withal. Antonius at the first made no reckoning of him, because he was very young, and said, he lacked wit and good friends to advise him, if he looked to take such a charge in hand, as to undertake to be Caesar's heir.

Variance betwixt Antonius and Octavius Caesar, heir unto Julius Caesar.
But when Antonius saw that he could not shake him off with those words, and that he was still in hand 61 with him for his father's goods, but specially for the ready money, then he spake and did what he could against him. And first of all, it was he that did keep him from being Tribune of the people: and also, when Octavius Caesar began to meddle with the dedicating of the chair of gold, which was prepared by the senate to honour Caesar with, he threatened to send him to prison, and moreover desisted not to put the people in an up roar.
Octavius Caesar joined in friendship with Cicero.
This young Caesar, seeing his doings, went unto Cicero and others, which were Antonius' enemies, and by them crept into favour with the senate: and he himself sought the people's good will every manner of way, gathering together the old soldiers of the late deceased Caesar, which were dispersed in divers cities and colonies. Antonius, being afraid of it,
Antonious and Octavius became friends. Antonius' dream.
talked with Octavius in the Capitol, and became his friend. But the very same night Antonius had a strange dream, who thought that lightning fell upon him, and burnt his right hand. Shortly after word was brought him, that Caesar lay in wait to kill him. Caesar cleared himself unto him, and told him there was no such matter: but he could not make Antonius believe to the contrary. Whereupon they became further enemies than ever they were: insomuch that both of them made friends of either side to gather together all the old soldiers through Italy, that were dispersed in divers towns: and made them large promises, and sought also to win the legions on their side, which were already in arms.

Cicero on the other side, being at that time the chiefest man of authority and estimation in the city, he stirred up all men against Antonius:

Antonius judged and enemy by the Senate.
so that in the end he made the senate pronounce him an enemy to his country, and appointed young Caesar sergeants to carry axes before him, and such other signs as were incident to the dignity of a Consul or Praetor: and more over, sent
Hircius and Pansa Consuls.
Hircius and Pansa, then Consuls, to drive Antonius out of Italy. These two Consuls, together with Caesar, who also had an army, went against Antonius that besieged the city of Modena, and there overthrew him in battle: but both the Consuls were slain there. 9.
Antonius overthrown in battle by the city of Modena.
Antonius, flying upon this overthrow, fell into great misery all at once: but the chiefest want of all other, and that pinched him most, was famine. Howbeit he was of such a strong nature,
Antonius patient in adversity.
that by patience he would overcome any adversity: and the heavier fortune lay upon him, the more constant shewed he himself. Every man that feeleth want or adversity, knoweth by virtue and discretion what he should do: but when indeed they are overlaid with extremity, and be sore oppressed, few have the hearts to follow that which they praise and commend, and much less to avoid that they reprove and mislike 62: but rather to the contrary, they yield to their accustomed easy life, and through faint heart, and lack of courage, do change their first mind and purpose.
Antonius' hardness in adversity, notwithstanding his fine bringing up.
And therefore it was a wonderful example to the soldiers, to see Antonius, that was brought up in all fineness and superfluity, so easily to drink puddle water, and to eat wild fruits and roots: and moreover it is reported, that even as they passed the Alps, they did eat the barks of trees, and such beasts as never man tasted of their flesh before.

Now their intent was to join with the legions that were on the other side of the mountains, under Lepidus, charge: whom Antonius took to be his friend, because he had holpen him to many things at Caesar's hand, through his means. When he was come to the place where Lepidus was, he camped hard by him: and when he saw that no man came to him to put him in any hope, he determined to venter 63 himself, and to go unto Lepidus. Since the overthrow he had at Modena, he suffered his beard to grow at length and never clips it, that it was marvellous long, and the hair of his head also without combing: and besides all this, he went in a mourning gown, and after this sort came hard 64to the trenches of Lepidus' camp. Then he began to speak unto the soldiers, and many of them their hearts yearned for pity to see him so poorly arrayed, and some also, through his words, began to pity him: insomuch that Lepidus began to be afraid, and therefore commanded all the trumpets to sound together to stop the soldiers' ears, that they should not hearken to Antonius. This notwithstanding, the soldiers took the more pity of him, and spake secretly with him by Clodius' and Laelius' means, whom they sent unto him disguised in women's apparel, and gave him counsel that he should not be afraid to enter into their camp, for there were a great number of soldiers that would receive him, and kill Lepidus, if he would say the word. Antonius would not suffer them to hurt him, but the next morning he went with his army to wade a ford, at a little river that ran between them: and himself was the foremost man that took 65 the river to get over, seeing a number of Lepidus, camp, that gave him their hands, plucked up the stakes, and

Antonius won all Ledipus' army from him.
laid flat the bank of their trench to let him into their camp. When he was come into their camp, and that he had all the army at his commandment, he used Lepidus very courteously, embraced him, and called him father: and though indeed Antonius did all, and ruled the whole army, yet he alway gave Lepidus the name and honour of the captain. Munacius Plancus, lying also in camp hard by with an army, understanding the report of Antonius' courtesy, he also came and joined with him. 10. Thus Antonius being afoot again, and grown of great power, repassed over the Alps, leading into Italy with him seventeen legions, and ten thousand horsemen, besides six legions he left in garrison among the Gauls, under the charge of one
Varius surnamed Cotylon.
Varius, a companion of his that would drink lustily with him, and therefore in mockery was surnamed Cotylon, to wit 66, a bibber 67.

So Octavius Caesar would not lean to Cicero, when he saw that his whole travell 68 and endeavour was only to re store the commonwealth to her former liberty. Therefore he sent certain of his friends to Antonius, to make them friends again: and thereupon all three met together ( to wit 69,

The conspiracy and meeting of CAesar, Antonius and Ledipus.
Caesar, Antonius, and Lepidus) in an iland 70 environed round about with a little river, and there remained three days together. Now as touching all other matters they were easily agreed, and did divide all the empire of Rome between them, as if it had been their own inheritance. But yet they could hardly agree whom they would put to death: for every one of them would 71 kill their enemies, and save their kinsmen and friends. Yet at length, giving place to their greedy desire to be revenged of their enemies, they spurned all reverence of blood and holiness of friend ship at their feet.
The proscription of the Triumviri.
For Caesar left Cicero to Antonius, will, Antonius also forsook Lucius Caesar, who was his uncle by his mother: and both of them together suffered Lepidus to kill his own brother Paulus. Yet some writers affirm, that Caesar and Antonius requested Paulus might be slain, and that Lepidus was contented with it In my opinion there was never a more horrible, unnatural, and crueller change than this was. For thus changing 72 murther 73 for murther, they did as well kill those whom they did forsake and leave unto others, as those also which others left unto them to kill: but so much more was their wickedness and cruelty great unto their friends, for that they put them to death being innocents, and having no cause to hate them.

After this plot was agreed upon between them, the soldiers that were thereabouts would have his friendship and league betwixt them confirmed by marriage, and that Caesar should marry Claudia, the daughter of Fulvia, Antonius, wife. This marriage also being agreed upon, they condemned 300 of the chiefest citizens of Rome to be put to death by proscription And Antonius also commanded them to whom he had given

Antonius' cruelty unto Cicero.
commission to kill Cicero, that they should strike off his head and right hand, with the which he had written the invective orations (called Philippides) against Antonius. So when the murtherers brought him Cicero's head and hand cut off, he be held them a long time with great joy, and laughed heartily, and that oftentimes, for the great joy he felt. Then when he had taken his pleasure of the sight of them, he caused them to be set up in an open place, over the pulpit for orations (where, when he was alive, he had often spoken to the people), as if he had done the dead man hurt, and not blemished his own for tune, strewing himself (to his great shame and infamy) a cruel man, and unworthy the office and authority he bare. His uncle Lucius Caesar also, as they sought for him to kill him and followed him hard, fled unto his sister. The murderers coming thither, forcing to break into her chamber, she stood at her chamber-door with her arms abroad, crying out still:
Lucius Caesar's life saved by his sister.
"You shall not kill Lucius Caesar, before you first kill me, that bare your captain in my womb." By this means she saved her brother's life.

Antonius' riot in the Triumvirate.
Now the government of these Triumviri grew odious and hateful to the Romans, for divers respects: but they most blamed Antonius, because he, being elder than Caesar, and of more power and force than Lepidus, gave himself again to his former riot and excess, when he left 74 to deal in the affairs of the commonwealth. But setting aside the ill name he had for his insolency, he was yet much more hated in respect of the house he dwelt in,
The praise of Pompey the Great.
the which was the house of Pompey the great, a man as famous for his temperance, modesty, and civil life, as for his three triumphs. For it grieved them to see the gates commonly shut against the captains, magistrates of the city, and also ambassadors of strange nations, which were sometimes thrust from the gate with violence: and that the house within was full of tumblers, antic dancers, jugglers, players, jesters, and drunkards, quaffing and guzzling; and that on them he bestowed the most part of his money he got by all kind of possible extortions, bribery, and policy 75. For they did not only sell by the crier tile goods of those whom they had outlawed and appointed to murder, slanderously deceived the poor widows and young orphans, and also raised a]l kinds of imposts, subsidies, and taxes, but understanding also that the holy Vestal nuns had certain goods and money put in their custody to keep1 both of men's in the city and those also that were abroad, they went thither and took them away by force. 11. Octavius Caesar perceiving that no money would serve Antonius' turn, he prayed that they might divide the money between them; and so did they also divide the army, for them both to go into Macedon to make war against Brutus and Cassius and in the mean time they left the government of the city of Rome unto Lepidus.

When they had passed over the seas, and that they began to make war, they being both camped by their enemies, to wit, Antonius against Cassius, and Caesar against Brutus, Caesar did no great matter, but Antonius had alway the upper hand, and did all.

The valiantness of Antonius against Brutus.
For at the first battle Caesar was overthrown by Brutus, and lost his camp, and very hardly saved himself by flying from them that followed him. Howbeit, he writeth himself in his Commentaries, that he fled before the charge was given, because of a dream one of his friends had. Antonius on the other side overthrew Cassius in battle, though some write that he was not there himself at the battle, but that he came after the overthrow, whilst his men had the enemies in chase.
The death of Cassius.
So Cassius, at his earnest request, was slain by a faithful servant of his own called Pindarus, whom he had enfranchised: because he knew not in time that Brutus had overcome Caesar. Shortly after they fought another battle again, in the which Brutus was overthrown, who afterwards also slew himself. Thus Antonius had the chiefest glory of this victory, specially because Caesar was sick at that time.
Brutus slew himself.
Antonius having found Brutus, body after this battle, blaming him much for the murther 76 of his brother Caius, whom he had put to death in Macedon for revenge of Cicero's cruel death, and yet laying the fault more in Hortensius than in him, he made Hortensius to be slain on his brother's tomb Furthermore he cast his coat-armour 77 (which was wonderful rich and sumptuous) upon Brutus, body, and gave commandment to one of his slaves enfranchised, to defray the
Antonius gave honourable burial unto Brutus.
charge of his burial. But afterwards Antonius hearing that his enfranchised bondman had not burnt his coat-armour 78 with his body, because it was very rich and worth a great sum of money, and that he had also kept back much of the ready money appointed for his funeral and tomb, he also put him to death.

12. After that, Caesar was conveyed to Rome, and it was thought he would not live long, nor escape the sickness he had. Antonius on the other side went towards the east provinces and regions to levy money: and first of all he went into Greece, and carried an infinite number of soldiers with him. Now, because every soldier was promised five thousand silver drachmas, he was driven of necessity to impose extreme tallages 79 and taxations. At his first coming into Greece, he was not hard nor bitter unto the Grecians, but gave himself-only to hear wise men dispute, to see plays, and also to note the ceremonies and sacrifices of Greece, ministering justice to every man: and it pleased him marvellously to hear them call him Philellen (as much to say, a lover of the Grecians), and specially

Antonius' great courtesy in Greece.
the Athenians, to whom he did many great pleasures. Wherefore the Megarians, to exceed the Athenians, thinking to shew Antonius a goodly sight, they prayed him to come and see their senate-house and council hall. Antonius went thither to see it. So when he had seen it at his pleasure, they asked him: "My lord, how like you our hall?', "Me thinks," quoth he, "it is little, old, and reedy to fall down." Furthermore he took measure of the temple of Apollo Pythias, and promised the senate to finish it.

But when he was once come into Asia, having left Lucius Censorinus governor in Greece, and that he had felt 80 the riches and pleasures of the east parts, and that princes, great lords, and kings, came to wait at his gate for his coming out: and that queens and princesses, to excel one another, gave him very rich presents, and came to see him, curiously setting forth themselves, and using all art that might be to shew their beauty, to win his favour the more (Caesar in the mean space turmoiling 81 his wits and body in civil Wars at home, Antonius living merrily and quietly abroad), he easily fell again to his old licentious life. For straight, one Anaxenor, a player of the cithern 82, Xoutus, a player of the flute, Metrodorus a tumbler, and such a rabble of minstrels and fit ministers for the pleasures of Asia (who in fineness and flattery passed all the

The plagues of Italy, in riot.
other plagues he brought with him out of Italy), all these flocked in his court, and bare the whole sway: and after that all went awry. For every one gave themselves to riot and excess, when they saw he delighted in it: and all Asia was like to the city Sophocles speaketh of in one of his tragedies:
Was full of sweet perfumes and pleasant songs,
With woeful weeping mingled there-amongs.
For in the city of Ephesus, women, attired as they go in the feasts and sacrifice of Bacchus, came out to meet him with such solemnities and ceremonies as are then used: with men and children disguised like fauns and satyrs. Moreover, the city was full of ivy, and darts wreathed about with ivy, psalterions 83, flutes, and howboyes 84; and in their songs they called him Bacchus, father of mirth, courteous and gentle: and so was he unto some, but to the
Antonius' cruelty in Asia.
most part of men cruel and extreme. For he robbed noblemen and gentlemen of their goods, to give it unto vile flatterers: who oftentimes begged living men's goods, as though they had been dead, and would enter their houses by force. As he gave a citizen's house of Magnesia unto a cook, because (as it is reported) he dressed him a fine supper. In the end he doubled the taxation, and imposed a second upon Asia. But then
Hybraeas' words unto Antonius touching their great payments of money unto him.
Hybraeas the orator, sent from the estates of Asia, to tell him the state of their country, boldly said unto him: "If thou wilt have power to lay two tributes in one year upon us, thou shouldest also have power to give us two summers, two autumns, and two harvests." This was gallantly and pleasantly spoken unto Antonius by the orator, and it pleased him well to hear it: but afterwards, amplifying his speech, he spake more boldly, and to better purpose: "Asia hath paid thee two hundred thousand talents. If all this money be not come to thy coffers, then ask account of them that levied it: but if thou have received it, and nothing be left of it, then are we utterly undone." Hybraeas' words nettled Antonius roundly 85. For he understood not of the thefts and robberies his officers committed by his authority, in his treasure and affairs: not so much because he was careless as for that he over simply trusted his men in all things.
Antonius' simplicity.
For he was a plain man, without subtilty, and therefore over late found out the foul faults they committed against him: but when he heard of them, he was much offended, and would plainly confess it unto them whom his officers had done injury unto by countenance of his authority. He had a noble mind, as well to punish offenders as to reward well-doers: and yet he did exceed more in giving than in punishing.
Antonius' manners.
Now for 86 his outrageous manner of railing he commonly used, mocking and flouting 87 of every man, that was remedied by itself; for a man might as boldly ex change a mock with him, and he was as well contented to be mocked as to mock others: but yet it oftentimes marred all For he thought that those which told him so plainly and truly in mirth, would never flatter him in good earnest in any matters of weight. But thus he was easily abused 88 by the praises they gave him, not finding how these flatterers mingled their flattery under this familiar and plain manner of speech unto him, as a fine device to make difference of meats with sharp and tart sauce and also to keep him by this frantic 89 jesting and bourding 90 with him at the table, that their common flattery should not be troublesome unto him, as men do easily mislike 91 to have too much of one thing: and that they handled him finely thereby, when they would give him place in any matter of weight and follow his counsel, that it might not appear to him they did it so much to please him, but because they were ignorant, and understood not so much as he did.

13. Antonius being thus inclined, the last and extremest mischief of all other (to wit, the love of Cleopatra) lighted on him, who did waken and stir up many vices yet hidden in him, and were never seen to any: and if any spark of goodness or hope of rising were left him, Cleopatra quenched it straight, and made it worse than before. The manner how he fell in love with her was this.

Antonius' love to Cleopatra whom he sent for into cilicia.
Antonius, going to make war with the Parthians, sent to command Cleopatra to appear personally before him when he came into Cilicia, to answer unto such accusations as were laid against her, being this: that she had aided Cassius and Brutus in their war against him. The messenger sent unto Cleopatra, to make this summons unto her, was called Dellius; who when he had throughly considered 92 her beauty, the excellent grace and sweetness of her tongue, he nothing mistrusted 93 that Antonius would do any hurt to so noble a lady, but rather assured himself, that within few days she should be in great favour with him. Thereupon he did her great honour, and persuaded her to come into Cilicia, as honourably furnished 94 as she could possible; and bad her not to be afraid at all of Antonius, for he was a more courteous lord than any that she had ever seen. Cleopatra on the other side, believing Dellius' words, and guessing by the former access and credit she had with Julius Caesar and C. Pompey (the son of Pompey the Great) only for her beauty, she began to have good hope that she might more easily win Antonius. For Caesar and Pompey knew her when she was but a young thing, and knew not then what the world meant: but now she went to Antonius at the age when a woman's beauty is at the prime, and she also of best judgment. So she furnished 95 herself with a world of gifts, store of gold and silver, and of riches and other sumptuous ornaments, as is credible enough she might bring from so great a house, and from so wealthy and rich a realm as Egypt was. But yet she carried nothing with her wherein she trusted more than in herself, and in the charms and enchantment of her passing 96 beauty and grace.
The wonderful sumptuousness of Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, going unto Antonius.

