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The Life of Julius Caesar

  • 1. Caesar sides with Marius against Sylla.
  • 2. Caesar taken by Pirates.
  • 3. Caesar's eloquence.
  • 4. Cicero's judgment of Caesar. Caesar's funeral oration over his aunt Julia.
  • 5. Caesar sets up images of Marius.
  • 6. He is made chief Bishop of Rome.
  • 7. His action in the case of Catiline's conspiracy.
  • 8. Intrigue of Clodius with Caesar's wife Pompeia.
  • 9. Caesar's acts in Spain.
  • 10. He reconciles Pompey and Crassus.
  • 11. His first consulship and laws.
  • 12. His daughter Julia is married to Pompey; he himself marries Calphurnia.
  • 13. He sends Cato to prison, and drives Cicero out of Italy.
  • 14. His conquests in Gaul.
  • 15. The valour of Acilius, Cassius Scaeva, and Granius Petronius.
  • 16.Description of Caesar's valour, bounty, health and habits.
  • 17. His first war with the Gauls and victory over the Helvetti.
  • 18. His second war, against Ariovistus.
  • 19. He defeats the Belgae.
  • 20. He defeats Nervii.
  • 21. His conference with Pompey, Crassus and others at Lucca.
  • 22. His war against the Ipes and Tenterides.
  • 23. He makes a bridge over the Rhine.
  • 24.His expedition to England. Death of his daughter Julia.
  • 25. Rebellions of the Gauls, and defeat of Vercingetorix.
  • 26. Siege of Alexia.
  • 27. Discord between Caesar and Pompey.
  • 28. Caesar bribes the magistrates at Rome.
  • 29. He crosses the Rubicon.
  • 30. Pompey flees to Epirus.
  • 31. Caesar is made Dictator. His advanture in the pinnace.
  • 32. His ill success in Epirus.
  • 33. Battle of Pharsalia dand defeat of Pompey.
  • 34. Caesar makes Cleopatra Queen of Egypt.
  • 35. "Veni, vidi, vici."
  • 36. Adventures in Afric and death of Cato.
  • 37. Caesar's three triumphs.
  • 38. His expedition to Spain against the sons of Pompey; battle of Munda.
  • 39. He is chosen perpetual Dictator.
  • 40. He reforms the Calendar.
  • 41. Feast of the Lupercalia. Caesar twice refuses the diadem.
  • 42. Brutus conspires against him.
  • 43. Prognostics of his death.
  • 44. He is assassinated.
  • 45. Events following his death.
  • 46. Fate of Brutus and Cassius.


Caesar joined with Cinna and Marius.
At what time Sylla was made lord of all, he would have had Caesar put away his wife Cornelia, the daughter of Cinna dictator: but when he saw he could neither with any promise nor threat bring him to it, he took her jointure away from him. The cause of Caesar's ill will unto Sylla was by means of marriage: for Marius the elder married his father's own sister, by whom he had Marius the younger, whereby Caesar and he were cousin-germans. Sylla being troubled in weighty matters, putting to death so many of his enemies, when he came to be conqueror, he made no reckoning of Caesar: and he was not contented to be hidden in safety, but came and made suit unto the people for the priesthoodship that was void 1, when he had scant 2 any hair on his face. Howbeit he was repulsed by Sylla's means, that secretly was against him. Who, when he was determined to have killed him, some of his friends told him, that it was to no purpose to put so young a boy as he to death. But Sylla told them again, that they did not consider 3 that there were many Marians in that young boy. Caesar understanding that, stole out of Rome, and hid himself a long time in the country of the Sabines, wandering still from place to place. But one day being carried from house to house, he fell into the hands of Sylla's soldiers, who searched all those places, and took them whom they found hidden. Caesar bribed the captain, whose name was Cornelius, with two talents which he gave him. 2. After he had escaped them thus, he went unto the seaside, and took ship, and sailed into Bithynia to go unto king Nicomedes. When he had been with him awhile,
Caesar took sea and went unto Nicomedes, king of Bithynia. Caesar taken of pirates.
took sea again, and was taken by pirates about the ile 4 of Pharmacusa: for those pirates kept all upon the sea-coast, with a great fleet of ships and boats. They asking him at the first twenty talents for his ransom, Caesar laughed them to scorn, as though they knew not what a man they had taken, and of himself promised them fifty talents.

Then he sent his men up and down to get him this money, so that he was left in manner 5 alone among these thieves of the Cilicians (which are the cruellest butchers in the world) with one of his friends, and two of his slaves only: and yet he made so little reckoning of them, that when he was desirous to sleep, he sent unto them to command them to make no noise. Thus was he thirty-eight days among them, not kept as prisoner, but rather waited upon by them as a prince. All this time he would boldly exercise himself in any sport or pastime they would go to. And otherwhile also he would write verses, and make orations, and call them together to say them before them: and if any of them seemed as though they had not understood him, or passed 6 not for them, he called them blockheads and brute beasts; and laughing, threatened them that he would hang them up. But they were as merry with the matter as could be, and took all in good part, thinking that this his bold speech came through the simplicity of his youth. So when his ransom was come from the city of Miletum, they being paid their money, and he again set at liberty, he then presently 7 armed and manned certain ships out of the haven of Miletum, to follow those thieves, whom he found yet riding at anker 8 in the same iland 9. So he took the most of them, and had the spoil of their goods; but for 10 their bodies, he brought them into the city of Pergamus and there committed them to prison, whilst he himself went to speak with

Junius Praetor of Asia.
Junius, who had the government of Asia, as unto whom the execution of these pirates did belong, for that he was Praetor of that country. But this Praetor, having a great fancy to be fingering of the money, because there was good store of it, answered that he would consider of these prisoners at better leisure. Caesar, leaving Junius there, returned again unto Pergamus, and there hung up all these thieves openly upon a cross, as he had oftentimes promised them in the ile 11 he would do, when they thought he did but jest.

3. Afterwards when Sylla's power began to decay, Caesar's friends wrote unto him, to pray him to come home again. But he sailed first unto Rhodes, to study there a time under Apollonius the son of Molon, whose scholar also Cicero was, for he was a very honest man and an excellent good rhetorician. It is reported, that

Caesar's eloquence.
Caesar had an excellent natural gift to speak well before the people; and besides that rare gift, he was excellently well studied, so that doubtless he was counted the second man for eloquence in his time, and gave place to the first, because he would be the first and chiefest man of war and authority, being not yet come to the degree of perfection to speak well, which his nature could have performed in him, because he was given rather to follow wars and to manage great matters, which in the end brought him to be lord of all Rome. And therefore in a book he wrote against that which Cicero made in the praise of Cato, he prayeth the readers not to compare the style of a soldier with the eloquence of an excellent orator, that had followed it the most part of his life.

When he was returned again unto Rome, he accused Dolabella for his ill behaviour in the government of his provinces, and he had divers cities of Greece that gave in evidence against him. Notwithstanding, Dolabella at the length was dismissed. Caesar, to requite the good will of the Grecians which they had shewed him in his accusation of Dolabella, took their cause in hand, when they did accuse Publius Antonius before Marcus Lucullus, Praetor of Macedon: and followed it so hard against him in their behalf, that Antonius was driven to appeal before the tribunes at Rome, alleging, to colour his appeal withal, that he could have no justice in Greece against the Grecians. Now Caesar immediately wan 12 many men's good wills at Rome, through his eloquence in pleading of their causes, and the people loved him marvellously also, because of the courteous manner he had to speak to every man, and to use them gently, being more ceremonious therein than was looked for 13 in one of his years. Furthermore,

Caesar loved hospitality.
he ever kept a good board, and fared well at his table, and was very liberal besides: the which indeed did advance him forward, and brought him in estimation with the people. His enemies, judging that this
Caesar a follower of the common people.
favour of the common people would soon quail 14, when he could no longer hold out that charge and expense, suffered him to run on, till by little and little he was grown to be of great strength and power. But in fine, when they had thus given him the bridle to grow to this greatness, and that they could not then pull him back, though indeed in sight 15 it would turn one day to the destruction of the whole state and commonwealth of Rome: too late they found, that there is not so little a beginning of any thing, but continuance of time will soon make it strong, when through contempt there is no impediment to hinder the greatness. 4. Thereupon Cicero, like a wise shipmaster that feareth the calmness of the sea, was the first man that, mistrusting his manner of dealing in the commonwealth, found out his craft and malice, which he cunningly cloaked under the habit of outward courtesy and familiarity. 16"And yet," said he, "when I consider how finely he combeth his fair bush of hair, and how smooth it lieth, and that I see him scratch his head with one finger only, my mind gives me then, that such a kind of man should not have so wicked a thought in his head, as to overthrow the state of the commonwealth." But this was long time after that.
The love of the people in Rome unto Caesar. Caesar chosen Tribunus milium.

The first shew and proof of the love and goodwill which the people did bear unto Caesar, was when he sued to be tribune of the soldiers (to wit, colonel of a thousand footmen) standing against Caius Pompilius, at what time he was preferred and chosen before him. But the second and more manifest proof than the first, was at the death of his aunt Julia, the wife of Marius the elder.

Caesar made the funeral oration, at the death of his aunt Julia.
For being her nephew, he made a solemn oration in the market-place in commendation of her, and at her burial did boldly venture to shew forth the images of Marius: the which was the first time that they were seen after Sylla's victory, because that Marius and all his confederates had been proclaimed traitors and enemies to the commonwealth. For when there were some that cried out upon Caesar for doing of it, the people on the other side kept astir, and rejoiced at it, clapping of their hands; and thanked him, for that he had brought, as it were out of hell, the remembrance of Marius' honour again into Rome, which had so long time been obscured and buried. And where 17 it had been an ancient custom of long time, that the Romans used to make funeral orations in praise of old ladies and matrons when they died, but not of young women:
Caesar the first that praised his wife in funeral oration.
Caesar was the first that praised his own wife with funeral oration when she was dead, the which also did increase the people's goodwills the more, seeing him of so kind and gentle nature. After the burial of his wife,
Caesar made Quaestor.
he was made treasurer under Antistius Vetus praetor, whom he honoured ever after: so that when himself came to be praetor, he made his son to be chosen treasurer. Afterwards, when he was come out of that office,
Pompeia Caesar's third wife.
he married his third wife Pompeia, having a daughter by his first wife, Cornelia, which was married unto Pompey the Great. 5. Now for that 18 he was very liberal in expenses, buying (as some thought) but a vain and short glory of the favour of the people, ( where 19 indeed he bought good cheap 20 the greatest things that could be :) some say, that before he bare any office in the commonwealth, he was grown in debt, to the sum of thirteen hundred talents. Furthermore, because he was made overseer of the work for the highway called Appius' way, he disbursed a great sum of his own money towards the charges 21 of the same. And on the other side, when he was made Aedilis, for that he did shew the people the pastime of three hundred and twenty couple of sword-players, and did besides exceed all other in sumptuousness in the sports and common feasts, which
Caesar's prodigality.
he made to delight them withal, and did as it were drown all the stately shews of others in the like, that had gone before him, he so pleased the people and wan 22 their love therewith, that they devised daily to give him new offices for to requite him.

At that time there were two factions in Rome, to wit, the faction of Sylla, which was very strong and of great power; and the other of Marius, which then was under foot, and durst not shew itself. But Caesar, because he would renew it again, even at that time when, he being Aedilis, all the feasts and common sports were in their greatest ruff 23, he secretly caused images of Marius to be made, and of victories that carried triumphs; and those he set up one night within the capitol The next morning, when every man saw the glistering of these golden images excellently well wrought, shewing by the inscriptions that they were the victories which Marius had won upon the Cimbres, every one marvelled much at the boldness of him that durst set them up there, knowing well enough who it was. Hereupon it ran straight through all the city, and every man came thither to see them.

Caesar accused to make a rebellion in the state.
Then some cried out upon Caesar, and said, it was a tyranny which he meant to set up, by renewing of such honours as before had been trodden under foot and forgotten by common decree and open proclamation: and that it was no more but a bait to gauge the people's good wills, which he had set out in the stately shews of his common plays, to see if he had brought them to his lure, that they would abide such parts to be played, and a new alteration of things to be made. They of Marius' faction on the other side, encouraging one another, shewed themselves straight a great number gathered together, and made the mount of the Capitol ring again with their cries and clapping of hands: insomuch as the tears ran down many of their cheeks, for very joy, when they saw the images of Marius, and they extolled Caesar to the skies, judging him the worthiest man of all the kinred 24 of Marius. The Senate being assembled thereupon, Catulus Luctatius, one of the greatest authority at that time in Rome, rose, and vehemently inveighed against Caesar, and spake that then which ever since hath been noted much: that Caesar did not now covertly go to work, but by plain force sought to alter the state of the commonwealth. Nevertheless, Caesar at that time answered him so, that the Senate was satisfied. Thereupon they that had him in estimation did grow in better hope than before, and persuaded him, that hardily 25 he should give place to no man, and that through the goodwill of the people he should be better than all they, and come to be the chiefest man of the city.


The death of Metellus chief Bishop of Rome.
At that time the chief bishop Metellus died, and two of the notables, men of the city, and of the greatest authority (Isauricus and Catulus), contended for his room 26: Caesar, notwithstanding their contention, would give neither of them both place, but presented himself to the people, and made suit for it as they did. The suit being equal betwixt either of them, Catulus, because he was a man of greater calling and dignity than the other, doubting the uncertainty of the election, sent unto Caesar a good sum of money, to make him leave off his suit. But Caesar sent him word again, that he would lend a greater sum than that, to maintain the suit against him. When the day of the election came, his mother bringing him to the door of his house, Caesar, weeping, kissed her, and said: " Mother, this day thou shalt see thy son chief Bishop of Rome, or banished from Rome." In fine 27, when the voices of the people were gathered together, and the strife well debated, Caesar wan 28 the victory, and
Caesar made chief Bishop of Rome.
made the Senate and noblemen all afraid of him, for that they thought that thenceforth he would make the people do what he thought good.
Caesar suspected to be confederate with Catiline in his conspiracy.
Then Catulus and Piso fell flatly out with Cicero, and condemned him for that he did not bewray 29 Caesar, when he knew that he was of conspiracy with Catiline, and had opportunity to have done it. 7. For when Catiline was bent and determined, not only to overthrow the state of the commonwealth, but utterly to destroy the Empire of Rome, he escaped out of the hands of justice for lack of sufficient proof, before his full treason and determination was known. Notwithstanding, he left Lentulus and Cethegus in the city, companions of his conspiracy: unto whom, whether Caesar did give any secret help or comfort, it is not well known. Yet this is manifest, that when they were convinced 30 in open Senate, Cicero being at that time Consul, asking every man's opinion in the Senate what punishment they should have, and every one of them, till it came to Caesar, gave sentence they should die:
Caesar went about to deliver the conspirators.
Caesar then rising up to speak, made an oration (penned and premeditated before) and said, that it was neither lawful, nor yet their custom did bear it, to put men of such nobility to death (but in an extremity) without lawful inditement 31 and condemnation. And therefore, that if they were put in prison in some city of Italy, where Cicero thought best, until that Catiline were overthrown, the Senate then might at their pleasure quickly take such order 32 therein, as might appear best unto their wisdoms.

This opinion was thought more gentle, and withal was uttered with such a passing 33 good grace and eloquence, that not only they which were to speak after him did approve it: but such also as had spoken to the contrary before, revoked their opinion, and stuck to his, until it came to Cato and Catulus to speak. They both did sharply inveigh against him, but Cato chiefly: who in

Cato's oration against Caesar.
his oration made Caesar suspected to be of the conspiracy, and stoutly spake against him, insomuch that the offenders were put into the hands of the officers to be put to death. Caesar coming out of the Senate, a company of young men which guarded Cicero for the safety of his person, did set upon him with their swords drawn. But some say, that Curio covered Caesar with his gown, and took him out of their hands. And Cicero self, when the young men looked upon him, beckoned with his head that they should not kill him, either fearing the fury of the people, or else that he thought it too shameful and wicked a part. But if that were true, I marvel why Cicero did not put it into his book he wrote of his consulship. But certainly they blamed him afterwards, for that he took not the opportunity offered him against Caesar, only for overmuch fear of the people, that loved him very dearly. For shortly after, when Caesar went into the Senate, to clear himself of certain presumptions and false accusations objected against him, and being bitterly taunted among them, the Senate keeping him longer than they were wont: the people came about the council-house, and called out aloud for him, bidding them let him out. Cato then, fearing the insurrection of the poor needy persons, which were they that put all their hope in Caesar, and did also move the people to stir, did persuade the Senate to make a frank 34 distribution of corn unto them, for a month. This distribution did put the commonwealth to a new charge of five hundred and fifty myriads 35. This counsel quenched a present great fear, and did in happy time scatter and disperse abroad the best part of Caesar's force and power, at such time as he was made Praetor, and that for respect of his office he was most to be feared.