Therefore, when she was sent unto by divers letters, both from Antonius himself and also from his friends, she made so light of it, and mocked Antonius so much, that she disdained to set forward otherwise, but to take her barge in the river of Cydnus; the poop whereof was of gold, the sails of purple, and the oars of silver, which kept stroke in rowing after the sound of the music of flutes, howboys 97, cithernes 98, viols, and such other instruments as they played upon in the barge. And now for the person of her self, she was laid under a pavilion of cloth of gold of tissue, apparelled and attired like the goddess Venus, commonly drawn in picture: and hard by her, on either hand of her, pretty fair boys apparelled as painters do set forth god Cupid, with little fans in their hands, with the which they fanned wind upon her. Her ladies and gentlewomen also, the fairest of them, were apparelled like the nymphs mermaids (which are the mermaids of the waters) and like the Graces , some steering the helm, others tending the tackle and ropes of the barge, out of the which there came a wonderful passing 99 sweet savour of per fumes, that perfumed the wharf's side, pestered 100 with innumerable multitudes of people. Some of them followed the barge all along the river-side: others also ran out of the city to see her coming in. So that in the end, there ran such multitudes of people one after another to see her, that Antonius was left post 101 alone in the market-place, in his imperial seat, to give audience: and there went a rumour in the people's mouths, that the goddess Venus was come to play with the god Bacchus, for the general good of all Asia. When Cleopatra landed, Antonius sent to invite her to supper to him. But she sent him word again, he should do better rather to come and sup with her.

The sumptuous preparations of the suppers of Cleopatra and Antonius.
Antonius therefore, to shew himself courteous unto her at her arrival, was contented to obey her, and went to supper to her: where he found such passing 102 sumptuous fare, that no tongue can express it. But amongst all other things, he most wondered at the infinite number of lights and torches hanged 103 on the top of the house, giving light in every place, so artificially set and ordered by devices, some round, some square: that it was the rarest thing to behold that eye could discern, or that ever books could mention.

The next night Antonius, feasting her, contended to pass 104 her in magnificence and fineness: but she overcame him: in both. So that he himself began to scorn the gross service of his house, in respect of Cleopatra's sumptuousness and fineness. And when Cleopatra found Antonius' jests and slents 105 to be but gross 106 and soldier-like, in plain manner, she gave it 107, him finely, and without fear taunted him throughly 108. Now her beauty (as, it is reported) was not so passing as unmatchable of other women, nor yet such as upon present view did enamour men with her: but so sweet was her company and conversation, that a man could not possibly but be taken. And besides her beauty, the good grace she had to talk and discourse, her courteous nature that tempered her words and deeds, was a spur that pricked to the quick Furthermore, besides all these, her voice and words were marvellous pleasant: for her tongue was an instrument of music to divers sports and pastimes, the which she easily turned into any language that pleased her. She spake unto few barbarous people by interpreter, but made them answer her self, or at the least the most part of them: as the Aethiopians, the Arabians, the Troglodytes, the Hebrews, the Syrians, the Medes, and the Parthians, and to many others also, whose languages she had learned. Whereas divers of her progenitors, the kings of Egypt, could scarce learn the Egyptian tongue only, and many of them forgot to speak the Macedonian.

14. Now Antonius was so ravished with the love of Cleopatra, that though his wife Fulvia had great wars, and much ado with Caesar for his affairs, and that the army of the Parthians (the which the king's lieutenants had given to the only 109 leading of Labienus) was now assembled in Mesopotamia, ready to invade Syria; yet (as though all this had nothing touched him) he yielded himself to go with Cleopatra unto Alexandria, where he spent and lost in childish sports (as a man might say) and idle pastimes, the most precious thing a man can spend (as Antiphon saith), and that is, time.

An order set yp by Antonius and Cleopatra in Egypt.
For they made an order between them, which they called Amimetobion (as much to say, no life comparable and matchable with it), one feasting each other by turns, and in cost exceeding all measure and reason. And for proof hereof, I have heard my grandfather Lampryas report, that one Philotas, a physician, born in the city of Amphissa, told him that he was at that present time in Alexandria, and studied physic; and that having acquaintance with one of Antonius, cooks, he took him with him to Antonius, house (being a young man desirous to see things), to shew him the wonderful sumptuous charge and preparation of one only supper.
Eight wild boars roasted whole.
When he was in the kitchen, and saw a world of diversities of meats, and amongst others eight wild boars roasted whole, he began to wonder at it, and said: " Sure you have a great number of guests to supper." The cook fell a-laughing, and answered him: "No," quoth he, "not many guests, nor above twelve in all: but yet all that is boiled or roasted must be served in whole, or else it would be marred straight: for Antonius peradventure will sup presently, or it may be a pretty while hence, or likely enough he will defer it longer, for that he hath drunk well today, or else hath had some other great matters in hand: and therefore we do not dress one supper only, but many suppers, because we are uncertain of the hour he will sup in."
Philotas a physician born in Amphissa, reporter of this feast.
Philotas the physician told my grand father this tale, and said moreover, that it was his chance shortly after to serve the eldest son of the said Antonius, whom he had by his wife Fulvia; and that he sat commonly at his table with his other friends, when he did not dine nor sup with his father.
Philotas physician to the younger Antonius. Philotas' subtle proposition.
It chanced one day there came a physician that was so full of words, that he made every man weary of him at the board: but Philotas, to stop his mouth, put out this subtle proposition to him: " It is good in some sort to let a man drink cold water that hath an ague: but every man that hath an ague, hath it in some sort: ergo, it is good for every man that hath an ague to drink cold water." The physician was so gravelled 110 and amated 111 withal, that he had not a word more to say. Young Antonius burst out into such a laughing at him, and was so glad of it, that he said unto him: " Philotas, take all that, I give it thee :" strewing him his cupboard full of plate, with great pots of gold and silver. Philotas thanked him, and told him he thought himself greatly bound to him for this liberality, but he would never have thought that he had had power to have given so many things, and of so great value. But much more he marvel led, when shortly after one of young Antonius' men brought him home all the pots in a basket, bidding him set his mark and stamp upon them, and to lock them up. Philotas returned the bringer of them, fearing to be reproved if he took them. Then the young gentleman Antonius said unto him: "Alas, poor man, why doest thou make it nice 112 to take them? knowest thou not that it is the son of Antonius that gives them thee, and is able to do it? if thou wilt not believe me, take rather the ready money they come to: because my father peradventure may ask for some of the plate, for the antick 113 and excellent workmanship of them." This I have heard my grandfather tell oftentimes.


Plato writeth of four kinds of flattery. Cleopatra queen of all flatters.
But now again to Cleopatra. Plato writeth that there are four kinds of flattery: but Cleopatra divided it into many kinds. For she (were it in sport, or in matters of earnest) still devised sundry new delights to have Antonius at commandment, never leaving him night nor day, nor once letting him go out of her sight. For she would play at dice with him, drink with him, and hunt commonly with him, and also be with him when he went to any exercise or activity of body. And some time also, when he would go up and down the city disguised like a slave in the night, and would peer into poor men's windows and their shops, and scold and brawl with them within the house, Cleopatra would be also in a chamber-maid's array, and amble up and down the streets with him, so that often times Antonius bare away both mocks and blows. Now though most men misliked 114 this manner, yet the Alexandrians were commonly glad of this jollity, and liked it well, saying very gallantly and wisely: 'that Antonius shewed them a comical face, to wit, a merry countenance: and the Romans a tragical face, to say, a grim look., But to reckon up all the foolish sports they made, revelling in this sort, it were too fond 115 a part of me, and therefore I will only tell you one among the rest.
Antonius' fishing in Egypt.
On a time he went to angle for fish, and when he could take none, he was as angry as could be, because Cleopatra stood by. Wherefore he secretly commanded the fishermen, that when he cast in his line, they should straight dive under the water, and put a fish on his hook which they had taken be fore: and so snatched up his angling-rod, and brought up a fish twice or thrice. Cleopatra found 116 it straight, yet she seemed not to see it, but wondered at his excellent fishing: but when she was alone by herself among her own people, she told them how it was, and bad them the next morning to be on the water to see the fishing. A number of people came to the haven, and got into the fisher-boats to see this fishing. Antonius then threw in his line, and Cleopatra straight commanded one of her men to dive under water before Antonius' men, and to put some old salt-fish upon his bait, like unto those that are brought out of the country of Pont. When he had hung the fish on his hook, Antonius, thinking he had taken a fish in deed, snatched up his dine presently 117. Then they all fell a laughing. Cleopatra laughing also, said unto him: "Leave us, my lord, Egyptians (which dwell in the country of Pharus and Canobus) your angling-rod: this is not thy profession, thou must hunt after conquering of realms and countries."


The wars of Lucius Antonius and Fulvia against Octavius Caesar.
Now Antonius delighting in these fond and childish pastimes, very ill news were brought him from two places. The first from Rome, that his brother Lucius and Fulvia his wife fell out first between themselves, and afterwards fell to open war with Caesar, and had brought all to nought, that they were both driven to fly out of Italy. The second news, as bad as the first: that Labienus conquered all Asia with the army of the Parthians, from the river of Euphrates and from Syria unto the country of Lydia and Ionia. Then began Antonius with much ado a little to rouse himself, as if he had been wakened out of a deep sleep, and, as a man may say, coming out of a great drunkenness. So, first of all he bent himself against the Parthians, and went as far as the country of Phoenicia: but there he received lamentable letters from his wife Fulvia Whereupon he straight returned towards Italy, with two hundred sail: and as he went, took up his friends by the way that fled out of Italy to come to him. By them he was informed, that his wife Fulvia was the only cause of this war: who being of a peevish, crooked, and troublesome nature, had purposely raised this uproar in Italy, in hope there by to withdraw him from Cleopatra.
The death of Fulvia, Antonius' wife.
But by good fortune his wife Fulvia, going to meet with Antonius, sickened by the way, and died in the city of Sicyon: and therefore Octavius Caesar and he were the easilier 118 made friends again. For when Antonius landed in Italy, and that men saw Caesar asked nothing of him, and that Antonius on the other side laid all the fault and burden on his wife Fulvia; the friends of both parties would not suffer them to unrip any old matters, and to prove or defend who had the wrong or right, and who was the first procurer 119 of this war, fearing to make matters worse between them: but they made them friends together, and divided the empire of Rome between them, making the sea Ionium the bounds of their division.
All the empire of Rome divided between the Triumviri.
For they gave all the provinces east ward unto Antonius, all the countries westward unto Caesar, and left Africa unto Lepidus: and made a law, that they three, one after another, should make their friends Consuls, when they would not be themselves. This seemed to be a sound counsel, but yet it was to be confirmed with a straighter 120 bond, which fortune offered thus.

Octavia the half sister of Octavius Caesar, and daughter of Ancharia, which was not Caesar's mother.
There was Octavia, the eldest sister of Caesar, not by one rather, for she came of Ancharia, and Caesar himself afterwards of Accia. It is reported, that he dearly loved his sister Octavia, for indeed she was a noble lady, and left the widow of her first husband Caius Marcellus, who died not long before: and it seemed also that Antonius had been widower ever since the death of his wife Fulvia. For he denied not that he kept Cleopatra, neither did he confess that he had her as his wife: and so with reason he did defend the love he bare unto this Egyptian Cleopatra. Thereupon every man did set forward this marriage, hoping thereby that this lady Octavia, having an excellent grace, wisdom, and honesty, joined unto so rare a beauty, when she were with Antonius (he loving her as so worthy a lady deserveth) she should be a good mean 121 to keep good love and amity betwixt her brother and him.
A law at Rome for marrying of widows. Antonius married Octavia, Octavius Caesar's half sister.
So when Caesar and he had made the match between them, they both went to Rome about this marriage, although it was against the law that a widow should be married within ten months after her husband's death. Howbeit the senate dispensed with the law, and so the marriage proceeded accordingly.

17. Sextus Pompeius at that time kept in Sicilia, and so made many an inroad into Italy with a great number of pinnaces and other pirates' strips, of the which were captains two notable pirates, Menas and Menecrates, who so scoured all the sea thereabouts, that none durst peep out with a sail. Further more, Sextus Pompeius had dealt very friendly with Antonius, for he had courteously received his mother when she fled out of Italy with Fulvia, and therefore they thought good to make peace with him.

Antonius and Octavius Caesar do make peace with Sextus Pompeius.
So they met all three together by the mount of Misena, upon a hill that runneth far into the sea: Pompey having his ships riding hard by at anchor, and Antonius and Caesar their armies upon the shore-side, directly over against him. Now, after they had agreed that Sextus Pompeius should have Sicily and Sardinia, with this condition, that he should rid the sea of all thieves and pirates, and make it safe for passengers, and withal, that he should send a certain 122 of wheat to Rome, one of them did feast another, and drew cuts 123 who should begin. It was Pompeius chance to invite them first.
Sextus Pompeius' taunt to Antonius.
Whereupon Antonius asked him: "And where shall we sup?" "There," said Pompey; and shewed him his admiral galley which had six banks of oars: "that," said he, "is my father's house they have left me." He spake it to taunt Antonius, because he had his father's house, that was Pompey the Great. So he cast anchors enow 124 into the sea, to make his galley fast, and then built a bridge of wood to convey them to his galley, from the head of mount Misena: and there he welcomed them, and made them great cheer. Now in the midst of the feast, when they fell to be merry with Antonius, love unto Cleopatra, Menas the pirate came to Pompey, and whispering in his ear, said unto him: " Shall I cut the cables of the anchors, and make thee lord not only of Sicily and Sardinia, but of the whole empire of Rome besides?"
Sextus Pompeius being offered wonderful great fortune, for his honesty and faith's sake refused it.
Pompey, having paused a while upon it, at length answered him: "Thou shouldest have done it, and never have told it me; but now we must content us with that we have: as for myself, I was never taught to break my faith, nor to be counted a traitor." The other two also did likewise feast him in their camp, and then he returned into Sicily.

18. Antonius, after this agreement made, sent Ventidius be fore into Asia to stay the Parthians, and to keep them they should come no further: and he himself in the mean time, to gratify Caesar, was contented to be chosen Julius Caesar's priest and sacrificer, and so they jointly together dispatched all great matters concerning the state of the empire. But in all other manner of sports and exercises, wherein they passed the time away the one with the other, Antonius was ever inferior unto Caesar, and alway lost, which grieved him much. With Antonius there was a soothsayer or astronomer of Egypt, that could cast a figure, and judge of men's nativities, to tell them what should happen to them.

Antonius told by a soothsayer that his fortune was inferior unto Octavius Caesar's.
He, either to please Cleopatra, or else for that he found it so by his art, told Antonius plainly, that his fortune (which of itself was excellent good, and very great) was altogether blemished and obscured by Caesar's fortune: and there fore he counselled him utterly to leave his company, and to get him as far from him as he could. "For thy demon," said he (that is to say, the good angel and spirit that keepeth thee) "is afraid of his: and being courageous and high when he is alone, becometh fearful and timorous when he cometh near unto the other."
Antonius unfortunate in sport and earnest against Ocatvius Caesar.
Howsoever it was, the events ensuing proved the Egyptian's words true: for it is said, that as often as they two drew cuts 125 for pastime, who should have anything, or whether they played at dice, Antonius alway lost. Oftentimes when they were disposed to see cock-fight, or quails that were taught to fight one with another, Caesar's cocks or quails did ever overcome. The which spited Antonius in his mind, although he made no out ward shew of it: and therefore he believed the Egyptian the better. In fine 126, he recommended 127 the affairs of his house unto Caesar, and went out of Italy with Octavia his wife, whom he carried into Greece after he had had a daughter by her. 19.
Orodes king of Parthia.
So Antonius lying all the winter at Athens, news came unto him of the victories of Ventidius, who had overcome the Parthians in battle, in the which also were slain Labienus and Pharnabates, the chiefest captains king Orodes had. For these good news he feasted all Athens, and kept open house for all the Grecians, and many games of price were played at Athens, of the which he himself would be judge. Wherefore leaving his guard, his axes, and tokens of his empire at his house, he came into the shew-place or lists (where these games were played) in a long gown and slippers after the Grecian fashion, and they carried tipstaves 128 before him, as marshals' men do carry before the judges, to make place: and he himself in person was a stickler 129 to part the young men, when they had fought enough.

After that, preparing to go to the wars, he made him a garland of the holy olive, and carried a vessel with him of the water of the fountain Clepsydra, because of an oracle he had received, that so commanded him.

Ventidius' notable victory of the Parthians.
In the meantime, Ventidius once again overcame Pacorus (Orodes, son, king of Parthia) in a battle fought in the country of Cyrrestica, he being come again with a great army to invade Syria: at which battle was slain a great number of the Parthians, and among them Pacorus, the king's own son.
The death of Pacorus the king of Parthia's son.
This noble exploit, as famous as ever any was, was a full revenge ta the Romans of the shame and loss they had received before by the death of Marcus Crassus: and he made the Parthians fly, and glad to keep themselves within the confines and territories of Mesopotamia and Media, after they had thrice together been overcome in several battles. Howbeit Ventidius durst not undertake to follow them any farther, fearing lest he should have gotten Antonius' displeasure by it. Notwithstanding, he led his army against them that had rebelled, and conquered them again: amongst whom he besieged Antiochus king of Commagena, who offered him to give a thousand talents to be pardoned his rebellion, and promised ever after to be at Antonius' commandment. But Ventidius made him answer, that he should send unto Antonius; who was not far off, and would not suffer Ventidius to make any peace with Antiochus, to the end that yet this little exploit should pass in his name, and that they should not think he did anything but by his lieu tenant Ventidius. The siege grew very long, because they that were in the town, seeing they could not be received upon no reasonable composition, determined valiantly to defend them selves to the last man. Thus Antonius did nothing, and yet received great shame, repenting him much that he took not their first offer. And yet at the last he was glad to make truce with Antiochus, and to take three hundred talents for composition. Thus after he had set order for the state and affairs of Syria, he returned again to Athens: and having given Ventidius such honours as he deserved, he sent him to Rome, to triumph for the Parthians.
Ventidius the only man of the Romans that triumphed for the Parthians.
Ventidius was the only man that ever triumphed of the Parthians until this present day, a mean man born, and of no noble house or family: who only came to that he attained unto, through Antonius' friendship, the which delivered him happy occasion to achieve great matters. And yet to say truly, he did so well quit 130 himself in all his enterprises, that he confirmed that which was spoken of Antonius and Caesar, to wit, that they were alway more fortunate when they made war by their lieutenants than by themselves.
Canidius' conquests.
For Sossius, one of Antonius' lieutenants in Syria, did notable good service: and Canidius, whom be had also left his lieutenant in the borders of Armenia, did conquer it all. So did he also overcome the kings of the Iberians and Albanians, and went on with his conquests unto mount Caucasus. By these conquests the fame of Antonius' power increased more and more, and grew dreadful unto all the barbarous nations.