Yet all the time he was officer, he never sought any alteration in the commonwealth; but contrarily 36, he himself had a great misfortune fell on his house, which was this. 8.

The love of P. Clodius unto Pompeia, Caesar's wife. The good doddess, what she was, and her sacrifices.
There was a young nobleman of the order of the Patricians, called Publius Clodius, who lacked neither wealth nor eloquence; but otherwise as insolent and impudent a person as any was else in Rome. He became in love with Pompeia Caesar's wife, who misliked not withal: notwithstanding she was so straightly looked to 37, and Aurelia (Caesar's mother) an honest gentlewoman, had such an eye of 38 her, that these two lovers could not meet as they would, without great peril and difficulty. The Romans do use to honour a goddess which they call the good goddess, as the Grecians have her whom they call Gynaecia, to wit, the goddess of women. Her, the Phrygians do claim to be peculiar unto them, saying: that she is king Midas' mother. Howbeit the Romans hold opinion, that it is a nymph of the woods married unto the god Faunus. The Grecians, they say also, that she was one of the mothers of the god Bacchus, whom they dare not name. And for proof hereof, on her feastday, the women make certain tabernacles of vine-twigs, and leaves of vine-branches; and also they make, as the tale goeth, a holy dragon for this goddess, and do set it by her: besides, it is not lawful for any man to be present at their sacrifices, no, not within the house itself where they are made. Furthermore they say, that the women in these sacrifices do many things amongst themselves, much like unto the ceremonies of Orpheus. Now when the time of this feast came, the husband (whether he were Praetor or Consul) and all his men and the boys in the house, do come out of it, and leave it wholly to his wife, to order 39 the house at her pleasure, and there the sacrifices and ceremonies are done the most 40 part of the night, and they do besides pass the night away in songs and music.

Pompeia, Caesar's wife, being that year to celebrate this feast, Clodius, who had yet no hair on his face, and thereby thought he should not be bewrayed 41, disguised himself in a singing wench's apparel, because his face was very like unto a young wench. He finding the gates open, being secretly brought in by her chambermaid that was made privy unto it, she left him, and ran to Pompeia her mistress, to tell her that he was come. The chamber-maid tarried long before she came again, insomuch as Clodius, being weary waiting for her where she left him, he took his pleasure and went from one place to another in the house, which had very large rooms in it, still shunning the light; and was by chance met withal 42 by one of Aurelia's maids, who taking him for a woman, prayed her to play. Clodius refusing to play, the maid pulled him forward, and asked him what he was: Clodius then answered her, that he tarried for Abra, one of Pompeia's women. So Aurelia's maid, knowing him by his voice, ran straight where the lights and ladies were, and cried out, that there was a man disguised in woman's apparel. The women therewith were so amazed, that Aurelia caused them presently 43to leave off the ceremonies of the sacrifice, and to hide their secret things; and having seen the gates fast locked, went immediately up and down the house with torch-light to seek out this man: who at the last was found out in the chamber of Pompeia's maid, with whom he hid himself.

Clodius taken in the sacrifices of the good goddess.
Thus Clodius being found out, and known of the women, they thrust him out of the doors by the shoulders. The same night the women told their husbands of this chance as soon as they came home. The next morning, there ran a great rumour through the city, how Clodius had attempted a great villany, and that he deserved not only to be punished of them whom he had slandered, but also of the commonwealth and the gods.
Clodius accused for profaning the sacrifices of the good goddess.
There was one of the tribunes of the people that did indite 44 him, and accuse him of high treason to the gods. Furthermore, there were also of the chiefest of the nobility and Senate, that came to depose against him, and burthened him with many horrible and detestable facts, and specially with incest committed with his own sister, which was married unto Lucullus. Notwithstanding the people stoutly defended Clodius against their accusations: and this did help him much against the judges, which were amazed, and afraid to stir the people. This notwithstanding,
Caesar putteth away his wife Pompeia.
Caesar presently put his wife away, and thereupon being brought by Clodius' accuser to be a witness against him, he answered, he knew nothing of 45 that they objected against Clodius. This answer being clean contrary to their expectation that heard it, the accuser asked Caesar, why then he had put away his wife: "Because I will not," said he, "that my wife be so much as suspected." And some say that Caesar spake truly as he thought. But others think that he did it to please the common people, who were very desirous to save Clodius.
Clodius quit by the judges for profaning the sacrifices of the good goddess.
So Clodius was discharged of this accusation, because the most part of the judges gave a confused judgment, for the fear they stood in one way of the danger of the common people, if they condemned him, and for the ill opinion on the other side of the nobility, if they did quit 46 him.


Caesar Praetor of Spain.
The government of the province of Spain being fallen unto Caesar, for that he was Praetor, his creditors came and cried out upon him, and were importunate of him to be paid. Caesar, being unable to satisfy them, was compelled to go unto Crassus, who was the richest man of all Rome, and that stood in need of Caesar's boldness and courage to withstand Pompey's greatness in the commonwealth.
Crassus surety for Caesar to his creditors.
Crassus became his surety unto his greediest creditors for the sum of eight hundred and thirty talents: whereupon they suffered Caesar to depart to the government of his province. In this journey it is reported, that passing over the mountains of the Alps, they came through a little poor village that had not many households, and yet poor cottages. There his friends that did accompany him asked him merrily, if there were any contending for offices in that town, and whether there were any strife there amongst the noblemen for honour. Caesar speaking in good earnest, answered: "I cannot tell that," said he, "but for my part I had rather be the chiefest man here than the second person in Rome." Another time also when he was in Spain, reading the history of Alexander's acts, when he had read it, he was sorrowful a good while after, and then burst out in weeping. His friends seeing that, marvelled what should be the cause of his sorrow. He answered them, " Do ye not think," said he, " that I have good cause to be heavy, when king Alexander, being no elder 47 than myself is now, had in old time won so many nations and countries: and that I hitherunto have done nothing worthy of myself?"

Caesar's acts in Spain.
Therefore when he was come into Spain, he was very careful of his business, and had in few days joined ten new ensigns 48 more of footmen unto the other twenty which he had before. Then marching forward against the Callecians and Lusitanians, he conquered all, and went as far as the great sea Oceanum, subduing all the people which before knew not the Romans for their lords. There he took order 49 for pacifying of the war, and did as wisely take order for the establishing of peace. For he did reconcile the cities together, and made them friends one with another, but specially he pacified all suits of law and strife betwixt the debtors and creditors, which grew by reason of usury.
Caesar's order between the creditor and the debtor.
For he ordained that the creditors should take yearly two parts of the revenue of their debtors, until such time as they had paid themselves: and that the debtors should have the third part themselves to live withal. 10.
Caesar's soldiers called him Imperator.
He having won great estimation by this good order taken, returned from his government very rich, and his soldiers also full of rich spoils, who called him Imperator, to say 50, sovereign Captain.

Now the Romans having a custom, that such as demanded honour of triumph should remain a while without the city, and that they on the other side which sued for the Consulship should of necessity be there in person: Caesar coming unhappily 51 at the very time when the Consuls were chosen, he sent to pray the Senate to do him that favour, that, being absent, he might by his friends sue for the Consulship. Cato at the first did vehemently inveigh against it, vouching 52 an express law to the contrary. But afterwards, perceiving that notwithstanding the reasons he alleged, many of the Senators (being won by Caesar) favoured his request, yet he cunningly sought all he could to prevent them, prolonging time, in dilating his oration until night. Caesar thereupon determined rather to give over the suit of his triumph, and to make suit for the Consulship: and so came into the city, and had such a device with him, as went beyond them all but Cato only. His device was this: Pompey and Crassus, two of the greatest personages of the city of Rome being at jar 53 together,

Caesar reconcileth Pompey and Crassus together.
Caesar made them friends, and by that means got unto himself the power of them both, for by colour 54 of that gentle act and friendship of his, he subtilly (unawares to them all) did greatly alter and change the state of the commonwealth. For it was not the private discord between Pompey and Caesar, as many men thought, that caused the civil war: but rather it was their agreement together, who joined all their powers first to overthrow the state of the Senate and nobility, and afterwards they fell at jar 55 one with another.
Cato's foresight and prophecy.
But Cato, that then foresaw and prophecied many times what would follow, was taken but for a vain man: but afterwards they found him a wiser man than happy 56 in his counsel.


Caesar's first Consulship with Calpurnius Bibulus.
Thus Caesar, being brought unto the assembly of the election, in the middest 57 of these two noble persons whom he had before reconciled together, he was there chosen Consul with Calphurnius Bibulus, without gainsaying or contradiction of; any man. Now when he was entered into his office,
Caesar's laws. Lex agraria.
he began to put forth laws meeter for a seditious Tribune of the people than for a Consul: because by them he preferred the division of lands, and distributing of corn to every citizen gratis, to please them withal. But when the noblemen of the Senate were against his device, he, desiring no better occasion 58, began to cry out and to protest, that by the overhardness and austerity of the Senate, they drave 59 him against his will to lean unto the people: and thereupon, having Crassus on the one side of him and Pompey on the other, he asked them openly in the assembly, if they did give their consent unto the laws which he had put forth. They both answered, they did. Then he prayed them to stand by him against those that threatened him with force of sword to let 60 him. Crassus gave him his word, he, would; Pompey also did the like, and added thereunto, that he would come with his sword and target 61 both, against them that would withstand him with their swords. These words offended much the Senate, being far unmeet for his gravity, and undecent 62 for the majesty and honour he carried, and most of all uncomely for the presence of the Senate whom he should have reverenced: and were speeches fitter for a rash light-headed youth, than for his person. Howbeit the common people on the other side, they rejoiced. 12.
Caesar married his daughter Julia to Pompey.
Then Caesar, because he would be more assured of Pompey's power and friendship, he gave him his daughter Julia in marriage, which was made sure before unto Servilius Caepio, and promised him in exchange Pompey's daughter, who was sure 63 also unto Faustus, the son of Sylla. And shortly after also,
Caesar married Calphurnia the daughter of Piso.
Caesar self 64 did marry Calphurnia, the daughter of Piso, whom he caused to be made Consul, to succeed him the next year following. Cato then cried out with open mouth, and called the gods to witness, that it was a shameful matter, and not to be suffered, that they should in that sort make havoc of the Empire of Rome, by such horrible bawdy matches, distributing among themselves, through those wicked marriages, the governments of the provinces, and of great armies. Calphurnius Bibulus, fellow-Consul with Caesar, perceiving that he did contend in vain, making all the resistance he could to withstand this law, and that oftentimes he was in danger to be slain with Cato in the market-place and assembly; he kept close in his house all the rest of his Consulship. When Pompey had married Julia,
Pompey by force of arms authorized Caesar's laws.
he filled all the market-place with soldiers, and by open force authorized the laws which Caesar made in the behalf of the people. Furthermore, he procured that Caesar had Gaul on this side and beyond the Alps, and all Illyria, with four legions granted him for five years. 13.
Caesar sent Cato to prison.
Then Cato standing up to speak against it, Caesar bad his officers lay hold on him, and carry him to prison, thinking he would have appealed unto the Tribunes. But Cato said never a word, when he went his way. Caesar perceiving then, that not only the Senators and nobility were offended, but that the common people also, for the reverence they bare unto Cato's virtues, were ashamed, and went away with silence; he himself secretly did pray one of the Tribunes that he would take Cato from the officers. But after he had played this part, there were few Senators that would be President of the Senate under him, but left the city, because they could not away with 65 his doings. And of them there was an old man called Considius, that on a time boldly told him, the rest durst not come to council because they were afraid of his soldiers. Caesar answered him again: "and why then dost not thou keep thee at home, for the same fear?" Considius replied, "because my age taketh away fear from me: for having so short a time to live, I have no care to prolong it further." The shamefullest part that Caesar played while he was Consul seemeth to be this: when he chose P. Clodius Tribune of the people, that had offered his wife such dishonour, and profaned the holy ancient mysteries of the women, which were celebrated in his own house. Clodius sued to be Tribune to no other end, but to destroy Cicero: and
Caesar, by Clodius, drave Cicero out of Italy.
Caesar self also departed not from Rome to his army before he had set them together by the ears, and driven Cicero out of Italy.

14. All these things they say he did before the wars with the Gauls. But the time of the great armies and conquests he made afterwards, and of the war in the which he subdued all the Gauls (entering into another course of life far contrary unto the first) made him to be known for as

Caesar a valiant soldier, and a skilful captain.
valiant a soldier and as excellent a captain to lead men, as those that afore him had been counted the wisest and most valiant generals that ever were, and that by their valiant deeds had achieved great honour. For whosoever would compare the house of the Fabians, of the Scipios, of the Metellians, yea, those also of his own time, or long before him, as Sylla, Marius, the two Lucullians, and Pompey self:
Whose fame ascendeth up unto the heavens:
it will appear that Caesar's prowess and deeds of arms did excel them all together. The one 66, in the hard countries where he made wars: another 67, in enlarging the realms and countries which he joined unto the Empire of Rome: another, in the multitude and power of his enemies whom he overcame: another, in the rudeness and austere nature of men with whom he had to do, whose manners afterwards he softened and made civil: another, in courtesy and clemency which he used unto them whom he had conquered: another, in great bounty and liberality bestowed unto them that served under him in those wars: and in fine 68, he excelled them all in the number of battles he had fought, and in the multitude of his enemies he had slain in battle.
Caesar's conquests in Gaul.
For in less than ten years' war in Gaul he took by force and assault above eight hundred towns: he conquered three hundred several nations: and having before him in battle thirty hundred thousand soldiers, at sundry times, he slew ten hundred thousand of them, and took as many more prisoners.
The love and respect of Caesar's soldiers unto him.

Furthermore, he was so entirely beloved of his soldiers, that to do him service (where otherwise they were no more than other men in any private quarrel) if Caesar's honour were touched, they were invincible, and would so desperately venture themselves and with such fury, that no man was able to abide them. 15.

The wonderful valiantness of Acilius, Cassius, Scoeva, and divers others of Caesar's soldiers.
And this appeareth plainly by the example of Acilius: who in a battle by sea before the city of Marseilles, bording 69 one of his enemies' ships, one cut off his right hand with a sword; but yet he forsook not his target 70 which he had in his left hand, but thrust it in his enemies' faces, and made them fly, so that he wan 71 their ship from them. And Cassius Scaeva also, in a conflict before the city of Dyrrachium, having one of his eyes put out with an arrow, his shoulder stricken through with a dart, and his thigh with another, and having received thirty arrows upon his shield, he called to his enemies, and made as though he would yield unto them. But when two of them came running to him, he crave one of their shoulders from his body with his sword, and hurt the other in the face: so that he made him turn his back, and at the length saved himself, by means of his companions that came to help him. And in Britain also, when the captains of the bands were driven into a marrish 72 or bog full of mire and dirt, and that the enemies did fiercely assail them there, Caesar then standing to view the battle, he saw a private soldier of his thrust in among the captains, and fought so valiantly in their defence, that at the length he drave 73 the barbarous people to fly, and by his means saved the captains, which otherwise were in great danger to have been cast away 74. Then this soldier, being the hindmost man of all the captains, marching with great pain through the mire and dirt, half swimming and half on foot, in the end got to the other side, but left his shield behind him. Caesar, wondering at his noble courage, ran to him with joy to embrace him. But the poor soldier hanging down his head, the water standing in his eyes, fell down at Caesar's feet, and besought him to pardon him, for that he had left his target behind him. And in Africa also, Scipio
Granius Petronius.
having taken one of Caesar's ships, and Granius Petronius abord 75 on her amongst other, not long before chosen Treasurer; he put all the rest to the sword but him, and said he would give him his life. But Petronius answered him again, that Caesar's soldiers did not use to have their lives given them, but to give others their lives: and with these words he drew his sword, and thrust himself through.