20. But Antonius, notwithstanding, grew to be marvellously offended with Caesar, upon certain reports that had been brought unto him, and so took sea to go towards Italy with three hundred sail.

New displeasures betwixt Antonius and Octavius Caesar.
And because those of Brundusium would not receive his army into their haven, he went farther unto Tarentum. There his wife Octavia, that came out of Greece with him, besought him to send her unto her brother, the which he did. Octavia at that time was great with child, and moreover had a second daughter by him, and yet she put herself in journey, and met with her brother Octavius Caesar by the way, who brought his two chief friends, Maecenas and Agrippa, with him.
The words of Octavia unto Maecenas and Agrippa.
She took them aside, and with all the instance 131 she could possible, intreated them they would not suffer her, that was the happiest woman of the world, to become now the most wretched and unfortunates" creature of all other. " For now," said she, "every man's eyes do gaze on me, that am the sister of one of the emperors, and wife of the other. And if the worst counsel take place (which the gods forbid) and that they grow to wars: for yourselves, it is uncertain to which of them two the gods have assigned the victory or overthrow. But for me, on which side soever the victory fall, my state can be but most miserable still."
Octavia pacifieth the quarrel betwixt Antonius and her brother Octavius Caesar.
These words of Octavia so softened Caesar's heart, that he went quickly unto Tarentum. But it was a noble sight for them that were present, to see so great an army by land not to stir; and so many ships afloat in the road quietly and safe: and furthermore, the meeting and kindness of friends, lovingly embracing one another. First, Antonius feasted Caesar, which he granted unto for his sister's sake. Afterwards they agreed together, that Caesar should give Antonius two legions to go against the Parthians, and that Antonius should let Caesar have an hundred galleys armed with brazen spurs at the prows. Besides all this, Octavia obtained of her husband twenty brigantines for her brother, and of her brother, for her husband, a thousand armed men. After they ad taken leave of each other, Caesar went immediately to make war with Sextus Pompeius, to get Sicilia into his hands. Antonius also, leaving his wife Octavia and little children begotten of her, with Caesar, and his other children which he had by Fulvia, went directly into Asia.

21. Then began this pestilent plague and mischief of Cleopatra's love (which had slept a long time, and seemed to have been utterly forgotten, and that Antonius had given place to better counsel) again to kindle, and to be in force, so soon as Antonius came near unto Syria.

Plato calleth concupiscence the horse of the mind.
And in the end, the horse of the mind, as Plato termeth it, that is so hard of rein (I mean the unreined lust of concupiscence) did put out of Antonius, head all honest and commendable thoughts ; for
Antonius sent for Cleopatra into Syria. Antonius gave great provinces unto Cleopatra.
he sent Fonteius Capito to bring Cleopatra into Syria: unto whom, to welcome her, he gave no trifling things: but unto that she had already, he added the provinces of Phoenicia, those of the nethermost Syria, the ile 132 of Cyprus, and a great part of Cilicia, and that country of Jewry where the true balm is' and that part of Arabia where the Nabathaeans do dwell, which stretcheth out toward the ocean. These great gifts much misliked 133 the Romans. But now, though Antonius did easily give away great segniories, realms, and mighty nations unto some private men, and that also he took from other kings their lawful realms (as from Antigonus, king of the Jews, whom he openly beheaded, where never king before had suffered like death): yet all this did not so much offend the Romans, as the unmeasurable honours which he did unto Cleopatra.
Antonius' twins by Cleopatra, and their names.
But yet he did much more aggravate their malice and ill-will towards him, because that Cleopatra having brought him two twins, a son and a daughter, he named his son Alexander, and his daughter Cleopatra; and gave them, to 134 their surnames, the Sunto the one, and the Moon to the other. This notwithstanding, he that could fine]y cloke 135 his shameful deeds with fine words, said, 'that the greatness and magnificence of the empire of Rome appeared most, not where the Romans took, but where they gave much: and nobility was multiplied amongst men by the posterity of kings, when they deft of their seed in divers places: and that by this means his first ancestor was begotten of Hercules, who had not left the hope and continuance of his line and posterity in the womb of one only woman, fearing Solon's laws, or regarding the ordinances of men touching the procreation of children: but that he gave it unto nature, and established the foundation of many noble races and families in divers places.'

Phraortes slew his father Orodes king of Pathia.
Now when Phraortes had slain his father Orodes, and possessed the kingdom, many gentlemen of Parthia forsook him, and fled from him. Amongst them was Moneses, a nobleman, and of great authority among his countrymen, who came unto Antonius that received him, and compared his for tune unto Themistocles, and his own riches and magnificence unto the kings of Persia. For he gave Moneses three cities, Larissa, Arethusa and Hierapolis, which was called before Bombice. Howbeit the king of Parthia shortly after called him home again, upon his faith and word. Antonius was glad to let him go, hoping thereby to steal upon Phraortes unprovided 136. For he sent unto him, and told him that they would remain good friends, and have peace together, so he would but only redeliver the standards and ensigns of the Romans (which the Parthians had won in the battle where M. Crassus was slain) and the men also that remained yet prisoners of this overthrow. In the meantime he sent Cleopatra back into Egypt, and took his way towards Arabia and Armenia, and there took a general muster of all his army he had together, and of the kings his confederates that were come by his commandment to aid him, being a marvellous number: of the which, the chiefest was Artavasdes king of Armenia, who did furnish him with 6000 horsemen, and 7000 footmen.
Antonius' great and puissant army.
There were also of the Romans about threescore thousand footmen, and of horsemen (Spaniards and Gauls reckoned for Romans) to the number of IO,000, and of other nations thirty thousand men, reckoning together the horsemen and light-armed footmen. This so great and puissant 137 army (which made the Indians quake for fear, dwelling about the country of the Bactrians, and all Asia also to tremble) served him to no purpose' and all for the love he bare to Cleopatra.
Antonius drunk with the love of Cleopatra.
For the earnest great desire he had, to lie all winter with her, made him begin this war out of due time, and for haste to put all in hazard: being so ravished and enchanted with the sweet poison of her love, that he had no other thought but of her, and how he might quickly return again, more than how he might overcome his enemies.

For first of all, where he should have wintered in Armenia to refresh his men, wearied with the long journey they had made, having come eight thousand furlongs, and then at the beginning of the spring to go and invade Media before the Parthians should stir out of their houses and garrisons: he could tarry no longer, but led them forthwith unto the province of Atropatene, leaving Armenia on the left hand, and foraged all the country. Furthermore, making all the haste he could, he left behind him engines of battery which were carried with him in three hundred carts (among the which also there was a ram fourscore feet long), being things most necessary for him, and the which he could not get again for money, if they were once lost or marred. For the high provinces of Asia have no trees growing of such height and length, neither strong nor straight enough to make such like engines of battery. This notwithstanding, he left them all behind him, as an hindrance to bring his matters and intent speedily to pass: and left a certain number of men to keep them, and gave them in charge unto one Tatianus. 22.

Antonius besiegth the city of Phrata in Media.
Then he went to besiege the city of Phraata, being the chiefest and greatest city the king of Media had, where his wife and children were. Then he straight found out his own fault, and the want of his artillery he left behind him, by the work he had in hand: for he was fain, for lack of a breach (where his men might come to the sword with their enemies that defended the wall, to force a mound of earth hard to the walls of the city, the which by little and little, with great labour, rose to some height. In the meantime king Phraortes came down with a great army, who, understanding that Antonius had left his engines of battery behind him, he sent a great number of horsemen before, which environed Tatianus with all his carriage 138, and slew him, and ten thousand men he had with him.
The Parthians took Antonius' engines of battery.
After this the barbarous people took these engines of battery and burnt them, and got many prisoners, amongst whom they took also king Polemon.

This discomfiture marvellously troubled all Antonius, army, to receive so great an overthrow (beyond their expectation) at the beginning of their journey: insomuch that Artavastes, king of the Armenians, despairing of the good success of the Romans, departed with his men, notwithstanding that he was himself the first procurer 139, of this war and journey. On the other side, the Parthians came courageously unto Antonius, camp, who lay at the siege of their chiefest city, and cruelly reviled and threatened him. Antonius therefore, fearing that if he lay still and did nothing, his men's hearts would fail them, he took ten legions, with three cohorts or ensigns of the Praetors (which are companies appointed for the guard of the general) and ail his horsemen, and carried them out to forage, hoping thereby he should easily allure the Parthians to fight a battle. But when he had marched about a day's journey from his camp, he saw the Parthians wheeling round about him to give him the onset, and to skirmish with him, when he would think to march his way. Therefore he set out his signal of battle, and yet caused his tents and fardels 140 to be trussed 141 up, as though he meant not to fight, but only to lead his men back again Then he marched before the army of the barbarous people, the which was marshalled like a cressant 142 or half moon, and commanded his horsemen that, as soon as they thought the legions were near enough unto their enemies to sit upon the voward 143, that then they should set spurs to their horses, and begin the charge.

Battle betwixt the Parthians and Antonius.
The Parthians standing in battle ray 144, beholding the countenance of the Romans as they marched, took them for soldiers indeed, for that they marched in as good array as was possible 145.
The Romans' good order in their march.
For in their march they kept their ranks a little space one from another, not straggling out of order, and shaking their pikes, speaking never a word. But so soon as the alarm was given, the horsemen suddenly turned head upon the Parthians, and with great cries gave charge on them: who at the first received their charge courageously, for they were joined nearer than within an arrow's shoot 146. But when the legions also came to join with them, shouting out aloud, and rattling of their armours, the Parthians, horses and themselves were so afraid and amazed withal, that they all turned tail and fled, before the Romans could come to the sword with them. Then Antonius followed them hard in chase, being in great hope by this conflict to have brought to end all or the most part of this war. But after that his footmen had chased them fifty furlongs off, and the horsemen also thrice as far, they found in all but thirty prisoners taken, and about fourscore men only slain: which did much discourage them, when they considered with themselves, that obtaining the victory, they had slain so few of their enemies: and when they were overcome, they lost so many of their men, as they had done at the overthrow when their carriage 147 was taken. The next morning Antonius, army trussed 148 up their carriage 149, and marched back towards their camp: and by the way in their return they met at the first a few of the Parthians; then going on further, they met a few more. So at length when they all came together, they reviled them, and troubled them on every side, as freshly and courageously as if they had not been overthrown: so that the Romans very hardly 150 got to their camp with safety. The Medes on the other side, that were besieged in their chief city of Phraata, made a sally out upon them that kept 151 the mount which they had forced and cast against the wall of the city, and crave them for fear from the mount they kept.
Decimation a martial punishment.
Antonius was so offended withal, that he executed the decimation. For he divided his men by ten legions, and then of them he put the tenth legion to death, on whom the lot fell. and for the other nine, he caused them to have barley given them instead of wheat.

Thus the war fell out troublesome unto both parties, and the end thereof much more fearful; for Antonius could look for no other of his side but famine, because he could forage no more, nor fetch in any victuals, without great loss of his men. Phraortes, on the other side, he knew well enough that he could bring the Parthians to anything else but to lie in camp abroad in the winter. There fore he was afraid, that if the Romans continued their siege all winter long and made war with him still, that his men would forsake him, and specially because the time of the year went away apace, and the air waxed cloudy and cold in the equinoctial autumn. Thereupon he called to mind this device:

The craft of the Parthians against Romans.
He gave the chiefest of his gentlemen of the Parthians charge, that when they met the Romans out of their camp, going to forage, or to water their horse, or for some other provision, that they should not distress them too much, but should suffer them to carry somewhat away, and greatly commend their valiantness and hardiness, for which their king did esteem them the more, and not without cause. After these first baits and allurements, they began by little and little to come nearer unto them, and to talk with them a-horseback, greatly blaming Antonius, self will, that did not give their king Phraortes occasion to make a good peace, who desired nothing more than to save the lives of so goodly a company of valiant men: but that he was too fondly bent to abide two of the greatest and most dreadful enemies he could have, to wit, winter and famine, the which they should hardly away withal 152, though the Parthians did the best they could to aid and accompany them. These words being often times brought to Antonius, they made him a little pliant, for the good hope he had of his return: but yet he would not send unto the king of Parthia before they had first asked these barbarous people that spake so courteously unto his men, whether they spake it of themselves, or that they were their master's words. When they told them the king himself said so, and did persuade them further not to fear or mistrust them, then Antonius sent some of his friends unto the king, to make demand for the delivery of the ensigns and prisoners he had of the Romans since the overthrow of Crassus, to the end it should not appear that, if he asked nothing, they should think he were glad that he might only scape with safety out of the danger he was in. The king of Parthia answered him, that, for the ensigns and prisoners he demanded, he should not break 153 his head about it: notwithstanding that, if he would presently 154 depart without delay, he might depart in peaceable manner, and without danger.
Antonius returneth from the journey of the Parthians.
Wherefore Antonius, after he had given his men some time to truss 155 up their carriage 156, he raised his camp, and took his way to depart. But though he had an excellent tongue at will, and very gallant to entertain his soldiers and men of war, and that he could passingly 157 well do it, as well, or better than any captain in his time: yet, being ashamed for respects, he would not speak unto them at his re moving, but willed Domitius Aenobarbus to do it. Many of them took this in very ill part, and thought that he did it in disdain of them: but the most part of them presently understood the truth of it, and were also ashamed. Therefore they thought it their duties to carry the like respect unto their captain that their captain did unto them: and so they became the more obedient unto him.

23. So Antonius was minded to return the same way he came, being a plain barren country without wood. But there came a soldier to him, born in the country of the Mardians, who, by oft frequenting the Parthians of long time, knew their fashions very well, and had also shewed himself very true and faithful to the Romans in the battle where Antonius, engines of battery and carriage were taken away. This man came unto Antonius, to counsel him to beware how he went that way, and to make his army a prey (being heavily armed) unto so great a number of horsemen, all archers in the open field, where they should hate nothing to let 158 them to compass him round about: and that this was Phraortes, fetch 159, to offer him so friendly conditions and courteous words, to make him raise his siege, that he might afterwards meet him as he would in the plains: howbeit that he would guide him, if he thought good, another way on the right hand, through woods and mountains, a far nearer way, and wheel he should find great plenty of all things needful for his army. Antonius hearing what he said, called his counsel together to consult upon it. For after he had made peace with the Parthians, he was loth to give them cause to think he mistrusted them: and on the other side also he would gladly shorten his way, and pass by places well inhabited, where he might be provided of all things necessary: therefore he asked the Mardian what pledge he would put in, to perform that he promised. The Mardian gave himself to be bound hand and foot, till he had brought his army into the country of Armenia. So he guided the army thus bound, two days together, without any trouble or sight of enemy. But the third day Antonius, thinking the Parthians would no more follow him, and trusting therein, suffered the soldiers to march in disorder as every man listed 160. The Mardian, perceiving that the darns of a river were newly broken up, which they should have passed over, and that the river had overflown the banks and drowned all the way they should have gone, he guessed straight that the Parthians had done it, and had thus broken it open, to stay the Romans for 161 getting too far before them. Therefore he bade Antonius look to himself, and told him that his enemies were not far from thence.

The Parthians do set upon Antonius in his return.
Antonius, having set his men in order, as he was placing of his archers and sling-men to resist the enemies, and to drive them back, they descried the Parthians that wheeled round about the army to compass them in on every side, and to break their ranks, and their light-armed men gave charge upon them. So after they had hurt many of the Romans with their arrows, and that they themselves were also hurt by them with their darts and plummets 162 of lead, they retired a little, and then came again and gave charge, until that the horsemen of the Gauls turned their horses, and fiercely galloped towards them, that they dispersed them so, as 163 all that day they gathered no more together.

Whereby Antonius knew what to do, and did not only strengthen the rereward 164 of his army, but both the flanks also, with darts and sling-men, and made his army march in a square battle 165: commanding the horsemen, that when the enemies should come to assail them, they should drive them back, but not follow them too far. Thus the Parthians four days after, seeing they did no more hurt to the Romans than they also received of them, they were not so hot upon them as they were commanded, but excusing themselves by the winter that troubled them, they determined to return back again.

The bold act of Flavius Gallus.
The fift 166 day Flavius Gallus, a valiant man of his hands 167, that had charge in the army, came unto Antonius to pray him to let him have some mo 168 of his light-armed men than were already in the rereward, and some of the horsemen that were in the voward 169, hoping thereby to do some notable exploit. Antonius granting them unto him, when the enemies came according to their manner to set upon the tail of the army, and to skirmish with them, Flavius courageously made them retire, but not as they were wont to do before, to retire and join presently with their army; for he over rashly thrust in among them to fight it out at the sword. The captains that had the leading of the rereward, seeing Flavius stray too far from the army, they sent unto him to will 170 him to retire, but he would not hearken to it. And it is reported also, that Titius himself, the treasurer, took the ensigns, and did what he could to mate the ensign-bearers return back, reviling Flavius Gallus, because that through his folly and desperateness he caused many honest and valiant men to be both hurt and slain to no purpose. Gallus also fell out with him, and commanded his men to stay. Wherefore Titius returned again into the army, and Gallus still overthrowing and driving the enemies back whom he met in the voward 171, he was not ware 172 that he was compassed in.
Canidius' fault, Antonius' captain.
Then, seeing himself environed on all sides, he sent unto the army, that they should come and aid him: but there the captains that led the legions (among the which Canidius, a man of great estimation about Antonius, made one) committed many faults. For where they should have made head with the whole army upon the Parthians, they sent him aid by small companies: and when they were slain, they sent him others also. So that by their beastliness 173 and lack of consideration, they had like to have made all the army fly, if Antonius himself had not come from the front of the battle with the third legion, the which came through the middest 174 of them that fled, until they came to front the enemies, and that they stayed them from chasing any farther.
Flavius Gallus slain. Antonius' care of them that were wounded.