16. Now Caesar's self did breed this noble courage and life in them. First, for that he gave them bountifully, and did honour them also, strewing thereby, that he did not heap up riches in the wars to maintain his life afterwards in wantonness and pleasure, but that he did keep it in store, honourably to reward their valiant service: and that by so much he thought himself rich, by how much he was liberal in rewarding of them that had deserved it. Furthermore, they did not wonder so much at his valiantness in putting himself at every instant in such manifest danger, and in taking so extreme pains as he did, knowing that it was his greedy desire of honour that set him on fire, and pricked him forward to do it: but that he always continued all labour and hardness 76, more than his body could bear, that filled them all with admiration. For, concerning the constitution of his body, he was lean, white, and soft-skinned, and

Caesar had the falling sickness.
often subject to headache, and otherwhile to the falling sickness 77 (the which took him the first time, as it is reported, in Corduba, a city of Spain :) but yet therefore yielded not to the disease of his body, to make it a cloak to cherish him withal, but contrarily, took the pains of war as a medicine to cure his sick body, fighting always with his disease, travelling continually, living soberly, and commonly lying abroad in the field. For the most nights he slept in his coach or litter, and thereby bestowed his rest, to make him always able to do something: and in the day-time he would travel up and down the country to see towns, castles, and strong places. He had always a secretary with him in the coach, who did still 78 write as he went by the way, and a soldier behind him that carried his sword. He made such speed the first time he came from Rome, when he had his office, that in eight days he came to the River of Rhone. He was so excellent a rider of horse from his youth, that holding his hands behind him, he would gallop his horse upon the spur. In his wars in Gaul, he did further exercise himself to indite letters as he rode by the way, and did occupy 79 two secretaries at once with as much as they could write: and, as Oppius writeth, more than two at a time. As it is reported, that Caesar was the first that devised friends might talk together by writing cyphers in letters, when he had no leisure to speak with them for his urgent business, and for the great distance besides from Rome.
The temperance of Caesar in his diet.
How little account Caesar made of his diet, this example cloth prove it. Caesar supping one night in Milan with his friend Valerius Leo, there was served sperage 80 to his board, and oil of perfume put into it instead of salletoil 81. He simply eat 82 it, and
Caesar's civility not to blame his friends.
found no fault, blaming his friends that were offended: and told them, that it had been enough for them to have abstained to eat of that they misliked, and not to shame their friend, and how that he lacked good manners that found fault with his friend. Another time, as he travelled through the country, he was driven by foul weather on the sudden to take a poor man's cottage, that had but one little cabin in it, and that was so narrow, that one man could but scarce lie in it. Then he said to his friends that were about him: " Greatest rooms are meetest for greatest men, and the most necessary rooms for the sickest persons." And thereupon he called Oppius that was sick to lie there all night: and he himself, with the rest of his friends, lay without doors, under the easing 83 of the house.

17. The first war that Caesar made with the Gauls, was with the Helvetians and Tigurinians, who having set fire on 84 all their good cities, to the number of twelve, and four hundred villages besides, came to invade that part of Gaul which was subject to the Romans, as the Cimbri and Teutons had done before, unto whom for valiantness they gave no place 85: and they were also a great number of them (for they were three hundred thousand souls in all) whereof there were an hundred four score and ten thousand fighting men. Of those, it was not

The Tigurinians slain by Labienus. Arax fl.
Caesar himself that overcame the Tigurinians, but Labienus his lieutenant, that overthrew them by the river of Arax. But the Helvetians themselves came suddenly with their army to set upon him, as he was going towards a city of his confederates. Caesar perceiving that, made haste to get him some place of strength, and there did set his men in battle ray 86. When one brought him his horse to get upon, which he used in battle, he said unto them: "When I have overcome mine enemies, I will then get upon him to follow the chase, but now let us give them charge." Therewith he marched forward on foot and gave charge: and there fought it out a long, before he could make them fly that were in battle. But the greatest trouble he had was to distress their camp, and to break their strength 87 which they had made with their carts. For there, they that before had fled from the battle did not only put themselves in force, and valiantly fought it out:
The Helvetians slain by Caesar.
but their wives and children also, fighting for their lives to the death, were all slain, and the battle was scant 88 ended at midnight. Now if the act of this victory was famous, unto that he also added another as notable, or exceeding it. For of all the barbarous people that had escaped from this battle, he gathered together again above an hundred thousand of them, and compelled them to return home into their country which they had forsaken, and unto their towns also which they had burnt: because he feared the Germans would come over the river of Rheyn 89, and occupy that country Iying void.


Rhenus fl. Caesar made war with king Ariovistus.
The second war he made, was in defence of the Gauls against the Germans: although before he himself had caused Ariovistius their king to be received for a confederate of the Romans. Notwithstanding, they were grown very unquiet neighbours, and it appeared plainly, that, having any occasion offered them to enlarge their territories, they would not content them with their own, but meant to invade and possess the rest of Gaul. Caesar perceiving that some of his captains trembled for fear, but specially the young gentlemen of noble houses of Rome, who thought 90 to have gone to the wars with him as only for their pleasure and gain, he called them to council, and commanded them that were afraid that they should depart home and not put themselves in danger against their wills, sith 91 they had such womanish faint hearts, to shrink when he had need of them. And for himself, he said, he would set upon the barbarous people, though he had left him but the tenth legion only saying that the enemies were no valianter than the Cimbri had been, nor that he was a captain inferior unto Marius. This oration being made, the soldiers of the tenth legion sent their lieutenants unto him, to thank him for the good opinion he had of them: and the other legions also fell out 92 with their captains and all of them together followed him many days' journey with good will to serve him, until they came within two hundred furlongs of the camp of the enemies. Ariovistus' courage was well cooled, when he saw Caesar was come, and that the Romans came to seek out the Germans; where 93 they thought and made account, that they durst not have abidden 94 them and therefore, nothing 95 mistrusting it would have come so to pass, he wondered much at Caesar's courage, and the more when he saw his own army in a maze 96 withal. But much more did their courage fall,
The wise women of Germany; how they did foretell things to come.
by reason of the foolish women-prophesiers they had amongst them, which did foretell things to come: who, considering the waves and trouble of the rivers, and the terrible noise they made running down the stream, did forewarn them not to fight until the new moon. Caesar having intelligence thereof, and perceiving that the barbarous people thereupon stirred not, thought it best then to set upon them, being discouraged with this superstitious fear, rather than, losing time, he should tarry their leisure. So he did skirmish with them even to their forts and little hills where they lay, and by this means provoked them so, that with great fury they came down to fight.
King Ariovistus overthrown by Caesar.
There he overcame them in battle, and followed them in chase, with great slaughter, three hundred furlongs, even unto the river of Rheyn: and he filled all the fields "hitherto with dead bodies and spoils. Howbeit Ariovistus, flying with speed, got over the river of Rheyn, and escaped with a few of his men. It is said that there were slain fourscore thousand persons at this battle.

19. After this exploit, Caesar left his army amongst the Sequanes to winter there: and he himself in the meantime, thinking of the affairs at Rome, went over the mountains into Gaul about the river of Po, being part of his province which he had in charge. For there the river called Rubico divideth the rest of Italy from Gaul on this side of the Alps. Caesar Iying there, did practise 97 to make friends in Rome, because many came thither to see him: unto whom he granted their suits they demanded, and sent them home also, partly with liberal rewards, and partly with large promises and hope. Now during all this conquest of the Gauls, Pompey did not consider how Caesar enterchangeably 98 did conquer the Gauls with the weapons of the Romans, and wan 99 the Romans again with the money of the Gauls. Caesar, being advertised 100 that the Belgae (which were the warlikest 101 men of all the Gauls, and that occupied the third part of Gaul) were all up in arms, and had raised a great power 102 of men together: he straight made towards them with all possible speed, and found them spoiling and overrunning the country of the Gauls, their neighbours, and confederates of the Romans.

The Belgae overcome by Caesar.
So he gave them battle, and they fighting cowardly, he overthrew the most part of them, which were in a troup 103 together; and slew such a number of them, that the Romans passed over deep rivers and lakes on foot, upon their dead bodies, the rivers were so full of them. 20. After this overthrow, they that dwelt nearest unto the seaside, and were next neighbours unto the Ocean, did yield themselves without any compulsion or fight:
Nervii the stoutest warriors of all the Belgae.
whereupon he led his army against the Nervians, the stoutest warriors of all the Belgae. They, dwelling in the wood country, had conveyed their wives, children, and goods into a marvellous great forest, as far from their enemies as they could; and being about the number of six score thousand fighting men and more, they came one day and set upon Caesar, when his army was out of order, and fortifying of his camp, little looking 104 to have fought that day. At the first charge, they brake 105 the horsemen of the Romans, and compassing in the twelfth and seventh legion, they slew all the centurions and captains of the bands. And had not Caesar self 106 taken his shield on his arm, and, flying in amongst the barbarous people, made a lane through them that fought before him: and the tenth legion also, seeing him in danger, run unto him from the top of the hill where they stood in battle, and broken the ranks of their enemies, there had not a Roman escaped alive that day. But taking example of Caesar's valiantness, they fought desperately beyond their power, and
The Nervii slain by Caesar.
yet could not make the Nervians fly, but they fought it out to the death, till they were all in a manner 107 slain in the field. It is written that of threescore thousand fighting men, there escaped only but five hundred: and of four hundred gentlemen and counsellors of the Romans, but three saved.

The Senate understanding it at Rome, ordained that they should do sacrifice unto the gods, and keep feasts and solemn processions fifteen days together without intermission, having never made the like ordinance at Rome for any victory that ever was obtained: because they saw the danger had been marvellous great, so many nations rising as they did in arms together against him: and further, the love of the people unto him made his victory much more famous. 21. For when Caesar had set his affairs at a stay 108 in Gaul, on the other side of the Alps, he always used to lie about the river of Po in the winter time, to give direction for the establishing of things at Rome at his pleasure. For not only they that made suit for offices at Rome were chosen Magistrates, by means of Caesar's money which he gave them, with the which, bribing the people, they bought their voices, and when they were in office did all that they could to increase Caesar's power and greatness: but the greatest and

The great lords of Rome came to Lucca to Caesar.
chiefest men also of the nobility went into Lucca unto him; as 109 Pompey, Crassus, Appius, Praetor of Sardinia, and Nepos Proconsul in Spain. Insomuch that there were at one time sixscore sergeants carrying rods and axes before the Magistrates: and above two hundred Senators besides. There they fell in consultation, and determined that Pompey and Crassus should again be chosen Consuls the next year following. Furthermore they did appoint, that Caesar should have money again delivered him to pay his army; and besides, did prorogue the time of his government five years further. This was thought a very strange and an unreasonable matter unto wise men; for they themselves that had taken so much money of Caesar, persuaded the Senate to let him have money of the common treasure, as though he had had none before: yea, to speak more plainly, they compelled the Senate unto it, sighing and lamenting to see the decrees they passed. Cato was not there then, for they had purposely sent him before into Cyprus. Howbeit Faonius, that followed Cato's steps, when he saw that he could not prevail nor withstand them, he went out of the Senate in choler, and cried out amongst the people that it was a horrible shame. But no man did hearken to him: some for the reverence they bare unto Pompey and Crassus; and others, favouring Caesar s proceedings, did put all their hope and trust in him: and therefore did quiet themselves, and stirred not.

22. Then Caesar, returning into Gaul beyond the Alps unto his army, found there a great war in the country. For two great nations of Germany had not long before passed over the river of Rheyn 110, to conquer new lands: and the one of

Ipes and Tenterides, people of Germany.
these people were called Ipes, and the other Tenterides. Now touching the battle which Caesar fought with them, he himself doth describe it in his Commentaries, in this sort. That the barbarous people having sent ambassadors unto him to require 111 peace for a certain time, they notwithstanding, against the law of arms, came and set upon him as he travelled by the way, insomuch as
Caesar's horsemen put to flight.
eight hundred of their men of arms overthrew five thousand of his horsemen, who nothing at all mistrusted 112 their coming. Again, that they sent him other ambassadors to mock him once more: but that he kept them, and therewith 113 caused his whole army to march against them, thinking it a folly and madness to keep faith with such traitorous barbarous breakers of leagues. Canutius writeth, that the Senate appointing again to do new sacrifice, processions, and feasts, to give thanks to the gods for this victory, Cato was of contrary opinion, that Caesar should be delivered into the hands of the barbarous people, for to purge their city and commonwealth of this breach of faith, and to turn the curse upon him that was the author of it. Of
The Ipes and Tenterides slain by Caesar.
these barbarous people, which came over the Rheyn 114 (being about the number of four hundred thousand persons) they were all in manner 115 slain, saving a very few of them, that flying from the battle got over the river of Rheyn again, who were
Sicambri, a people of the Germans.
received by the Sicambrians, another people of the Germans. 23. Caesar taking this occasion against them, lacking no goodwill of himself besides, to have the honour to be counted the first Roman that ever passed over the river of Rheyn with an army, he built a bridge over it.
Caesar made a bridge over the river of Rhine.
This river is marvellous broad, and runneth with great fury; and in that place specially where he built his bridge, for there it is of a great breadth from one side to the other: and it hath so strong and swift a stream besides, that men casting down great bodies of trees into the river (which the stream bringeth down with it) did with the great blows and force thereof marvellously shake the posts of the bridge he had set up. But to prevent the blows of those trees, and also to break the fury of the stream, he made a pile of great wood above the bridge a good way, and did forcibly ram them into the bottom of the river; so that in ten days space he had set up and finished his bridge of the goodliest carpenters' work, and most excellent invention to see to 116, that could be possibly thought or devised.

Then, passing 117 over his army upon it, he found none that durst any more fight with him. For the Suevians, which were the warlikest people of all Germany, had gotten themselves with their goods into wonderful 118 great valleys and bogs, full of woods and forests. Now when he had burnt all the country of his enemies, and confirmed a league with the confederates of the Romans, he returned back again into Gaul after he had tarried eighteen days at the most in Germany, on the other side of the Rheyn. 24.

Caesar's journey into England
The journey he made also into England was a noble enterprise and very commendable. For he was the first that sailed the West Ocean with an army by sea, and that passed through the sea Atlanticum with his army, to make war in that so great and famous iland 119 (which many ancient writers would not believe that it was so indeed, and did make them vary about it, saying it was but a fable and a lie), and was the first that enlarged the Roman Empire beyond the earth inabitable 120. For twice he passed over the narrow sea against 121 the firm land of Gaul, and fighting many battles there, did hurt his enemies more than inrich 122 his own men: because, of 123 men hardly brought up and poor there was nothing to be gotten. Whereupon the war had no such success as he looked for, and therefore, taking pledges only of the King, and imposing a yearly tribute upon him, to be paid unto the people of Rome, he returned again into Gaul. There he was no sooner landed, but he found letters ready to be sent over the sea unto him: in the which he was advertised 124 from Rome
The death of Julius Caesar's daughter.
of the death of his daughter, that she was dead with child by Pompey. For the which Pompey and Caesar both were marvellous sorrowful: and their friends mourned also, thinking that this alliance which maintained the commonwealth (that otherwise was very tickle 125) in good peace and concord, was now severed and broken asunder; and the rather 126 likely, because the child lived not long after the mother. So the common people at Rome took the corpse of Julia, in despite of the Tribunes, and buried it in the field of Mars.


The rebellion of the Gauls.
Now Caesar, being driven to divide his army (that was very great) in sundry garrisons for the winter-time, and returning again into Italy as he was wont, all Gaul rebelled again, and had raised great armies in every quarter to set upon the Romans, and to assay 127 if they could distress their forts where they lay in garrison. The greatest number and most warlike men of these Gauls that entered into action of rebellion, were led by one Ambiorix: and first did set upon
Cotta, and Titurius, with their army, slain.
the garrisons of Cotta and Titurius, whom they slew, and all the soldiers they had about them. Then they went with threescore thousand fighting men to besiege the garrisons which Quintus Cicero had in his charge, and had almost taken them by force, because all the soldiers were every man of them hurt: but they were so valiant and courageous, that they did more than men (as they say) in defending of themselves. These news being come to Caesar, who was far from thence at that time, he returned with all possible speed, and leaving seven thousand soldiers, made haste to help Cicero that was in such distress. The Gauls that did besiege Cicero, understanding of Caesar's coming, raised their siege incontinently 128, to go and meet him: making account that he was but a handful in their hands, they were so few. Caesar, to deceive them, still drew back, and made as though he fled from them, lodging in places meet for a captain that had but a few to fight with a great number of his enemies; and commanded his men in no wise to stir out to skirmish with them, but compelled them to raise up the rampiers 129 of his camp, and to fortify the gates as men that were afraid, because 130 the enemies should the less esteem of them: until at length he took opportunity by their disorderly coming to assail the trenches of his camp,
Caesar slew the Gauls led by Ambiorix.
(they were grown to such a presumptuous boldness and bravery,) and then, sallying out upon them, he put them all to flight with slaughter of a great number of them.

This did suppress all the rebellions of the Gauls in those parts, and furthermore he himself in person went in the midst of winter thither, where he heard they did rebel: for that there was come a new supply out of Italy of three whole legions, in their room 131 which he had lost: of the which, two of them Pompey lent him, and the other legion he himself had levied in Gaul about the river Po. During these stirs, brake 132 forth the beginning of the greatest and most dangerous war that he had in all Gaul, the which had been secretly practised 133 of long time by the chiefest and most warlike people of that country, who had levied a wonderful great power.