Howbeit at this last conflict there were slain no less than 3000 men, and 5000 besides brought sore hurt into the camp, and amongst them also Flavius Gallus, whose body was shot through in four places, whereof he died. Antonius went to the tents to visit and comfort the sick and wounded, and for pity's sake he could not refrain from weeping: and they also, strewing him the best countenance they could, took him by the hand, and prayed him to go and be dressed, and not to trouble himself for them, most reverently calling him their emperor and captain: and that for themselves, they were whole and safe, so that he had his health. For indeed to say truly, there was not at that time any emperor or captain that had so great and puissant 175 an army as his together, both for lusty youths and courage of soldiers, as also for their patience to away with 176 so great pains and trouble.

The love and reverence of the soldiers unto Antonius.
Furthermore, the obedience and reverence they shewed unto their captain, with a marvellous earnest love and good will, was so great, and all were indifferently 177 (as well great as small, the noble men as mean men, the captains as soldiers) so earnestly bent to esteem Antonius┬╣ good will and favour above their own life and safety, that, in this point of martial discipline, the ancient Romans could not have done any more.
The rare and singular gifts of Antonius.
But divers things were cause thereof, as we have told you before: Antonius┬╣ nobility and ancient house, his eloquence, his plain nature, his liberality and magnificence, and familiarity to sport and to be merry in company; but especially the care he took at that time to help, visit, and lament those that were sick and wounded, seeing every man to have that which was meet for him: that was of such force and effect, as it made them that were sick and wounded to love him better, and were more desirous to do him service, than those that were whole and sound.

This victory so encouraged the enemies (who otherwise were weary to follow Antonius any farther) that all night long they kept 178 the fields, and hovered about the Romans' camp, thinking that they would presently fly, and that then they should take the spoil of their camp. So the next morning by break of day, there were gathered together a far greater number of the Parthians than they were before. For the rumour was, that there were not much fewer than 40,000 horse, because their king sent thither even the very guard about his person, as unto a most certain and assured victory, that they might be partners of the spoil and booty they hoped to have had: for, as touching the king himself, he was never in any conflict or battle. Then Antonius, desirous to spe~ik to his soldiers, called for a black gown, to appear the more pitiful to them: but his friends did dissuade him from it.

The king of Parthia never came to fight in the field.
Therefore he put on his coat-armour 179, and being so apparelled, made an oration to his army: in the which he highly commended them that Lad overcome and driven back their enemies, and greatly rebuked them that had cowardly turned their backs. So that those which had overcome prayed him to be of good cheer: the other 180 also, to clear themselves, willingly offered to take the lot of decimation if he thought good, or otherwise to receive what kind of punishment should please him to lay upon them, so that he would forget any more to mislike 181, or to be offended with them.
Antonius charitable prayer to the gods for his army.
Antonius seeing that, did lift up his hands to heaven, and made his prayer to the gods, that if in exchange of his former victories, they would now send him some bitter adversity, then that all might light on himself alone, and that they would give the victory to the rest of his army.

24. The next morning, they gave better order on every side of the army, and so marched forward: so that when the Parthians thought to return again to assail them, they came far short of the reckoning. For where they thought 182 to come, not to fight, but to spoil and make havoc of all, when they came near them, they were sore hurt with their slings and darts, and such other javelins as the Romans darted at them, and the Parthians found them as rough and desperate in fight, as if they had been fresh men they had dealt withal. Whereupon their hearts began again to fail them. But yet when the Romans came to go down any steep hills or mountains, they would set on them with their arrows, because the Romans could go down but fair and softly.

The Romans testudo and covering against shot.
But then again, the soldiers of the legion that carried great shields, returned back, and enclosed them that were naked 183 or light-armed in the midst among them, and did kneel of one knee on the ground, and so set down their shields before them: and they of the second rank also covered them of the first rank, and the third also covered the second, and so from rank to rank all were covered. Insomuch that this manner of covering and shading themselves with shields was devised after the fashion of laying tiles upon houses; and to sight was like the degrees 184 of a theatre, and is a most strong defence and bulwark against all arrows and shot that falleth upon it. When the Parthians saw this countenance 185 of the Roman soldiers of the legion which kneeled on the ground in that sort upon one knee, supposing that they had been wearied with travel, they laid down their bows, and took their spears and lances, and came to fight with them man for man. Then the Romans suddenly rose upon their feet, and with the darts that they threw from them they slew the foremost, and put the rest to flight, and so did they the next days that followed. But by means of these dangers and lets 186, Antonius┬╣ army could win no way in a day, by reason whereof they suffered great famine: for they could have but little corn, and yet were they driven daily to fight for it; and besides that, they had no instruments to grind it, to make bread of it. For the most part of them had been left behind, because the beasts that carried them were either dead, or else employed to carry them that were sore and wounded.
Great famine in Antonius' army.
For the famine was so extreme great, that the eight part of a bushel of wheat was sold for fifty drachmas, and they sold barley bread by the weight of silver.
A deadly herb incurable without wine.
In the end they were compelled to live of 187 herbs and roots, but they found few of them that men do commonly eat of, and were enforced to taste of them that were never eaten before: among the which, there was one that killed them, and made them out of their wits. For he that had once eaten of it, his memory was gone from him, and [he] knew no manner of thing, but only busied himself in digging and hurling of stones from one place to another, as though it had been a matter of great weight 188, and to be done with all possible speed. All the camp over, men were busily stooping to the ground, digging and carrying of stones from one place to another: but at the last, they cast up a great deal of choler 189, and died suddenly; because they lacked wine, which was the only sovereign remedy to cure that disease. It is reported that Antonius, seeing such a number of his men die daily, and that the Parthians left them not, neither would suffer them to be at rest, he oftentimes cried out sighing, and said: " O ten thousand!"
The valiantness of ten thousand Grecians, whom Xenophon brought away after the overthrow of Cyrus.
He had the valiantness of 10,000 Grecians in such admiration, whom Xenophon brought away after the overthrow of Cyrus: because they had come a farther journey from Babylon, and had also fought against much mo 190 enemies many times told than themselves, and yet came home with safety.

The Parthians therefore, seeing that they could not break the good order of the army of the Romans, and contrarily, that they themselves were oftentimes put to flight, and wellfavouredly 191 beaten, they fell again to their old crafty subtilties.

The Parthians very subtle and crafty people.
For when they found any of the Romans scattered. from the army to go forage, to seek some corn or other victuals, they would come to them as if they had been their friends, and shewed them their bows unbent, saying, that themselves also did return home to their country as they did, and that they would follow them no farther: howbeit that they should yet have certain Medes that would follow them a day's journey or two, to keep them that they should do no hurt to the villages from the high-ways; and so holding them with this talk, they gently took their leave of them, and bad them farewell, so that the Romans began again to think themselves safe. Antonius also understanding this, being very glad of it, determined to take his way through the plain country, because also they should find no water in the mountains, as it was reported unto him. 25.
Mithridates a Parthian bewrayeth unto Antonius the conspiracy of his own contrymen against him.
So as he was determined to take his course, there came into his host one Mithridates, a gentleman from the enemies' camp, who was cousin unto Moneses that fled unto Antonius, and unto whom he had given three cities. When he came to Antonius' camp, he prayed them to bring him one that could speak the Parthian or Syrian tongue. So one Alexander Antiochian, a familiar of Antonius, was brought unto him. Then the gentleman told him what he was, and said that Moneses had sent him to Antonius, to requite the honour and courtesy he had shewed unto him. After he had used this ceremonious speech, he asked Alexander if he saw those high mountains afar off, which he pointed unto with his finger. Alexander answered he did. "The Parthians," said he, "do lie in ambush at the foot of those mountains, under the which lieth a goodly plain champion 192 country: and they think that you, being deceived with their crafty subtle words, will leave the way of the mountains, and turn into the plain. For 193 the other way, it is very hard and painful, and you shall abide great thirst, the which you are well acquainted withal: but if Antonius take the lower way, let him assure himself to run the same fortune that Marcus Crassus did."

So Mithridates having said, he departed. Antonius was marvellously troubled in his mind when he heard thus much, and therefore called for his friends, to hear what they would say to it. The Mardian also that was their -guide, being asked his opinion, answered that he thought as much as the gentleman Mithridates had said. "For," said he, "admit that there were no ambush of enemies in the valley, yet it is a long crooked way, and ill 194 to hit 195: where, taking the mountain way, though it be stony and painful, yet there is no other danger but a whole day's travelling without any water." So Antonius, changing his first mind and determination, removed that night, and took the mountain-way, commanding every man to provide himself of 196 water. But the most part of them lacking vessels to carry water in, some were driven to fill their sallets 197 and murrians 198 with water, and others also filled goats' skins to carry water in. Now they marching forward, word was brought unto the Parthians that they were removed: whereupon, contrary to their manner, they presently followed them the self-same night, so that by break of day they overtook the rereward 199 of the Romans, who were so lame and wearied with going 200 and lack of sleep, that they were even done 201. For beyond expectation, they had gone that night two hundred and forty furlongs; and further, to see their enemies so suddenly at their backs, that made them utterly despair: but most of all, the fighting with them increased their thirst, because they were forced to fight as they marched, to drive their enemies back, yet creeping on still.

A salt river.
The voward 202 of the army by chance met with a river that was very clear and cold water; but it was salt and venomous to drink. for straight it did gnaw the guts of those that had drunk it, and made them marvellous dry, and put them into a terrible ache and pricking. And notwithstanding that the Mardian had told them of it before, yet they would not be ruled, but violently thrust them back that would have kept them from drinking, and so drank. But Antonius, going up and down amongst them, prayed them to take a little patience for a while, for hard by 203 there was another river that the water was excellent good to drink, and that from thenceforth the way was stony and ill for horsemen, that the enemies could follow them no further. So he caused the retrait 204 to be sounded to call them back that fought, and commanded the tents to be set up, that the soldiers might yet have shadow to refresh them with.

So when the tents were set up, and the Parthians also retired according to their manner, the gentleman Mithridates before-named returned again as before, and Alexander in like manner again was brought unto him for interpreter. Then Mithridates advised him, that after the army had reposed a little, the Romans should remove forthwith, and with all possible speed get to the river: because the Parthians would go no further, but yet were cruelly bent to follow them thither.

Antonius' great liberality unto Mithridates, for the care he had of his safety.
Alexander carried the report thereof unto Antonius, who gave him a great deal of gold plate to bestow upon Mithridates. Mithridates took as much of him as he could well carry away in his gown, and so departed with speed. 26. So Antonius raised his camp, being yet day-light, and caused all his army to march, and the Parthians never troubled any of them by the way: but amongst themselves it was as ill and dreadful a night as ever they had.
The tumult of Antonius' soldiers through covetousness.
For there were villains of their own company who cut their fellows' throats for the money they had, and besides that, robbed the sumpters and carriage 205 of such money as they carried, and at length they set upon Antonius' slaves that crave his own sumpters and carriage 206; they brake goodly tables and rich plate in pieces, and divided it among themselves. Thereupon all the camp was straight in tumult and uproar: for the residue of them were afraid it had been the Parthians that had given them this alarm, and had put all the army out of order.
Antonius' desperate mind.
Insomuch that Antonius called for one Rhamnus, one of his slaves enfranchised that was of his guard, and made him give him his faith that he would thrust his sword through him when he would bid him, and cut off his head, because he might not be taken alive of his enemies, nor known when he were dead. This grieved his friends to the heart, that they burst out a-weeping for sorrow. The Mardian also did comfort him, and assured him that the river he sought for was hard by) and that he did guess it by a sweet moist wind that breathed upon them, and by the air which they found fresher than they were wont, and also, for that they fetched their wind 207 more at liberty; and moreover, because that since they did set forward, he thought they were near their journey's end, not lacking much of day. On the other side also Antonius was informed that this great tumult and trouble came not through the enemies, but through the vile covetousness and villany of certain of his soldiers. Therefore Antonius, to set his army again in order, and to pacify this uproar, sounded the trumpet that every man should lodge.

Now day began to break, and the army to fall again into good order, and all the hurlyburly 208 to cease, when the Parthians drew near, and that their arrows lighted among them of the rereward 209 of his army. Thereupon the signal of battle was given to the light-armed men, and the legioners 210 did cover themselves as they had done before with their shields, with the which they received and defended the force of the Parthians' arrows, who never durst any more come to handy strokes 211 with them: and thus they that were in the voward 212 went down by little and little, till at length they espied the river. There Antonius placed his armed men upon the sands to receive and drive back the enemies, and first of all) got over his men that were sick and hurt, and afterwards all the rest. And those also that were left to resist the enemies had leisure enough to drink safely and at their pleasure. For when the Parthians saw the river, they unbent their bows, and bad the Romans pass over without any fear, and greatly commended their valiantness. When they had all passed over the river at their ease, they took a little breath, and so marched forward again, not greatly trusting the Parthians.

Araxes fl.
The sixth day after this last battle, they came to the river of Araxes, which divideth the country of Armenia from Media; the which appeared unto them very dangerous to pass, for the depth and swiftness of the stream. And furthermore there ran a rumour through the camp, that the Parthians lay in ambush thereabouts, and that they would come and set upon them whilst they were troubled in passing over the river. But now, after they were all come safely over without any danger, and that they had gotten to the other side, into the province of Armenia, then they worshipped that land, as if it had been the first land they had seen after a long and dangerous voyage by sea, being now arrived in a safe and happy haven: and the tears ran down their cheeks, and every man embraced each other for the great joy they had. But now, keeping the fields in this fruitful country so plentiful of all things, after so great a famine and want of all things, they so crammed themselves with such plenty of victuals, that many of them were cast into fluxes and dropsies.
Eighteen several battles fought with the Parthians.

There Antonius, mustering his whole army, found that he had lost 20,000 footmen, and 4000 horsemen, which had not all been slain by their enemies: for the most part of them died of sickness, making seven and twenty days' journey coming from the city of Phraata into Armenia, and having overcome the Parthians in eighteen several battles. But these victories were not throughly performed nor accomplished, because they followed no long chase: and thereby it easily appeared, that Artabazus king of Armenia had kept Antonius from ending this war. For if the sixteen thousand horsemen which he brought with him out of Media had been at these battles 'considering that they were armed and apparelled much after the Parthian manner, and acquainted also with their fight, when the Romans had put them to flight that had fought a battle with them, and that these Armenians had followed the chase of them that fled) they had not gathered themselves again in force, neither durst they also have returned to fight with them so often after they had been so many times overthrown. Therefore all those that were of any credit and countenance in the army did persuade and egg 213 Antonius to be revenged of this Armenian king: but Antonius, wisely dissembling his anger, he told him not of his treachery, nor gave him the worse countenance 214, nor did him less honour than he did before: because he knew his army was weak, and lacked things necessary.

Antonius triumphed of Artabazus king of Armenia, in Egypt.
Howbeit afterwards he returned again into Armenia with a great army, and so with fair words and sweet promises of messengers, he allured Artabazus to come to him: whom he then kept prisoner, and led in triumph in the city of Alexandria This greatly offended the Romans, and made them much to mislike 215 it, when they saw that for Cleopatra's sake he deprived his country of her due honour and glory, only to gratify the Egyptians. But this was a pretty while after. 27. Howbeit then, the great haste he made to return unto Cleopatra caused him to put his men to so great pains, forcing them to lie in the field all winter long when

it snew 216 unreasonably, that by the way he lost eight thousand of his men, and so came down to the sea-side with a small company, unto a certain place called Blancbourg: which standeth betwixt the cities of Berytus and Sidon, and there tarried for Cleopatra.

Antonius pined away looking for Cleopatra.
And because she tarried longer than he would have had her, he pined away for love and sorrow: so that he was at such a straight 217, that he wist not what to do, and therefore, to wear it out, he gave himself to quaffing and feasting. But he was so drowned with the love of her, that he could not abide to sit at the table till the feast was ended: but many times, while others banqueted, he ran to the sea-side to see if she were coming.
Cleopatra came to Blancbourg unto Antonius.
At length she came, and brought with her a world of apparel and money to give unto the soldiers. But some say notwithstanding that she brought apparel and no money, and that she took of Antonius' money, and caused it to be given amongst the soldiers in her own name, as if she had given it them.

28. In the meantime it chanced that the king of the Medes and Phraortes, king of the Parthians, fell at great wars together, the which began (as it is reported) for the spoils of the Romans: and grew to be so hot between them that the king of Medes was no less afraid than also in danger to lose his whole realm.

Wars betwixt the Parthians and Medes.
Thereupon he sent unto Antonius, to pray him to come and make war with the Parthians, promising him that he would aid him to his uttermost power. This put Antonius again in good comfort, considering that, unlooked for, the only thing he lacked (which made him he could not overcome the Parthians, meaning that he had not brought horsemen, and men with darts and slings enough) was offered him in that sort, that it did him more pleasure to accept it than it was pleasure to the other to offer it. Hereupon, after he had spoken with the king of Medes at the river of Araxes, he prepared himself once more to go through Armenia, and to make more cruel war with the Parthians than he had done before.