The second rebellion of the Gauls against Caesar.
For everywhere they levied multitudes of men, and great riches besides, to fortify their strongholds. Furthermore the country where they rose was very ill to come unto 134, and specially at that time, being winter; when the rivers were frozen, the woods and forests covered with snow, the meadows drowned with floods, and the fields so deep of snow that no ways were to be found, neither the marrishes 135 nor rivers to be discerned, all was so overflown 136 and drowned with water: all which troubles together were enough (as they thought) to keep Caesar from setting upon the rebels. Many nations of the Gauls were of this conspiracy, but two of the chiefest were the Avernians and Carnutes: who had chosen
Vercingentorix captain of the rebels against Caesar.
Vercingentorix for their lieutenant-general, whose father the Gauls before had put to death, because they thought he aspired to make himself king.

This Vercingentorix, dividing his army into divers parts, and appointing divers captains over them, had gotten to take his part all the people and countries thereabouts, even as far as they that dwell towards the sea Adriatick 137, having further determined (understanding that Rome did conspire against Caesar)to make all Gaul rise in arms against him. So that if he had but tarried a little longer, until Caesar had entered into his civil wars, he had put all Italy in as great fear and danger as it was when the Cimbri did come and invade it. But Caesar, that was valiant in all assays 138 and dangers of war, and that was very skilful to take time and opportunity, so soon as he understood the news of this rebellion, he departed with speed and returned back the self-same way which he had gone, making the barbarous people know that they should deal with an army invincible, and which they could not possibly withstand, considering the great speed he had made with the same in so sharp and hard a winter. For where they would not possibly have believed that a post 139 or currer 140 could have come in so short a time from the place where he was unto them, they wondered when they saw him burning and destroying the country, the towns, and strong forts, where he came with his army, taking all to mercy that yielded unto him: until such times as

The Hedui rebel against the Romans.
the Hedui took arms against him, who before were wont to be called the brethren of the Romans, and were greatly honoured of them. Wherefore Caesar's men, when they understood that they had joined with the rebels, they were marvellous sorry 141, and half discouraged. Thereupon Caesar, departing from those parts, went through the country of the Lingones to enter the country of the Burgonians 142, who were confederates of the Romans, and the nearest unto Italy on that side, in respect of all the rest of Gaul. Thither the enemies came to set upon him and to environ him on all sides, with an infinite number of thousands of fighting men. Caesar on the other side tarried their coming, and fighting with them a long time, he made them so afraid of him, that at length he overcame the barbarous people.
Vercingentorix overthrown by Caesar.
But at the first, it seemeth notwithstanding, that he had received some overthrow: for the Arvernians shewed a sword hanged up in one of their temples, which they said they had won from Caesar. Insomuch as Caesar self 143 coming that way by occasion, saw it, and fell alaughing at it. But some of his friends going about 144 to take it away, he would not suffer them, but bad them let it alone and touch it not, for it was an holy thing.

26. Notwithstanding, such as at the first had saved themselves by flying, the most part of them were gotten with their king into the city of Alexia, the which Caesar went and besieged, although it seemed inexpugnable 145, both for the height of the walls as also for the multitude of soldiers they had to defend it. But now, during this siege, he fell into a marvellous great danger without 146, almost incredible. For an army of three hundred thousand fighting men, of the best men that were among all the legions of the Gauls, came

The siege of Alexia.
against him being at the siege of Alexia, besides them that were within the city, which amounted to the number of threescore and ten thousand fighting men at the least: so that perceiving he was shut in betwixt two so great armies, he was driven to fortify himself with two walls, the one against them of the city, and the other against them without 147. For if those two armies had joined together, Caesar had been utterly undone. And therefore,
Caesar's great victory at Alexia.
this siege of Alexia, and the battle he wan 148 before it, did deservedly win him more honour and fame than any other. For there, in that instant 149 and extreme danger, he shewed more valiantness and wisdom than he did in any battle he fought before. But what a wonderful thing was this! that they of the city never heard anything of them that came to aid them until Caesar had overcome them and furthermore, that the Romans themselves, which kept watch upon the wall that was built against the city, knew also no more of it than they, until it was done, and that they heard the cries and lamentations of men and women in Alexia, when they perceived on the other side of the city such a number of glistering 150 shields of gold and silver, such store of bloody corslets and armours, such a deal of plate and moveables, and such a number of tents and pavilions after the fashion of the Gauls, which the Romans had gotten of their spoils in their camp! Thus suddenly was this great army vanished, as a dream or vision: where the most part of them were slain that day in battle Furthermore, after that they within the city of Alexia had done great hurt to Caesar and themselves also,
Alexia yielded up to Caesar.
in the end they all yielded themselves. And Vercingentorix (he that was their king and captain in all this war) went out of the gates excellently well armed, and his horse furnished 151 with rich caparison accordingly, and rode round about Caesar, who sat in his chair of estate. Then lighting from his horse, he took off his caparison and furniture 152, and unarmed himself, and laid all on the ground, and went and sat down at Caesar's feet, and said never a word. So Caesar at length committed him as a prisoner taken in the wars, to lead him afterwards in the triumph at Rome.

27. Now Caesar had of long time determined to destroy Pompey, and Pompey him also. For Crassus being killed amongst the Parthians, who only did see that one of them two must needs fall, nothing kept Caesar from being the greatest person, but because he destroyed not Pompey, that was the greater: neither did anything let 153 Pompey to withstand that it should not come to pass, but because he did not first overcome

The discord betwixt Caesar and Pompey, and the cause of the civil wars.
Caesar, whom only he feared. For till then, Pompey had not long feared him, but always before set light by 154 him, thinking it an easy matter for him to put him down when he would, sith 155 he had brought him to that greatness he was come unto. But Caesar contrarily, having had that drift in his head from the beginning, like a wrestler that studieth for tricks to overthrow his adversary, he went far from Rome,
Caesar's craftiness.
to exercise himself in the wars of Gaul; where he did train his army, and presently 156 by his valiant deeds did increase his fame and honour. By these means became Caesar as famous as Pompey in his doings, and lacked no more to put his enterprise in execution, but some occasions of colour 157, which Pompey partly gave him, and partly also the time delivered him, but chiefly, the hard fortune and ill government at that time of the commonwealth at Rome.
The people's voices bought at Rome for money.
For they that made suit for honour and offices bought the voices of the people with ready money, which they gave out openly to usury, without shame or fear. Thereupon the common people that had sold their voices for money, came to the market-place at the day of election, to fight for him that had hired them: not with their voices, but with their bows, slings, and swords. So that the assembly seldom times brake up, but the pulpit for orations was defiled and sprinkled with the blood of them that were slain in the market-place, the city remaining all that time without government of magistrate, like a ship left without a pilot. Insomuch as men of deep judgment and discretion, seeing such fury and madness of the people, thought themselves happy if the commonwealth were no worse troubled than with the absolute state of a monarchy and sovereign lord to govern them. Furthermore, there were many that were not afraid to speak it openly, that there was no other help to remedy the troubles of the commonwealth, but by the authority of one man only, that should command them all: and that this medicine must be ministered by the hands of him that was the gentlest physician, meaning covertly Pompey. Now Pompey used many fine speeches, making semblance as though he would none of it, and yet cunningly underhand did lay all the irons in the fire he could, to bring it to pass that he might be chosen Dictator. Cato finding the mark he shot at, and fearing lest in the end the people should be compelled to make him Dictator, he persuaded the Senate rather to make him sole Consul, that, contenting himself with that more just and lawful government, he should not covet the other unlawful. The Senate, following his counsel, did not only make him Consul, but further did prorogue 158 his government of the provinces he had.
Pompey governed Spain and Africa.
For he had two provinces, all Spain and Africk, the which he governed by his lieutenants: and further, he received yearly of the common treasure, to pay his soldiers, a thousand talents.
Caesar sueth the second time to be Consul, and to have his government prorogued.

Hereupon Caesar took occasion also to send his men to make suit in his name for the consulship, and also to have the government of his provinces prorogued. Pompey at the first held his peace; but Marcellus and Lentulus (that otherwise hated Caesar) withstood them, and, to shame and dishonour him, had much needless speech in matters of weight. Furthermore they took away the freedom from the colonies which Caesar had lately brought unto the city of Novumcomum in Gaul towards Italy, where Caesar not long before had lodged them. And moreover, when Marcellus was Consul, he made one of the senators in that city to be whipped with rods, who came to Rome about those matters: and said, he gave him those marks, that he should know he was no Roman citizen, and bade him go his way, and tell Caesar of it. 28.