29. Now whilst Antonius was busy in this preparation, Octavia his wife, whom he had left at Rome, would needs take sea to come unto him. Her brother Octavius Caesar was willing to it, not for his respect at all (as most authors do report) as for that he might have an honest 218 colour 219 to make war with Antonius, if he did misuse her, and not esteem of her as she ought to be.

Octavia, Antonius' wife, came to Athens to meet with him.
But when she was come to Athens, she received letters from Antonius, willing 220 her to stay there until his coming, and did advertise 221 her of his journey and determination. The which though it grieved her much, and that she knew it was but an excuse: yet by her letters to him of answer, she asked him whether he would have those things sent unto him which she had brought him, being great store of apparel for soldiers, a great number of horse, sums of money and gifts, to bestow on his friends and captains he had about him: and besides all those, she had 2000 soldiers, chosen men, all well armed like unto the Praetor's bands. When Niger, one of Antonius' friends whom he had sent unto Athens, had brought these news from his wife Octavia, and withal did greatly praise her, as she was worthy and well deserved, Cleopatra, knowing that Octavia would have Antonius from her, and fearing also that if with her virtue and honest behaviour (besides the great power of her brother Caesar) she did add "hereunto her modest kind love to please her husband, that she would then be too strong for her, and in the end win him away: she subtly seemed to languish for the love of Antonius, pining her body for lack of meat. Furthermore, she every way so framed her countenance, that when Antonius came to see her, she cast her eyes upon him, like a woman ravished for joy. Straight again when he went from her, she fell a-weeping and blubbering, looking ruefully on the matter, and still 222 found the means that Antonius should oftentimes find her weeping: and then when he came suddenly upon her, she made as though she dried her eyes, and turned her face away, as if she were unwilling that he should see her weep.
The flickering enticements of Cleopatra unto Antonius.
All these tricks she used, Antonius being in readiness to go into Syria, to speak with the king of Medes. Then the flatterers that furthered Cleopatra's mind blamed Antonius, and told him that he was a hard-natured man, and that he had small love in him, that would see a poor lady in such torment for his sake, whose life depended only upon him alone. "For Octavia," said they, " that was married unto him as it were of necessity, because her brother Caesar's affairs so required it, hath the honour to be called Antonius' lawful spouse and wife: and Cleopatra, being born a queen of so many thousands of men, is only named Antonius' leman 223; and yet that she disdained not so to be called, if it might please him she might enjoy his company, and live with him: but if he once leave her, that then it is unpossible 224 she should live." To be short, by these their flatteries and enticements, they so wrought Antonius' effeminate mind that, fearing lest she would make herself away, he returned again unto Alexandria, and referred 225 the king of Medes to the next year following, although he received news that the Parthians at that time were at civil wars among themselves. This notwithstanding, he went afterwards and made peace with him.
The occasion of civil war betwixt Antonius and Caesar.
For he married his daughter, which was very young, unto one of the sons that Cleopatra had by him: and then returned' teeing fully bent to make war with Caesar.


The love of Octavia unto Antonius her husband, and her wise and womanly behavior.
When Octavia was returned to Rome from Athens, Caesar commanded her to go out of Antonius' house, and to dwell by herself, because he had abused 226 her. Octavia answered him again, that she would not forsake her husband's house, and that if he had no other occasion to make war with him, she prayed him then to take no thought for her: '` For," said she, "it were too shameful a thing, that two so famous captains should bring in civil wars among the Romans, the one for the love of a woman, and the other for the jealousy betwixt one another.'' Now as she spake the word, so did she also perform the deed: for she kept still in Antonius' house, as if he had been there, and very honestly and honourably kept his children, not only those she had by him, but the other which her husband had by Fulvia. Furthermore, when Antonius sent any of his men to Rome, to sue for any office in the commonwealth, she received them very courteously, and so used herself unto her brother, that she obtained the things she requested. Howbeit thereby, thinking no hurt, she did Antonius great hurt. For her honest love and regard to her husband made every man hate him, when they saw he did so unkindly use so noble a lady: but the greatest cause of their malice unto him was for the division of lands he made among his children in the city of Alexandria.
Antonius arrogantly divideth diverse provinces unto his children by Cleopatra.
And, to confess a troth 227, it was too arrogant and insolent a part, and done (as a man would say) in derision and contempt of the Romans. For he assembled all the people in the show-place, where young men do exercise themselves, and there, upon a high tribunal silvered, he set two chairs of gold, the one for himself, and the other for Cleopatra, and lower chairs for his children; then he openly published before the assembly, that first of all he did establish Cleopatra queen of Egypt, of Cyprus, of Lydia, and of the lower Syria; and at that time also Caesarion king of the same realms.
Caesarion the supposed son of Caesar by Cleopatra. Alexander and Ptolemy, Antonius' sons by Cleopatra.
This Caesarion was supposed to be the son of Julius Caesar, who had left Cleopatra great with child. Secondly, he called the sons he had by her the kings of kings, and gave Alexander for his portion Armenia, Media, and Parthia, when he had conquered the country; and unto Ptolemy for his portion Phoenicia, Syria, and Cilicia And therewithal he brought out Alexander in a long gown after the fashion of the Medes with a high cop-tank 228 hat on his head, narrow in the top, as the kings of the Medes and Armenians do use to wear them: and Ptolemy apparelled in a cloak after the Macedonian manner, with slippers on his feet and a broad hat, with a royal band or diadem. Such was the apparel and old attire of the ancient kings and successors of Alexander the Great. So after his sons had done their humble duties,-and kissed their father and mother, presently a company of Armenian soldiers, set there of purpose, compassed the one about, and a like company of Macedonians the other. Now for Cleopatra, she did not only wear at that time (but at all other times else when she came abroad) the apparel of the goddess Isis, and so gave audience unto all her subjects! as a new Isis.


Accusations betwixt Octavius Caesar and Antonius.
Octavius Caesar reporting all these things unto the Senate, and oftentimes accusing him to the whole people and assembly in Rome, he thereby stirred up all the Romans against him. Antonius on the other side sent to Rome likewise to accuse him, and the chiefest points of his accusations he charged him with, were these. First, that having spoiled Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, he did not give him his part of the ile 229. Secondly, that he did detain in his hands the ships he lent him to make that war. Thirdly, that having put Lepidus their companion and triumvirate 230 out of his part of the empire, and having deprived him of all honours, he retained for himself the lands and revenues thereof, which had been assigned unto him for his part. And last of all, that he had in manner 231 divided all Italy amongst his own soldiers, and had left no part of it for his soldiers. Octavius Caesar answered him again: that for 232 Lepidus, he had indeed deposed him, and taken his part of the empire from him, because he did over cruelly use his authority. And secondly, for 233 the conquests he had made by force of arms, he was contented Antonius should have his part of them, so that he would likewise let him have his part of Armenia. And thirdly, that, for 234 his soldiers, they should seek for nothing in Italy, because they possessed Media and Parthia, the which provinces they had added to the empire of Rome, valiantly fighting with their emperor and captain.
Antonius came with eight hundred sails against Octavius Caesar.

Antonius hearing these news, being yet in Armenia, commanded Canidius to go presently to the sea-side with his sixteen legions he had: and he himself, with Cleopatra, went unto the city of Ephesus, and there gathered together his galleys and ships out of all parts, which came to the number of eight hundred, reckoning the great ships of burthen: and of those, Cleopatra furnished him with two hundred and twenty thousand talents besides, and provision of victuals also to maintain all the whole army in this war. So Antonius, through the persuasion of Domitius, commanded Cleopatra to return again into Egypt, and there to understand 235 the success 236 of this war. But Cleopatra, fearing lest Antonius should again be made friends with Octavius Caesar by the means of his wife Octavia, she so plied Canidius with money and filled his purse, that he became her spokesman unto Antonius, and told him there was no reason to send her from this war, who defrayed so great a charge 237: neither that it was for his profit, because thereby the Egyptians would then be utterly discouraged, which were the chiefest strength of the army by sea: considering that he could see no king of all the kings their confederates that Cleopatra was inferior unto, either for wisdom or judgment, seeing that long before she had wisely governed so great a realm as Egypt; and besides that, she had been so long acquainted with him, by whom she had learned to manage great affairs. These fair persuasions wan 238 him: for it was predestinated that the government of all the world should fall into Octavius Caesar's hands. 32.

Antonius carrieth Cleopatra with him to the wars against Octavius Caesar: and kept great feasting at the isle of Samos together.
Thus, all their forces being joined together, they hoised 239 sail towards the ile 240 of Samos. and there gave themselves to feasts and solace. For as all the kings, princes, and commonalties, people, and cities, from Syria unto the marrishes Maeotides 241, and from the Armenians to the Illyrians, were sent unto, to send and bring all munition and warlike preparation they could: even so all players, minstrels, tumblers, fools, and festers, were commanded to assemble in the ile 242 of Samos. So that, where in manner all the world in every place was full of lamentations, sighs, and tears, only in this ile 243 of Samos there was nothing for many days' space but singing and piping, and all the theatre full of these common players, minstrels, and singing -men. Besides all this, every city sent an ox thither to sacrifice, and kings did strive one with another who should make the noblest feasts, and give the richest gifts. So that every man said, "What can they do more for joy of victory, if they win the battle, when they make already such sumptuous feasts at the beginning of the war ?"

When this was done, he gave the whole rabble of these minstrels, and such kind of people, the city of Priene to keep them withal during this war. Then he went unto the city of Athens, and there gave himself again to see plays and pastimes, and to keep the theatres. Cleopatra, on the other side, being jealous of the honours which Octavia had received in this city, where indeed she was marvellously honoured and beloved of the Athenians; to win the people's goodwill also at Athens, she gave them great gifts: and they likewise gave her many great honours and appointed certain ambassadors to carry the decree to her house, among the which Antonius was one, who (as a citizen of Athens) reported the matter unto her, and made an oration in the behalf of the city.

Antonius put his wife Octavia out of his house at Rome.
Afterwards he sent to Rome to put his wife Octavia out of his house, who (as it is reported) went out of his house with all Antonius' children, saving the eldest of them he had by Fulvia, who was with his father: bewailing and lamenting her cursed hap 244, that had brought her to this, that she was accounted one of the chiefest causes of this civil war. The Romans did pity her, but much more Antonius, and those specially that had seen Cleopatra: who neither excelled Octavia in beauty, nor yet in young years.

33. Octavius Caesar understanding the sudden and wonderful great preparation of Antonius, he was not a little astonied 245 at it (fearing he should be driven to fight that summer) because he wanted many things, and the great and grievous exactions of money did sore oppress the people.

Octavius Caesar exacteth grievous payments of the Romans.
For all manner of men else were driven to pay the fourth part of their goods and revenue, but the libertines (to wit, those whose fathers or other predecessors had sometime been bondmen) were seissed 246 to pay the eight 247 part of all their goods at one payment. Hereupon there arose a wonderful exclamation and great uproar all Italy over, so that, amongst the greatest faults that ever Antonius committed, they blamed him most for that he delayed to give Caesar battle. For he gave Caesar leisure to make his preparations, and also to appease the complaints of the people. When such a great sum of money was demanded of them, they grudged 248 at it, and grew to mutiny upon it: but when they had once paid it, they remembered it no more. Furthermore, Titius and Plancus (two of Antonius' chiefest friends, and that had been both of them consuls) for the great injuries Cleopatra did them, because they hindered all they could that she should not come to this war, they went and yielded themselves unto Caesar, and told him where the testament 249 was that Antonius had made, knowing perfectly what was in it. The will was in the custody of the Vestal nuns: of whom Caesar demanded it. They answered him, that they would not give it him: but if he would go and take it, they would not hinder him.
Titius and Plancus revolt from Antonius, and do yield to Caesar.
Thereupon Caesar went thither, and having read it first to himself, he noted certain places 250 worthy of reproach: so assembling all the Senate, he read it before them all. Whereupon divers were marvellously offended, and thought it a strange matter that he, being alive, should be punished for that he had appointed by his will to be done after his death. Caesar chiefly took hold of this that he ordained touching his burial: for he willed that his body, though he died at Rome, should be brought in funeral pomp through the middest 251 of the market-place, and that it should be sent into Alexandria unto Cleopatra.
A famous library the city of Pergamum.
Furthermore, among divers other faults wherewith Antonius was to be charged for Cleopatra's sake, Calvisius, one of Caesar's friends, reproved him, because he had frankly given Cleopatra all the libraries of the royal city of Pergamum, in the which she had above two hundred thousand several books. Again also, that being on a time set at the table, he suddenly rose from the board and trod upon Cleopatra's foot, which was a sign given between them, of which they were agreed on. That he had also suffered the Ephesians in his presence to call Cleopatra their sovereign lady. That divers times, sitting in his tribunal and chair of state, giving audience to all kings and princes, he had received loveletters from Cleopatra, written in tables 252 of onyx or crystal; and that he had read them sitting in his imperial seat.
Furnius, an eloquent orator among the Romans.
That one day when Furnius, a man of great account, and the eloquentest man of all the Romans, pleaded a matter before him, Cleopatra by chance coming through the market-place in her litter where Furnius was a-pleading, Antonius straight rose out of his seat, and left his audience to follow her litter.

This notwithstanding, it was thought Calvisius devised the most part of all these accusations of his own head.

Geminius sent from Rome to Antonius, to bid him take heed to himself.
Nevertheless they that loved Antonius were intercessors to the people for him, and amongst them they sent one Geminius unto Antonius, to pray him he would take heed that through his negligence his empire were not taken from him, and that he should be counted an enemy to the people of Rome. This Geminius, being arrived in Greece, made Cleopatra jealous straight of his coming, because she surmised that he came not but to speak for Octavia. Therefore she spared not to taunt him all supper-time; and moreover, to spite him the more, she made him to be set lowest of all at the board: the which he took patiently, expecting 253 occasion 254 to speak with Antonius. Now Antonius commanding him at the table to tell him what wind brought him thither, he answered, 'That it was no tabletalk, and that he would tell him to-morrow morning fasting: but drunk or fasting, howsoever it were, he was sure of one thing, that all would not go well on his side, unless Cleopatra were sent back into Egypt.' Antonius took these words in very ill part. Cleopatra on the other side answered him, "Thou doest well, Geminius," said she, "to tell the truth before thou be compelled by torments'' but within few days after, Geminius stole away, and fled to Rome.
Many of Antonius' friends do forsake him.
The flatterers also, to please Cleopatra, did make her drive many other of Antonius' faithful servants and friends from him, who could not abide the injuries done unto them: among the which these two were chief, Marcus Syllanus, and Dellius the historiographer, who wrote that he fled because her physician Glaucus told him that Cleopatra had set some secretly to kill him. Furthermore, he had Cleopatra's displeasure, because he said one night at supper, that they made them drink sour wine, where 255 Sarmentus at Rome drank good wine of Falerna. This Sarmentus was a pleasant young boy, such as the lords of Rome are wont to have about them to make them pastime, which they call their joys, and he was Octavius Caesar's boy.
Antonius' empire taken from him.

Now after that Caesar had made sufficient preparation, he proclaimed open war against Cleopatra, and made the people to abolish the power and empire of Antonius, because he had before given it up unto a woman. And Caesar said furthermore, that Antonius was not master of himself, but that Cleopatra had brought him beside himself by her charms and amorous poisons: and that they, that should make war with them, should be Mardian the eunuch, Photinus, and Iras (a woman of Cleopatra's bed-chamber, that frizzled 256 her hair, and dressed her head) and Charmion, the which were those that ruled all the affairs of Antonius' empire. 34.

Signs and wonders before the civil wars betwixt Antonius and Octavius Caesar. Pesaro, a city in Italy, sunk into the ground by earthquake.
Before this war, as it is reported, many signs and wonders fell out. First of all, the city of Pisaurum, which was made a colony to Rome, and replenished with people by Antonius, standing upon the shore-side of the sea Adriatic, was by a terrible earthquake sunk into the ground. One of the images of stone, which was set up in the honour of Antonius in the city of Alba, did sweat many days together: and though some wiped it away, yet it left 257 not sweating still. In the city of Patras, whilst Antonius was there, the temple of Hercules was burnt with lightning. And at the city of Athens also, in a place where the war of the giants against the gods is set out in imagery 258, the statue of Bacchus with a terrible wind was thrown down in the theatre. It was said that Antonius came of the race of Hercules (as you have heard before), and in the manner of his life he followed Bacchus, and therefore he was called the new Bacchus. Furthermore, the same blustering storm of wind overthrew the great monstrous images at Athens that were made in the honour of Eumenes and Attalus, the which men had named and intituled 259 'the Antonians': and yet did they hurt none of the other images, which were many besides.
An ill sign, foreshewed by swallows breeding in Cleopatra's ship.
The admiral-galley of Cleopatra was called Antontiad, in the which there chanced a marvellous ill sign: swallows had bred under the poop of her ship, and there came others after them that crave away the first, and plucked down their nests.


Antonius' power against Octavius Caesar.
Now when all things were ready, and that they drew near to fight, it was found, that Antonius had no less than 500 good ships of war, among which there were many galleys that had eight and ten banks of oars, the which were sumptuously furnished, not so meet for fight as for triumph: an hundred thousand footmen, and 12,000 horsemen; and had with him to aid him these kings and subjects following: Bocchus king of Lybia, Tarcondemus king of high Cilicia, Archelaus king of Cappadocia, Philadelphus king of Paphlagonia, Mithridates king of Comagena, and Adallas king of Thracia. All which were there, every man in person. The residue that were absent, sent their armies: as Polemon king of Pont, Manchus king of Arabia, Herodes king of Jewry 260; and furthermore Amyntas king of Lycaonia and of the Galatians: and besides all these, he had all the aid the king of Medes sent unto him.
The army and power of Octavius Caesar against Antonius. Antonius' dominions. Octavius Caesar's dominions.
Now for Caesar, he had 250 ships of war, 80,000 footmen, and well near as many horsemen as his enemy Antonius. Antonius for his part had all under his dominion from Armenia and the river of Euphrates, unto the sea Ionium and Illyricum. Octavius Caesar had also, for his part, all that which was in our hemisphere or half-part of the world, from Illyria unto the ocean sea upon the west: then all from the ocean unto mare Siculum: and from Africa, all that which is against Italy, as Gaul and Spain. Furthermore, all, from the province of Cyrenia to Ethiopia, was subject unto Antonius.

Antonius too much ruled by Cleopatra.
Now Antonius was made so subject to a woman's will, that though he was a great deal the stronger by land, yet for Cleopatra's sake he would needs have this battle tried by sea: though he saw before his eyes, that for lack of water-men 261 his captains did prest 262 by force all sorts of men out of Greece that they could take up in the field, as travellers, muleteers, reapers, harvest-men, and young boys; and yet could they not sufficiently furnish his galleys: so that the most part of them were empty, and could scant 263 row, because they lacked watermen 264 enough. But on the contrary side, Caesar's ships were not built for pomp, high and great, only for a sight and bravery 265, but they were light of yarage 266, armed and furnished with watermen as many as they needed, and had them all in readiness in the havens of Tarentum and Brundusium.
Antonius rode at anchor at the head of Actium: where the city of Nicopolis standeth.
So Octavius Caesar sent unto Antonius, to will 267 him to delay no more time, but to come on with his army into Italy: and that for his own part he would give him safe harbour to land without any trouble; and that he would withdraw his army from the sea, as far as one horse could run, until he had put his army ashore, and had lodged his men. Antonius on the other side bravely sent him word again and challenged the combat of him, man for man, though he were the elder; and that if he refused him so, he would then fight a battle with him in the fields of Pharsalia, as Julius Caesar and Pompey had done before. Now whilst Antonius rode at anchor, lying idly in harbour at the head of Actium, in the place where the city of Nicopolis standeth at this present, Caesar had quickly passed the sea Ionium and taken a place called Toryne, before Antonius understood 7 that he had taken ship. Then began his men to be afraid, because his army by land was left behind. But Cleopatra making light of it, "And what danger, I pray you," said she, " if Caesar keep at Toryne 268?"

The next morning by break of day, his enemies coming with full force of oars in battle against him, Antonius was afraid that if they came to join, they would take and carry away his ships that had no men of war in them. So he armed all his water-men, and set them in order of battle upon the forecastle of their ships, and then lift 269 up all his ranks of oars towards the element 270, as well on the one side as on the other, with the prows against the enemies, at the entry and mouth of the gulf which beginneth at the point of Actium: and so kept them in order of battle, as if they had been armed and furnished with water-men and soldiers. Thus Octavius Caesar, being finely deceived by this stratagem, retired presently, and therewithal Antonius very wisely and suddenly did cut him off from fresh water. For, understanding that the places ``here Octavius Caesar landed had very little store of water, and yet very bad, he shut them in with strong ditches and trenches he cast, to keep them from sailing out at their pleasure, and so to go seek water farther off.

Domitius forsaketh Antonius and goeth unto Octavius Caesar.
Furthermore, he dealt very friendly and courteously with Domitius, and against Cleopatra's mind. For he being sick of an ague when he went and took a little boat to go unto Caesar's camp, Antonius was very sorry for it, but yet he sent after him all his carriage 271, train, and men: and the same Domitius, as though he gave him to understand that he repented his open treason, died immediately after.
Amyntas and Deiotarus do both revolt from Antonius and go unto Caesar.
There were certain kings also that forsook him, and turned on Caesar's side, as Amyntas and Deiotarus. Furthermore, his fleet and navy that was unfortunate in all things, and unready for service, compelled him to change his mind, and to hazard battle by land. And Canidius also, who had charge of his army by land, when time came to follow Antonius' determination, he turned him clean contrary, and counselled him to send Cleopatra back again, and himself to retire into Macedon, to fight there on the main land. And furthermore told him, that Dicomes king of the Getes promised to aid him with a great power: and that it should be no shame nor dishonour to him to let Caesar have the I sea, because himself and his men both had been well practiced and exercised in battles by sea, in the war of Sicilia against Sextus Pompeius: but rather that he should do against all reason (he having so great skill and experience of battles by land as he had), if he should not employ the force and valiantness of so many lusty armed footmen as he had ready, but would weaken his army by dividing them into ships. But now, notwithstanding all these good persuasions, Cleopatra forced him to put all to the hazard of battle by sea: considering with herself how she might fly and provide for her safety, not to help him to win the victory, but to fly more easily after the battle lost. Betwixt Antonius' camp and his fleet of ships, there was a great high point of firm land that ran a good way into the sea, the which Antonius used often for a walk, without mistrust of fear or danger. One of Caesar's men perceived it, and told his master that he would laugh if they could take up Antonius in the middest 272 of his walk.
Antonius in danger of taking at Actium.
Thereupon Caesar sent some of his men to lie in ambush for him, and they missed not much of taking him (for they took him that came before him) because they discovered 273 too soon, and so Antonius scaped very hardly 274.

So when Antonius had determined to fight by sea, he set all the other ships on fire but three score ships of Egypt, and reserved only the best and greatest galleys, from three banks unto ten banks of oars Into them he put two and twenty thousand fighting men, with two thousand darters and slingers. Now as he was setting his men in order of battle, there was a captain, a valiant man, that had served Antonius in many battles and conflicts, and had all his body hacked and cut: who, as Antonius passed by him, cried out unto him, and said: "O noble emperor, how cometh it to pass that you trust to these vile brittle ships? What, do you mistrust these wounds of mine, and this sword? Let the Egyptians and Phoenicians fight by sea, and set us on the main land, where we use 275 to conquer or to be slain on our feet."

Antonius regardeth not the good counsel fo his soldiers.
Antonius passed by him and said never a word, but only beckoned to him with his hand and head, as though he willed him to be of good courage, although indeed he had no great courage himself. For when the masters of the galleys and pilots would have let their sails alone, he made them clap 276 them on; saying, to colour 277 the matter withal, that not one of his enemies should scape.

All that day and the three days following, the sea rose so high and was so boisterous, that the battle was put off.

Battle by sea at Actium, betwixt Antonius and Caesar.
The fift 278 day the storm ceased, and the sea calmed again, and then they rowed with force of oars in battle one against the other: Antonius leading the right wing with Publicola, and Caelius the left, and Marcus Octavius and Marcus Justeius the midst. Octavius Caesar, on the other side, had placed Agrippa in the left wing of his army, and had kept the right wing for himself. For 279 the armies by land, Canidius was general of Antonius' side, and Taurus of Caesar's side: who kept their men in battle ray 280, the one before the other, upon the sea-side, without stirring one against the other. Further, touching both the chieftains: Antonius, being in a swift pinnace, was carried up and down by force of oars through his army, and spake to his people to encourage them to fight valiantly, as if they were on main land, because of the steadiness and heaviness of their ships: and commanded the pilots and masters of the galleys, that they should not stir, none otherwise than if they were at anchor, and so to receive the first charge of their enemies, and that they should not go out of the streight 281 of the gulf.
A lucky sign unto Octavius Caesar. Eutychus Nicon, fortunate conqueror.
Caesar betimes in the morning going out of his tent, to see his ships throughout, met a man by chance that crave an ass before him: Caesar asked the man what his name was. The poor man told him that his name was Eutychus, to say 282, Fortunate: and his ass's name Nicon, to say, Conqueror. Therefore Caesar, after he had won the battle, setting out the market-place with the spurs of the galleys he had taken, for a sign of his victory, he caused also the man and his ass to be set up in brass. When he had visited the order of his army throughout, he took a little pinnace, and went to the right wing, and wondered when he saw his enemies lie still in the streight 283, and stirred not. For discerning I them afar off, men would have thought they had been ships riding at anchor: and a good while he was so persuaded. So he kept his galleys eight furlongs from his enemies. About noon there arose a little gale of wind from the sea, and then Antonius' men, waxing angry with tarrying so long, and trusting to the greatness and height of their ships, as if they had been invincible, they began to march forward with their left wing. Caesar, seeing that, was a glad man, and began a little to give back from the right wing, to allure them to come farther out of the streight 284 and gulf, to the end that he might with his light ships, well manned with watermen, turn and environ the galleys of the enemies, the which were heavy of yarage 285, both for their bigness, as also for lack of water-men to row them.

When the skirmish began, and that they came to join, there was no great hurt at the first meeting, neither did the ships vehemently hit one against the other, as they do commonly in fight by sea. For on the other side Antonius' ships, for their heaviness, could not have the strength and swiftness to make their blows of any force: and Caesar's ships on the other side took great heed not to rush and shock with the forecastles of Antonius' ships, whose prows were armed with great brazen spurs. Furthermore they durst not flank them, because their points were easily broken, which way soever they came to set upon his ships, that were made of great main square pieces of timber, bound together with great iron pins: so that the battle was much like unto a battle by land, or to speak more properly, to the assault of a city. For there were always three or four of Caesar's ships about one of Antonius' ships, and the soldiers fought with their pikes, halbards 286 and darts, and threw halbards and darts with fire. Antonius' ships on the other side bestowed among them, with their crossbows and engines of battery, great store of shot from their high towers of wood that were set upon their ships. Now Publicola seeing Agrippa put forth his left wing of Caesar's army, to compass in Antonius' ships that fought, he was driven also to loof 287 off to have more room, and to go a little at one side, to put those farther off that were afraid, and in the midst of the battle, for they were sore distressed by Arruntius. 36.

Cleopatra flieth.
Howbeit the battle was yet of even hand, and the victory doubtful, being indifferent to both: when suddenly they saw the threescore ships of Cleopatra busily about their yard-masts, and hoising 288 sail to fly. So they fled through the middest 289 of them that were in fight, for they had been placed behind the great ships, and did marvellously disorder the other ships. For the enemies themselves wondered much to see them sail in that sort, with full sail towards Peloponnesus.
The soul of a lover liveth in another body.
There Antonius shewed plainly, that he had not only lost the courage and heart of an emperor, but also of a valiant man; and that he was not his own man (proving that true which an old man spake in mirth, that the soul of a lover lived in another body, and not in his own); he was so carried away with the vain love of this woman, as if he had been glued unto her, and that she could not have removed without moving of him also.
Antonius flieth after Cleopatra.
For when he saw Cleopatra's ship under sail, he forgot, forsook, and betrayed them that fought for him, and imbarked 290 upon a galley with five banks of oars, to follow her that had already begun to overthrow him, and would in the end be his utter destruction.

When she knew his galley afar off, she lift 291 up a sign in the poop of her ship; and so Antonius, coming to it, was plucked up where Cleopatra was: howbeit he saw her not at his first coming, nor she him, but went and sat down alone in the prow of his ship, and said never a word, clapping his head between both his hands. In the meantime came certain light brigantines of Caesar's, that followed him hard. So Antonius straight turned the prow of his ship, and presently 292 put the rest to flight, saving one Eurycles a Lacedaemonian, that followed him near, and pressed upon him with great courage, shaking a dart in his hand over the prow, as though he would have thrown it unto Antonius. Antonius seeing him, came to the forecastle of his ship, and asked him what he was that durst follow Antonius so near? " I am," answered he, "Eurycles the son of Lachares, who through Caesar's good fortune seeketh to revenge the death of my father." This Lachares was condemned of felony, and beheaded by Antonius. But yet Eurycles durst not venture upon Antonius' ship, but set upon the other admiral galley (for there were two), and fell upon him with such a blow of his brazen spur that was so heavy and big, that he turned her round, and took her, with another that was loden 293 with very rich stuff and carriage 294. After Eurycles had left Antonius, he turned again to his place, and sat down, speaking never a word, as he did before: and so lived three days alone, without speaking to any man. But when he arrived at the head of Taenarus, there Cleopatra's women first brought Antonius and Cleopatra to speak together, and afterwards to sup and lie together. Then began there again a great number of merchants' ships to gather about them, and some of their friends that had escaped from this overthrow, who brought news' that his army by sea was overthrown, but that they thought the army by land was yet whole. Then Antonius sent unto Canidius, to return with his army into Asia by Macedon.

Antonius licenceth his friends to depart, and givethy them a ship loaden with gold and silver.
Now for himself, he determined to cross over into Africa, and took one of his carects 295 or hulks loden 296 with gold and silver, and other rich carriage 297, and gave it unto his friends, commanding them to depart, and seek to save themselves. They answered him weeping, that they would neither do it, nor yet forsake him. Then Antonius very courteously and lovingly did comfort them, and prayed them to depart; and wrote unto Theophilus, governor of Corinth, that he would see them safe, and help to hide them in some secret place, until they had made their way and peace with Caesar. This Theophilus was the father of Hipparchus, who was had in great estimation about Antonius. He was the first of all his enfranchised bondmen that revolted from him, and yielded unto Caesar, and afterwards went and dwelt at Corinth.

And thus it stood with Antonius.

Antonius' navy overthrown by Caesar.
Now for 298 his army by sea, that fought before the head or foreland of Actium, they held out a long time, and nothing troubled them more than a great boisterous wind that rose full in the prows of their ships, and yet with much ado his navy was at length overthrown, five hours within night 299. There were not slain above five thousand men: but yet i there were three hundred ships taken, as Octavius Caesar writeth himself in his Commentaries. Many plainly saw Antonius fly, and yet could very hardly believe it, that he, that had nineteen legions whole by land, and twelve thousand horsemen upon the sea-side, would so have forsaken them, and have fled so cowardly, as it he had not oftentimes proved both the one and the other fortune, and that he had not been thoroughly acquainted with the diverse changes and fortunes of battles. And yet his soldiers still wished for him, and ever hoped that he would come by some means or other unto them. Furthermore, they shewed themselves so valiant and faithful unto him, that after they certainly knew he was fled, they kept themselves whole together seven days. 37.
Antonius' legions do yield themselves unto Octavius Caesar.
In the end Canidius, Antonius' lieutenant, flying by night, and forsaking his camp, when they saw themselves thus destitute of their heads and leaders, they yielded themselves unto the stronger. This done, Caesar sailed towards Athens, and there made peace with the Grecians, and divided the rest of the corn that was taken up for Antonius' army, unto the towns and cities of Greece, the which had been brought to extreme misery and poverty, clean 300 without money, slaves, horse 301, and other beasts of carriage 302. So that my grandfather Nicarchus told that all the citizens of our city of Chaeronea (not one excepted) were driven themselves to carry a certain measure of corn on their shoulders to the sea-side, that lieth directly over against the ile 303 of Anticyra, and yet were they driven thither with whips. They carried it thus but once: for the second time that they were charged again to make the like carriage, all the corn being ready to be carried, news came that Antonius had lost the battle, and so scaped our poor city. For Antonius' soldiers and deputies fled immediately, and the citizens divided the corn amongst them.
Lucilius spoken of in Brutus' life.

Antonius being arrived in Lybia, he sent Cleopatra before into Egypt from the city of Paraetonium; and he himself remained very solitary, having only two of his friends with him, with whom he wandered up and down, both of them orators, the one Aristocrates a Grecian, and the other Lucilius a Roman: of whom we have written in another place, that, at the battle where Brutus was overthrown by the city of Philippes 304, he came and willingly put himself into the hands of those that followed Brutus, saying that it was he: because Brutus in the meantime might have liberty to save himself.

the fidelity of Lucilius unto Antonius.
And afterwards, because Antonius saved his life, he still remained with him, and was very faithful and friendly unto him till his death. But when Antonius heard that he whom he had trusted with the government of Lybia, and unto whom he had given the charge of his army there, had yielded unto Caesar, he was so mad withal, that he would have slain himself for anger, had not his friends about him withstood him, and kept him from it.
the wonderful attempt of Cleopatra.
So he went unto Alexandria, and there found Cleopatra about a wonderful enterprise, and of great attempt. Betwixt the Red Sea and the sea between the lands that point upon the coast of Egypt, there is a little piece of land that divideth both the seas, and separateth Africk from Asia: the which streight 305 is so narrow at the end where the two seas are narrowest, that it is not above three hundred furlongs over. Cleopatra went about 306 to lift her ships out of the one sea, and to hale them over the bank into the other sea: that when her ships were come into the gulf of Arabia, she might then carry all her gold and silver away, and so with a great company of men go and dwell in some place about the Ocean Sea, far from the sea Mediterraneum, to escape the danger and bondage of this war. But now, because the Arabians dwelling about the city of Petra, did burn the first ships that were brought to land, and that Antonius thought that his army by land which he left at Actium was yet whole, she left off her enterprise, and determined to keep 307 all the ports and passages of her realm. 38.
Antonius followeth the life and example of Timon Misanthropos the Athenian.
Antonius, he forsook the city and company of his friends, and built him a house in the sea by the ile 308 of Pharos, upon certain forced mounts which he caused to be cast into the sea, and dwelt there as a man that banished himself from all men's company: saying that he would lead Timon's life, because he had the like wrong offered him, that was before offered unto Timon: and that for the unthankfulness of those he had done good unto, and whom he took to be his friends, he was angry with all men and would trust no man.

Plato and Aristophanes' testimony of Timon Misanthropos, what he was.
This Timon was a citizen of Athens, that lived about the war of Peloponnesus, as appeareth by Plato and Aristophanes' comedies: in the which they mocked him, calling him a viper and malicious man unto mankind, to shun all other men's companies but the company of young Alcibiades, a bold and insolent youth, whom he would greatly feast and make much of, and kissed him very gladly. Apemantus wondering at it, asked him the cause what 309 he meant to make so much of that young man alone, and to hate all others: Timon answered him, " I do it," said he, "because I know that one day he shall do great mischief unto the Athenians." This Timon sometimes would have Apemantus in his company, because he was much like of his nature and conditions, and also followed him in manner of life. On a time when they solemnly celebrated the feast called Choe at Athens (to wit, the feasts of the dead where they make sprinklings and sacrifices for the dead) and that they two then feasted together by themselves, Apemantus said unto the other: " O, here is a trim banquet, Timon!" Timon answered again: "Yea," said he, " so thou wert not here." It is reported of him also, that this Timon on a time (the people being assembled in the marI;et-place about dispatch of some affairs) got up into the pulpit for orations, where the orators commonly use 310 to speak unto the people: and silence being made, every man listening to hear what he would say, because it was a wonder to see him in that place, at length he began to speak in this manner: " My lords of Athens, I have a little yard at my house where there groweth a fig-tree, on the which many citizens have hanged themselves: and because I mean to make some building on the place, I thought good to let you all understand it, that, before the figtree be cut down, if any of you be desperate 311, you may there in time go hang yourselves." He died in the city of Hales, and was buried upon the sea-side. Now it chanced so, that the sea getting in, it compassed his tomb round about, that no man could come to it: and upon the same was written this epitaph:
The epitaph of Timon Misanthropos.
Here dies a wretched corse, of wretched soul bereft: Seek not my name: a plague consume you wicked wretches left ! It is reported that Timon himself, when he lived, made this epitaph: for that which is commonly rehearsed was not his, but made by the poet Callimachus: Here lie I, Timon, who alive all living men did hate: Pass by and curse thy fill: but pass, and stay not here thy gate 312.

Many other things could we tell you of this Timon, but this Little shall suffice at this present. 39. But now to return to Antonius again. Canidius himself came to bring him news, that he had lost all his army by land at Actium: on the other side he was advertised 313 a]so, that Herodes king of Jurie 314, who had also certain legions and bands with him, was revolted unto Caesar, and all the other kings in like manner: so that, saving those that were about him, he had none left him.

Antonius' rioting in Alexandria after his great loss and overthrow.
All this notwithstanding did nothing trouble him: and it seemed that he was contented to forgo 315 all his hope, and so to be rid of al] his cares and troubles. Thereupon he left his solitary house he had built by the sea, which he called Timoneon and Cleopatra received him into her royal palace. He was no sooner come thither, but he straight set all the city on rioting and banqueting again, and himself to liberality and gifts.
Toga virilis. Antyllus the eldest son of Antonius by his wife Fulvia.
He caused the son of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra to be enrolled (according to the manner of the Romans) amongst the number of young men: and gave Antyllus, his eldest son he had by Fulvia, the man's gown, the which was a plain gown without gard 316 or embroderie 317, of purple.
An order erected by Antonius and Cleopatra, called Synapothanumenon, revoking the former called Amimetobion.
For these things, there was kept great feasting, banqueting and dancing in Alexandria many days together. Indeed they did break their first order they had set down, which they called Amimetobion (as much to say, 'no life comparable'), and did set up another, which they called Synapothanumenon (signifying the order and agreement of those that will die together), the which in exceeding sumptuousness and cost was not inferior to the first. For their friends made themselves to be enrolled in this order of those that would die together, and so made great feasts one to another: for every man, when it came to his turn, feasted their whole company and fraternity.
Cleopatra very busy in proving the force of poison.
Cleopatra in the meantime was very careful 318 in gathering all sorts of poisons together, to destroy men. Now to make proof of those poisons which made men die with least pain, she tried it upon condemned men in prison. For when she saw the poisons that were sudden and vehement, and brought speedy death with grievous torments; and in contrary manner, that such as were more mild and gentle had not that quick speed and force to make one die suddenly: she afterwards went about to prove 319 the stinging of snakes and adders, and made some to be applied unto men in her sight, some in one sort, some in another.
The property of the biting of an aspick.
So when she had daily made divers and sundry proofs, she found none of them all she had proved so fit as the biting of an aspick 320, the which causeth only a heaviness of the head, without swooning or complaining, and bringeth a great desire also to sleep, with a little sweat in the face; and so by little and little taketh away the senses and vital powers, no living creature perceiving that the patients feel any pain. For they are so sorry when any body awaketh them and taketh them up, as those that be taken out of a sound sleep are very heavy and desirous to sleep


Antonius and Cleopatra send ambassadors unto Ocatvius Caesar.
This notwithstanding, they sent ambassadors unto Octavius Caesar in Asia, Cleopatra requesting the realm of Egypt for their children, and Antonius praying that he might be suffered to live at Athens like a private man, if Caesar would not let him remain in Egypt. And because they had no other men of estimation about them, for that some were fled, and those that remained they did not greatly trust, they were enforced to send Euphronius, the schoolmaster of their children. For Alexas Laodicean, who was brought into Antonius' house and favour by means of Timagenes, and afterwards was in greater credit with him than any other Grecian (for that he had ever been one of Cleopatra's ministers to win Antonius, and to overthrow all his good determinations to use his wife Octavia well?: him Antonius had sent unto Herodes king of Jurie 321, hoping still to keep him his friend, that he should not revolt from him. But he remained there, and betrayed Antonius. For where he should have kept Herodes from revolting from him, he persuaded him to turn to Caesar: and trusting king Herodes, he presumed to come in Caesar's presence. Howbeit Herodes did him no pleasure, for he was presently taken prisoner, and sent in chains to his own country, and there by Caesar's commandment put to death.
Alexas' treason justly punished.
Thus was Alexas, in Antonius' life-time, put to death for betraying of him.

Furthermore, Caesar would not grant unto Antonius' requests: but for Cleopatra, he made her answer, that he would deny her nothing reasonable, so that she would either put Antonius to death, or drive him out of her country. Therewithal he sent Thyreus one of his men unto her, a very wise and discreet man: who bringing letters of credit from a young lord unto a noble lady, and that besides greatly liked her beauty, might easily by his eloquence have persuaded her. He was longer in talk with her than any man else was, and the queen herself also did him great honour: insomuch as he made Antonius jealous of him. Whereupon Antonius caused him to be taken and well favouredly 322 whipped, and so sent him unto Caesar: and bad him tell him, that he made him angry with him, because he shewed himself proud and disdainful towards him; and now specially, when he was easy to be angered, by reason of his present misery. "To be short, if this mislike 323 thee," said he, " thou hast Hipparchus, one of my enfranchised bondmen, with thee: hang him if thou wilt, or whip him at thy pleasure, that we may cry quittance." From henceforth Cleopatra, to clear herself of the suspicion he had of her, made more of him than ever she did. For first of all, where 324 she did solemnize the day of her birth very meanly and sparingly, fit for her present misfortune, she now in contrary manner did keep it with such solemnity, that she exceeded all measure of sumptuousness and magnificence: so that the guests that were bidden to the feasts, and came poor, went away rich. Now things passing thus, Agrippa by divers letters sent one after another unto Caesar, prayed him to return to Rome, because the affairs there did of necessity require his person and presence.

Pelusium was yielded up to Octavius Caesar.

Thereupon he did defer the war till the next year following: but when winter was done, he returned again through Syria by the coast of Africa, to make wars against Antonius and his other captains. When the city of Pelusium was taken, there ran a rumour in the city, that Seleucus (by Cleopatra's consent) had surrendered the same. But to clear herself that she did not, Cleopatra brought Seleucus' wife and children unto Antonius, to be revenged of them at his pleasure.

Cleopatra's monuments set up by the temple of Isis.
Furthermore, Cleopatra had long before made many sumptuous tombs and monuments, as well for excellency of workmanship, as for height and greatness of building, joining 325 hard to the temple of Isis. Thither she caused to be brought all the treasure and precious things she had of the ancient kings her predecessors: as gold, silver, emeralds, pearls, ebony, ivory, and cinnamon, and besides all that, a marvellous number of torches, faggots, and flax. So Octavius Caesar, being afraid to lose such a treasure and mass of riches, and that this woman for spite would set it on fire and burn it every whit, he always sent some one or other unto her from him, to put her in good comfort, whilst he in the meantime drew near the city with his army. So Caesar came and pitched his camp hard by the city, in the place where they run and manage their horses. Antonius made a sally upon him, and fought very valiantly, so that he drave 326 Caesar's horsemen back, fighting with his men even into their camp. Then he came again to the palace, greatly boasting of this victory, and sweetly kissed Cleopatra, armed as he was when he came from the fight, recommending one of his men of arms unto her, that had valiantly fought in this skirmish Cleopatra, to reward his manliness, gave him an armour and headpiece of clean 327 gold: howbeit the man-at-arms, when he had, received this rich gift, stole away by night and went to Caesar.

Antonius sent again to challenge Caesar to fight with him hand to hand. Caesar answered him, " That he had many other ways to die than so." Then Antonius, seeing there was no way more honourable for him to die than fighting valiantly, he determined to set up his rest 328, both by sea and land. So being at supper (as it is reported) he commanded his officers and household servants that waited on him at his board, that they should fill his cups full, and make as much of him as they could: "For," said he, "you know not whether you shall do so much for me tomorrow or not, or whether you shall serve another master: and it may be you shall see me no more, but a dead body." This notwithstanding, perceiving that his friends and men fell a-weeping to hear him say so, to salve 329 that he had spoken, he added this more unto it, 'that he would not lead them to battle, where he thought not rather safely to return with victory, than valiantly to die with honour.'

Strange noises heard, and nothing seen.
Furthermore, the selfsame night, within a little of midnight, when all the city was quiet, full of fear and sorrow, thinking what would be the issue and end of this war, it is said that suddenly they heard a marvellous sweet harmony of sundry sorts of instruments of music, with the cry of a multitude of people, as they had been dancing, and had sung as they use in Bacchus' feasts, with movings and turnings after the manner of the Satyrs: and it seemed, that this dance went through the city unto the gate that opened to the enemies, and that all the troupe 330, that made this noise they heard, went out of the city at that gate. Now such as in reason sought the depth of the interpretation of this wonder, thought that it was the god unto whom Antonius bare singular devotion to counterfeit and resemble him, that did forsake them.

The next morning by break of day, he went to set those few footmen he had in order upon the hills adjoining unto the city: and there he stood to behold his galleys which departed from the haven, and rowed against the galleys of the enemies, and so stood still, looking what exploits his soldiers in them would do. But when by force of rowing they were come near unto them, they first saluted Caesar's men; and then Caesar's men resaluted them also, and of two armies made but one: and then did all together row toward the city. 41.

Antonius' navy do yeild themselves unto Caesar. Antonius overthrown by Octavius Caesar. Cleopatra flieth into her tomb or monument.
When Antonius saw that his men did forsake him, and yielded unto Caesar, and that his footmen were broken and overthrown, he then fled into the city, crying out that Cleopatra had betrayed him unto them with whom he had made war for her sake. Then she, being afraid of his fury, fled into the tomb which he had caused to be made, and there she locked the doors unto her, and shut all the springs of the locks with great bolts, and in the meantime sent unto Antonius to tell him that she was dead. Antonius believing it, said unto himself: "What doest thou look for further, Antonius, sith 331 spiteful fortune hath taken from thee the only joy thou hadst, for whom thou yet reservedst thy life ?" When he had said these words, he went into a chamber and unarmed himself, and being naked 332, said thus: "O Cleopatra, it grieveth me not that I have lost thy company, for I will not be long from thee: but I am sorry that, having been so great a captain and emperor, I am indeed condemned to be judged of less courage and noble mind than a woman " Now he had a man of his called Eros, whom he loved and trusted much, and whom he had long before caused to swear unto him, that he should kill him when he did command him: and then he willed him to keep his promise. His man, drawing his sword, lift 333 it up as though he had meant to have stricken his master: but turning his head at one side, he thrust his sword into himself, and fell down dead at his master's foot.
Eros, Antonius' servant, slew himself.
Then said Antonius: "O noble Eros, I thank thee for this, and it is valiantly done of thee, to shew me what I should do to myself, which thou couldest not do for me."
Antonius did thrust his sword into himself, but died not presently.
Therewithal he took his sword, and thrust it into his belly, and so fell down upon a little bed. The wound he had killed him not presently 334, for the blood stinted 335 a little when he was laid: and when he came somewhat to himself again, he prayed them that were about him to despatch him. But they all fled out of the chamber, and left him crying out, tormenting himself: until at last there came a secretary unto him (called Diomedes) who was commanded to bring him into the tomb or monument where Cleopatra was.
Antonius carried unto Cleopatra's tomb.

When he heard that she was alive, he very earnestly prayed his men to carry his body thither, and so he was carried in his men's arms into the entry of the monument. Notwithstanding, Cleopatra would not open the gates, but came to the high windows, and cast out certain chains and ropes, in the which Antonius was trussed 336: and Cleopatra her own self, with two women only, which she had suffered to come with her into these monuments, trised 337 Antonius up.

A lamentable sight to see Antonius and Cleopatra.
They that were present to behold it said they never saw so pitiful a sight. For they plucked up poor Antonius, all bloody as he was, and drawing on with pangs of death: who holding up his hands to Cleopatra, raised up himself as well as he could. It was a hard thing for these women to do, to lift him up: but Cleopatra, stooping down with her head, putting to all her strength to her uttermost power, did lift him up with much ado, and never let go her hold, with the help of the women beneath that bad her be of good courage, and were as sorry to see her labour so as she herself. So when she had gotten him in after that sort, and laid him on a bed, she rent her garments upon him, clapping 338 her breast, and scratching her face and stomach. Then she dried up his blood that had bewrayed 339 his face, and called him her lord, her husband, and emperor, forgetting her own misery and calamity for the pity and compassion she took of him. Antonius made her cease her lamenting, and called for wine, either because he was athirst, or else for that he thought thereby to hasten his death. When he had drunk, he earnestly prayed her, and persuaded her, that she would seek to save her life, if she could possible, without reproach and dishonour: and that chiefly she should trust Proculeius above any man else about Caesar. And as for himself, that she should not lament nor sorrow for the miserable change of his fortune at the end of his days: but rather that she should think him the more fortunate, for the former triumphs and honours he had received; considering that while he lived, he was the noblest and greatest prince of the world; and that now he was overcome, not cowardly, but valiantly, a Roman by another Roman.

The death of Antonius.
As Antonius gave the last gasp, Proculeius came that was sent from Caesar. For after Antonius had thrust his sword in himself, as they carried him into the tombs and monuments of Cleopatra, one of his guard (called Dercetaeus) took his sword with which he had stricken himself, and hid it: then he secretly stole away, and brought Octavius Caesar the first news of his death, and shewed him his sword that was bloodied 340.
Octavius Caesar lamenteth Antonius' death.
Caesar hearing this news, straight withdrew himself into a secret place of his tent, and there burst out with tears, lamenting his hard and miserable fortune, that had been his friend and brother-in-law, his equal in the empire, and companion with him in sundry great exploits and battles. Then he called for all his friends and shewed them the letters Antonius had written to him, and his answers also sent him again, during their quarrel and strife: and now fiercely and proudly the other answered him, to all just and reasonable matters he wrote unto him. 42.
Proculeius sent by Octavius Caesar to bring Cleopatra alive.
After this, he sent Proculeius, and commanded him to do what he could possible to get Cleopatra alive, fearing lest otherwise all the treasure would be lost: and furthermore, he thought that if he could take Cleopatra, and bring her alive to Rome, she would marvellously beautify and set out his triumph. But Cleopatra would never put herself into Proculeius' hands, although they spake together. For Proculeius came to the gates that were thick and strong, and surely barred, but yet there were some cranewes 341 through the which her voice might be heard; and so they without understood 342, that Cleopatra demanded the kingdom of Egypt for her sons: and that Proculeius answered her that she should be of good cheer, and not be afraid to refer all unto Caesar.

After he had viewed the place very well, he came and reported her answer unto Caesar: who immediately sent Gallus to speak once again with her, and bad him purposely hold her in talk, whilst Proculeius did set up a ladder against that high window by the which Antonius was trised 343 up, and came down into the monument with two of his men, hard by the gate where Cleopatra stood to hear what Gallus said unto her. One of her women which was shut up in her monuments with her, saw Proculeius by chance as he came down, and skreeked 344 out: "O poor Cleopatra, thou art taken." Then when she saw Proculeius behind her as she came from the gate, she thought to have stabbed herself in with a short dagger she wore of purpose by her side.

Cleopatra taken.
But Proculeius came suddenly upon her, and taking her by both the hands, said unto her: "Cleopatra, first thou shalt do thyself great wrong, and secondly unto Caesar, to deprive him of the occasion and opportunity openly to shew his bounty and mercy, and to give his enemies cause to accuse the most courteous and noble prince that ever was, and to appeach 345 him, as though he were a cruel and merciless man, that were not to be trusted." So even as he spake the word, he took her dagger from her, and shook her clothes for fear of any poison hidden about her. Afterwards, Caesar sent one of his infranchised men called Epaphroditus, whom he straightly 346 charged to look well unto her, and to beware in any case that she made not herself away: and for the rest, to use her with all the courtesy possible.

Caesar took the city of Alexandria.
And for himself, he in the meantime entered the city of Alexandria, and (as he went) talked with the philosopher Arrius, and held him by the hand, to the end that his countrymen should reverence him the more, because they saw Caesar so highly esteem and honour him.
Caesar greatly honoured Arrius the philosopher.
Then he went into the show-place of exercises, and so up to his chair of state which was prepared for him of a great height: and there, according to his commandment, all the people of Alexandria were assembled, who, quaking for fear, fell down on their knees before him and craved mercy. Caesar bad them all stand up, and told them openly that he forgave the people, and pardoned the felonies 347 and offences they had committed against him in this war: first, for the founder's sake of the same city, which was Alexander the Great: secondly, for the beauty of the city, which he much esteemed and wondered at: thirdly, for the love he bare unto his very 348 friend Arrius.
Philostratus the eleoquentest orator in his time for present speech upon a sudden.
Thus did Caesar honour Arrius, who craved pardon for himself and many others, and specially for Philostratus, the eloquentest man of all the sophisters 349 and orators of his time,for present and sudden speech: howbeit, he falsely named himself an Academic philosopher. Therefore Caesar, that hated his nature and conditions, would not hear his suit. Thereupon he let his grey beard grow long, and followed Arrius step by step in a long mourning gown, still buzzing in his ears this Greek verse:
A wise man, if that he be wise indeed,
May by a wise man have the better speed.
Caesar understanding this, not for the desire he had to deliver Philostratus of his fear, but to rid Arrius of malice and envy that might have fallen out against him, he pardoned him.
Antyllus, Antonius' eldest son by Fulvia, slain.

Now touching Antonius' sons, Antyllus, his eldest son by Fulvia, was slain, because his schoolmaster Theodorus did betray him unto the soldiers, who strake 350 off his head. And the villain took a precious stone of great value from his neck, the which he did sew in his girdle, and afterwards denied that he had it: but it was found about him, and so Caesar trussed him up 351 for it. For Cleopatra's children, they were very honourably kept 352, with their governors and train that waited on them. But for Caesarion, who was said to be Julius Caesar's son, his mother Cleopatra had sent him unto the Indians through Ethiopia, with a great sum of money. But one of his governors also, called Rhodon, even such another as Theodorus, persuaded him to return into his country, and told him that Caesar sent for him to give him his mother's kingdom.

The saying of Arrius the philosopher.
So, as Caesar was determining with himself what he should do, Arrius said unto him:
Too many Caesars is not good,
alluding unto a certain verse of Homer, that saith:
Too many lords cloth not well.

Caesarion, Cleopatra's son, put to death.
Therefore Caesar did put Caesarion to death, after the death of his mother Cleopatra. 43.
Cleopatra burieth Antonius.
Many princes, great kings, and captains, did crave Antonius' body of Octavius Caesar, to give him honourable burial: but Caesar would never take it from Cleopatra, who did sumptuously and royally bury him with her own hands, whom Caesar suffered to take as much as she would to bestow upon his funerals. Now was she altogether overcome with sorrow and passion of mind, for she had knocked her breast so pitifully, that she had martyred 353 it, and in divers places had raised ulcers and inflammations, so that she fell into a fever withal; whereof she was very glad, hoping thereby to have good colour 354 to abstain from meat, and that so she might have died easily without any trouble.
Olympus, Cleopatra's physician.
She had a physician called Olympus, whom she made privy to her intent, to the end he should help to rid her out of her life: as Olympus writeth himself, who wrote a book of all these things. But Caesar mistrusted 355 the matter by many conjectures he had, and therefore did put her in fear, and threatened her to put her children to shameful death. With these threats, Cleopatra for fear yielded straight, as she would have yielded unto strokes: and afterwards suffered herself to be cured and dieted as they listed.


Caesar came to see Cleopatra.
Shortly after, Caesar came himself in person to see her, and to comfort her.
Cleopatra a martyred creature through her own passion and fury.
Cleopatra, being laid upon a little low bed in poor estate (when she saw Caesar come into her chamber), suddenly rose up, naked in her smock, and fell down at his feet marvellously disfigured: both for that she had plucked her hair from her head, as also for that she had martyred all her face with her nails; and besides, her voice was small and trembling, her eyes sunk into her head with continual blubbering 356; and moreover, they might see the most 357 part of her stomach torn in sunder. To be short, her body was not much better than her mind: yet her good grace and comeliness and the force of her beauty was not altogether defaced. But notwithstanding this ugly and pitiful state of hers, yet she shewed herself within, by her outward looks and countenance. When Caesar had made her lie down again, and sat by her bedside, Cleopatra began to clear and excuse herself for that she had done, laying all to the fear she had of Antonius: Caesar, in contrary manner, reproved her in every point. Then she suddenly altered her speech, and prayed him to pardon her, as though she were afraid to die, and desirous to live. At length, she gave him a brief and memorial of all the ready money and treasure she had.
Seleucus, one of Cleopatra's treasurers.
But by chance there stood one Seleucus by, one of her treasurers, who, to seem a good servant, came straight to Caesar to disprove Cleopatra, that she had not set in 358 all, but kept many things back of purpose.
Cleopatra beat her treasurer before Octavius Caesar. Cleopatra's words unto Caesar.
Cleopatra was in such a rage with him, that she flew upon him, and took him by the hair of the head, and boxed 359 him wellfavouredly 360. Caesar fell a-laughing and parted the fray. "Alas," said she, "O Caesar: is not this a great shame and reproach, that thou having vouchsafed to take the pains to come unto me, and done me this honour, poor wretch and caitiff 361 creature, brought into this pitiful and miserable state: and that mine own servants should come now to accuse me? though it may be I have reserved some jewels and trifles meet for women, but not for me (poor soul) to set out myself withal, but meaning to give some pretty presents and gifts unto Octavia and Livia, that they, making means and intercession for me to thee, thou mightest yet extend thy favour and mercy upon me." Caesar was glad to hear her say so, persuading himself thereby that she had vet a desire to save her life. So he made her answer, that he did not only give her that to dispose of at her pleasure which she had kept back, but further promised to use her more honourably and bountifully than she would think for: and so he took his leave of her, supposing he had deceived her, but indeed he was deceived himself.

There was a young gentleman, Cornelius Dolabella, that was one of Caesar's very great familiars, and besides did bear no ill will unto Cleopatra.

Cleopatra finely deceiveth Octavius Caesar, as though she desired to live.
He sent her word secretly (as she had requested him) that Caesar determined to take his journey through Syria, and that within three days he would send her away before with her children. When this was told Cleopatra, she requested Caesar that it would please him to suffer her to offer the last oblations of the dead unto the soul of Antonius.
Cleopatra's lamentation over Antonius' tomb.
This being granted her, she was carried to the place where his tomb was, and there falling down on her knees, embracing the tomb with her women, the tears running down her cheeks, she began to speak in this sort: "O my dear lord Antonius, it is not long sithence 362 I buried thee here, being a free woman: and now I offer unto thee the funeral sprinklings and oblations, being a captive and prisoner; and yet I am forbidden and kept from tearing and murdering this captive body of mine with blows, which they carefully guard and keep only to triumph of thee: look therefore henceforth for no other honours, offerings, nor sacrifices from me: for these are the last which Cleopatra can give thee, sith 363 now they carry her away. Whilst we lived together, nothing could sever our companies: but now, at our death, I fear me they will make us change our countries For as thou, being a Roman, hast been buried in Egypt: even so, wretched creature, I, an Egyptian, shall be buried in Italy, which shall be all the good that I have received by thy country If therefore the gods where thou art now have any power and authority, sith 364 our gods here have forsaken us, suffer not thy true friend and lover to be carried away alive, that in me they triumph of thee: but receive me with thee, and let me be buried in one self 365 tomb with thee. For though my griefs and miseries be infinite, yet none hath grieved me more, nor that I could less bear withal, than this small time which I have been driven to live alone without thee."

45. Then having ended these doleful plaints, and crowned the tomb with garlands and sundry nosegays, and marvellous lovingly embraced the same, she commanded they should prepare her bath; and when she had bathed and washed herself, she fell to her meat, and was sumptuously served. Now whilst she was at dinner, there came a countryman and brought her a basket. The soldiers that warded 366 at the gates, asked him straight what he had in his basket. He opened his basket, and took out the leaves that covered the figs, and shewed them that they were figs he brought. They all of them marvelled to see so goodly figs. The countryman laughed to hear them, and bade them take some if they would. They believed he told them truly, and so bade him carry them in. After Cleopatra had dined, she sent a certain table 367 written and sealed unto Caesar, and commanded them all to go out of the tombs where she was, but the two women; then she shut the doors to her. Caesar, when he had received this table, and began to read her lamentation and petition, requesting him that he would let her be buried with Antonius, found straight what she meant, and thought to have gone thither himself: howbeit, he sent one before in all haste that might be, to see what it was.

The death of Cleopatra.
Her death was very sudden: for those whom Caesar sent unto her ran thither in all haste possible, and found the soldiers standing at the gate, mistrusting 368 nothing, nor understanding of her death.
Cleopatra's two waiting women dead with her.
But when they had opened the doors, they found Cleopatra stark-dead, laid upon a bed of gold, attired and arrayed in her royal robes, and one of her two women, which was called Iras, dead at her feet: and her other woman (called Charmion) half dead, and trembling, trimming the diadem which Cleopatra wore upon her head. One of the soldiers seeing her, angrily said unto her: "Is that well done, Charmion?" "Very well," said she again, "and meet for a princess descended from the race of so many noble kings :" she said no more, but fell down dead hard by the bed.

Some report that this aspick 369 was brought unto her in the basket with figs, and that she had commanded them to hide it under the fig-leaves, that when she should think to take out the figs, the aspick should bite her before she should see her: howbeit, that when she would have taken away the leaves for the figs, she perceived it, and said, "Art thou here, then?"

Cleopatra killed with the biting of an aspick.
And so, her arm being naked, she put it to the aspick to be bitten. Others say again, she kept it in a box, and that she did prick and thrust it with a spindle of gold, so that the aspick, being angered withal, leapt out with great fury, and bit her in the arm. Howbeit few can tell the troth 370. For they report also, that she had hidden poison in a hollow razor which she carried in the hair of her head; and yet was there no mark seen on her body, or any sign discerned that she was poisoned, neither also did they kind this serpent in her tomb: but it was reported only, that there was seen certain fresh steps or tracks where it had gone, on the tomb-side toward the sea, and specially by the door-side. Some say also that they found two little pretty 371 bitings in her arm, scant 372 to be discerned: the which it seemeth Caesar himself gave credit unto, because in his triumph he carried Cleopatra's image, with an aspick biting of her arm. And thus goeth the report of her death.
The image of Cleopatra, carried in triumph at Rome with an aspick biting of her arm.
Now Caesar, though he was marvellous sorry for the death of Cleopatra, yet he wondered at her noble mind and courage, and therefore commanded she should be nobly buried, and laid by Antonius: and willed also that her two women should have honourable burial. 46.
The age of Cleopatra and Antonius.
Cleopatra died being eight and thirty years old, after she had reigned two and twenty years, and governed about fourteen of them with Antonius. And for Antonius, some say that he lived three and fifty years: and others say, six and fifty. All his statues, images, and metals, were plucked down and overthrown, saving those of Cleopatra, which stood still in their places, by means of Archibius one of her friends, who gave Caesar a thousand talents that they should not be handled as those of Antonius were.

Antonius left seven children by three wives, of the which Caesar did put Antyllus (the eldest son he had by Fulvia) to death.

Of Antonius' issue came emperors.
Octavia his wife took all the rest, and brought them up with hers, and married Cleopatra, Antonius' daughter, unto king Juba, a marvellous courteous and goodly prince. And Antonius (the son of Fulvia) came to be so great, that next unto Agrippa, who was in greatest estimation about Caesar, and next unto the children of Livia, which were the second in estimation, he had the third place. Furthermore, Octavia having had two daughters by her first husband Marcellus, and a son also called Marcellus, Caesar married his daughter unto that Marcellus, and so did adopt him for his son. And Octavia also married one of her daughters unto Agrippa. But when Marcellus was dead, after he had been married a while, Octavia, perceiving that her brother Caesar was very busy to choose some one among his friends, whom he trusted best, to make his son-in-law, she persuaded him that Agrippa should marry his daughter (Marcellus' widow), and leave her own daughter. Caesar first was contented withal, and then Agrippa: and so she afterwards took away her daughter and married her unto Antonius; and Agrippa married Julia, Caesar's daughter. Now there remained two daughters more of Octavia and Antonius: Domitius Aenobarbus married the one; and the other, which was Antonia, so fair and virtuous a young lady, was married unto Drusus, the son of Livia, and son-in-law of Caesar. Of this marriage came Germanicus and Clodius 373: of the which, Clodius afterwards came to be emperor. And of the sons of Germanicus, the one whose name was Caius 374 came also to be emperor: who after he had licentiously reigned a time, was slain, with his wife and daughter. Agrippina also (having a son by her first husband Aenobarbus, called Lucius Domitius) was afterwards married unto Clodius, who adopted her son, and called him Nero Germanicus. This Nero was emperor in our time, who slew his own mother, and had almost destroyed the empire of Rome through his madness and wicked life, being the fifth emperor of Rome after Antonius.

1 Because that by his death he ended the war which he unfortunately made against those of Creta.

2 errand.

3 i.e. Cicero.

4 lured.

5 namely.

6 employed.

7 bragging.

8 shrank from entering.

9 marches.

10 won.

11 robe.

12 above.

13 won.

14 treasurer.

15 plots.

16 enrolled.

17 as it were.

18 confusedly.

19 upheld.

20 at once.

21 strong, great.

22 pretext.

23 same.

24 entice.

25 embark.

26 circuit.

27 embarked.

28 hoisted.

29 shipwrecks.

30 split.

31 proposed.

32 watched.

33 suspected.

34 of

35 wicked.

36 hussies.

37 sick.

38 vomit.

39 as if.

40 soon after.

41 midst.

42 pavilions.

43 traces.

44 dancing women.

45 took offense.

46 as to

47 temper.

48 to prevent.

49 jumped.

50 fifth.

51 referring to.

52 reason.

53 excuse.

54 conspiracy.

55 approved of.

56 midst.

57 murderers.

58 proposed.

59 finally.

60 forthwith.

61 close at hand, urgent.

62 dislike.

63 venture.

64 close.

65 entered.

66 that is to say.

67 tippler.

68 travail.

69 namely.

70 island.

71 desired to.

72 exchanging.

73 murder.

74 ceased.

75 cheating.

76 murder

77 ornamented coat.

78 ornamented coat.

79 imposts.

80 perveived.

81 troubling.

82 a kind of guitar.

83 psalteries.

84 hautboys.

85 greatly.

86 as for.

87 befooling.

88 deceived.

89 foolish.

90 joking.

91 dislike.

92 observed.

93 in no way suspected

94 decked out.

95 decked out.

96 surpassing.

97 haughtboys

98 guitars.

99 surpassingly.

100 crowded.

101 posted.

102 surpassing.

103 hung

104 surpass.

105 sly hits.

106 coarse

107 derided

108 thoroughly.

109 sole.

110 posted

111 disconcerted

112 seemingly reluctant

113 antique

114 disliked

115 foolish

116 discovered

117 at once.

118 more easily.

119 author.

120 stricter.

121 means.

122 a certain quantity

123 lots

124 enough

125 lots.

126 finally

127 committed.

128 maces.

129 umpire.

130 acquit

131 urgently

132 isle

133 displeased.

134 for

135 cloak.

136 unexpectedly.

137 powerful

138 baggage.

139 instigator

140 bundles

141 packed

142 crescent.

143 vanguard

144 array

145 so ed. 1631.

146 shot

147 baggage

148 packed

149 baggage

150 with much difficulty.

151 guarded

152 put up with

153 trouble

154 at once

155 pack

156 baggage

157 exceedingly well

158 prevent

159 device.

160 pleased

161 from

162 bullets.

163 that

164 rearguard

165 squadron

166 fifth

167 in fight

168 more

169 vanguard

170 desire

171 vanguard

172 aware.

173 stupidity

174 midst

175 strong

176 to endure.

177 equally.

178 stayed in.

179 uniform

180 others.

181 dislike

182 expected.

183 unarmed

184 steps

185 appearance.

186 delays

187 upon.

188 importance

189 bile

190 more

191 considerably.

192 flat and open

193 as for

194 hard

195 find

196 with

197 helmets

198 morions, head-pieces.

199 rearguard

200 marching

201 exhausted

202 vanguard

203 close by

204 retreat

205 packages

206 packages.

207 breath

208 tumult

209 reguard

210 men of the legion

211 close quarters

212 vanguard

213 instigate

214 favor

215 dislike

216 snowed

217 strait.

218 honourable

219 pretext

220 desiring

221 tell

222 frequently

223 sweetheart

224 impossible

225 put off

226 deceived

227 truth

228 conical.

229 isle

230 sic; for triumvir.

231 after a sort.

232 as for.

233 as for

234 as for

235 observe

236 result

237 expense

238 won

239 hoisted.

240 isle

241 marshes of Maeotis.

242 isle

243 isle

244 fortune

245 astonished

246 assessed.

247 eighth.

248 murmured.

249 will.

250 passages.

251 midst

252 tablets

253 waiting for.

254 opportunity

255 whereas

256 curled, crisped.

257 ceased.

258 scuplture

259 entitled

260 Judaea.

261 sailors.

262 impress

263 scarcely.

264 sailors

265 show

266 management

267 desire

268 The grace of this taunt cannot properly be expressed in any other tongue because of the equivocation of this word Toryne, which signifieth a city of Albania, and also a ladle to scum the pot with: as if she meant, Caesar sat by the fire-side scumming of the pot.

269 lifted

270 sky

271 baggage

272 midst.

273 appeared

274 with great difficulty

275 are used

276 put

277 excuse.

278 fifth

279 as for.

280 array

281 straits, channel.

282 that is to say.

283 strait, channel.

284 strait, channel.

285 management.

286 halberds.

287 luff.

288 hoisting.

289 midst.

290 embarked

291 lifted

292 soon

293 laden

294 baggage

295 ships of burden

296 laden

297 stores.

298 as for

299 after nightfall

300 wholly

301 horses

302 burden

303 isle

304 Philippi.

305 isthmus.

306 endeavoured

307 guard

308 isle

309 why

310 are wont

311 in despair.

312 journey

313 informed

314 Jewry, Judaea.

315 forego

316 edging

317 embroidery.

318 industrious

319 test

320 asp.

321 Jewry, Judaea.

322 soundly

323 displease

324 where as

325 adjoining

326 drove

327 pure

328 make a stand

329 heal

330 troop

331 since

332 without arms.

333 lifted

334 at once.

335 ceased.

336 wound

337 drew

338 beating

339 beraved, disfigured.

340 made bloody.

341 crannies.

342 learnt.

343 drawn

344 shrieked.

345 impeach, accuse.

346 strictly

347 crimes.

348 true.

349 sophists.

350 struck

351 hung him

352 guarded

353 injured

354 pretext.

355 suspected

356 crying.

357 greatest

358 mentioned.

359 beat

360 soundly

361 wretched.

362 since

363 since

364 since

365 same

366 watched

367 tablet, letter.

368 suspecting

369 asp

370 truth

371 minute

372 scarcely.

373 Claudius

374 Caligula.

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