Caesar bribeth tha magistrates at Rome.
After Marcellus' consulship, Caesar, setting open his coffers of the treasure he had gotten among the Gauls, did frankly give it out amongst the magistrates at Rome, without restraint or spare. First, he set Curio the tribune clear out of debt: and gave also unto Paul the Consul a thousand five hundred talents, with which money he built that notable palace by the market-place, called Paul's Basilick, in the place of Fulvius' Basilick. Then Pompey, being afraid of this practice. 159, began openly to procure, both by himself and his friends, that they should send Caesar a successor: and moreover, he sent unto Caesar for his two legions of men of war, which he had lent him for the conquest of Gaul. Caesar sent him them again, and gave every private soldier two hundred and fifty silver drachmas. Now, they that brought these two legions back from Caesar, gave out ill and seditious words against him among the people, and did also
Pompey abused by flatterers.
abuse Pompey with false persuasions and vain hopes, informing him that he was marvellously desired and wished for in Caesar's camp: and though in Rome, for the malice and secret spite which the governors there did bear him, he could hardly obtain that he desired, yet in Gaul he might assure himself, that all the army was at his commandment. They added further also, that if the soldiers there did once return over the mountains again into Italy, they would all straight come to him, they did so hate Caesar, because he wearied them with too much labour and continual fight: and withal, for that they suspected he aspired to be king. These words breeding security in Pompey, and a vain conceit of himself, made him negligent in his doings, so that he made no preparation of war, as though he had no occasion to be afraid: but only studied to thwart Caesar in speech, and to cross 160 the suits he made. Howbeit Caesar passed not of 161 all this. For the report went, that one of Caesar's captains which was sent to Rome to prosecute his suit, being at the Senate-door, and hearing that they denied to prorogue Caesar's time of government which he sued for, clapping his hand upon his sword, he said: " Sith 162 you will not grant it him, this shall give it him."


Caesar's requests unto the Senate.
the requests that Caesar propounded carried great semblance of reason with them. For he said, that he was contented to lay down arms, so that Pompey did the like: and that both of them, as private persons, should come and make suit of their citizens to obtain honourable recompence: declaring unto them that, taking arms from him, and granting them unto Pompey, they did wrongfully accuse him in 163 going about to make himself a tyrant, and in the mean time to grant the other means to be a tyrant. Curio making these offers and persuasions openly before the people in the name of Caesar, he was heard with great rejoicing and clapping of hands, and there were some that cast flowers and nosegays upon him when he went his way, as they commonly use to do unto any man, when he hath obtained victory and won the games. Then Antonius, one of the tribunes, brought a letter sent from Caesar, and made 164 it openly to be read in despite of the Consuls. But Scipio in the Senate, Pompey's father-in-law, made this motion: that if Caesar did not dismiss his army by a certain day appointed him, the Romans should proclaim him an enemy unto Rome. Then the Consuls openly asked in the presence of the senators, if they thought it good that Pompey should dismiss his army: but few agreed to that demand. After that again they asked, if they liked that Caesar should dismiss his army: thereto they all in manner 165 answered, "Yea, yea." But when Antonius requested again that both of them should lay down arms, then they were all indifferently 166 of his mind. Notwithstanding, because Scipio did insolently behave himself, and Marcellus also, who cried, that they must use force of arms and not men's opinion against a thief, the Senate rose straight upon it without further determination; and men changed apparel through the city because of this dissension, as they use 167 to do in a common calamity.

After that, there came other letters from Caesar, which seemed much more reasonable: in the which he requested that they would grant him Gaul that lieth between the mountains of the Alps and Italy and Illyria, with two legions only, and then that he would request nothing else; until he made suit for the second Consulship. Cicero the orator, that was newly come from the government of Cilicia, travailed to reconcile them together, and pacified Pompey the best he could: who told him he would yield to anything he would have him, so he did let him alone with his army. So Cicero persuaded Caesar's friends to be contented, to take those two provinces, and six thousand men only, that they might be friends and at peace together. Pompey very willingly yielded unto it, and granted them. But Lentulus the Consul would not agree to it, but shamefully drave 168 Curio and Antonius out of the Senate: whereby they themselves gave Caesar a happy occasion 169 and colour 170 as could be, stirring up his soldiers the more against them, when he shewed them these two noblemen and tribunes of the people, that were driven to fly, disguised like slaves, in a carrier's cart.

Antonius and Curio, tribunes of the people, fly from Rome to Caesar.
For they were driven for fear to steal out of Rome, disguised in that manner.

Now at that time Caesar had not in all about him above five thousand footmen and three thousand horsemen: for the rest of his army he left on the other side of the mountains, to be brought after him by his lieutenants. So, considering that, for the execution of his enterprise, he should not need so many men of war at the first but rather, suddenly stealing upon them, to make them afraid with valiantness, taking benefit of the opportunity of time; because he should more easily make his enemies afraid of him coming so suddenly when they looked not for him, than he should otherwise distress them, assailing them with his whole army, in giving them leisure to provide further for him: he commanded his captains and lieutenants to go before, without any other armour than their swords, to take the city of Ariminum (a great city of Gaul, being the first city men come to, when they come out of Gaul) with as little bloodshed and tumult as they could possible. Then, committing that force and army he had with him unto Hortensius, one of his friends, he remained a whole day together, openly in the sight of every man, to see the sword-players handle their weapons before him At night he went into his lodging, and, bathing his body a little, came afterwards into the hall amongst them, and made merry a while with them whom he had bidden to supper. Then, when it was well forward night, and very dark, he rose from the table, and prayed his company to be merry, and no man to stir, for he would straight come to them again: howbeit he had secretly before commanded a few of his trustiest friends to follow him; not altogether 171, but some one way, and some another way. He himself in the mean time took a coach he had hired, and made as though he would have gone some other way at the first, but suddenly he turned back again towards the city of Ariminum. 29.

Caesar's doubtful thoughts at the river of Rubicon.
When he was come unto the little river of Rubicon, which divided Gaul on this side the Alps from Italy, he stayed 172 upon a sudden. For, the nearer he came to execute his purpose, the more remorse he had in his conscience, to think what an enterprise he took in hand: and his thoughts also fell out more doubtful, when he entered into consideration of the desperateness of his attempt. So he fell into many thoughts with himself, and spake never a word, waving 173 sometime one way, sometime another way, and oftentimes changed his determination, contrary to himself. So did he talk much also with his friends he had with him, amongst whom was Asinius Pollio, telling him what mischiefs the beginning of this passage over that river would breed in the world, and how much their posterity, and they that lived after them, would speak of it in time to come. But at length, casting from him with a noble courage all those perilous thoughts to come, and speaking these words 174. which valiant men commonly say, that attempt dangerous and desperate enterprises : "A man can be but once undone; come on," he passed over the river; and when he was come over, he ran with his coach and never stayed, so that before daylight he was within the city of Ariminum, and took it ... ....
Caesar took the city of Ariminum.

The city of Ariminum being taken, and the rumour thereof dispersed through all Italy even as if it had been open war both by sea and land, and as if all the laws of Rome, together with the extreme bounds and confines of the same, had been broken up: a man would have said, that not only the men and women for fear, as experience proved at other times, but whole cities themselves, leaving their habitations, fled from one place to another through all Italy.

Rome in uproar with Caesar's coming.
And Rome itself also was immediately filled with the flowing repair of all the people their neighbours thereabouts, which came thither from all parts like droves of cattle, that there was neither officer nor magistrate that could any more command them by authority, neither by any persuasion of reason bridle such a confused and disorderly multitude: so that Rome had in manner 175 destroyed itself for lack of rule end order. For in all places men were of contrary opinions, and there were dangerous stirs and tumults everywhere, because they that were glad of this trouble could keep in no certain place; but, running up and down the city, when they met with others in divers places that seemed either to be afraid or angry with this tumult (as otherwise it is impossible in so great a city) they flatly fell out with them, and boldly threatened them with that that was to come. Pompey himself, who at that time was not a little amazed, was yet much more troubled with the ill words some gave him on the one side, and some on the other. For some of them reproved him, and said, that he had done wisely, and had paid for his folly, because he had made Caesar so great and strong against him and the commonwealth. And other again did blame him, because he had refused the honest offers and reasonable conditions of peace which Caesar had offered him, suffering Lentulus the Consul to abuse him toe much. On the other side, Phaonius spake unto him, and bade him stamp on the ground with his foot: for Pompey being one day in a bravery 176 in the Senate, said openly: " Let no man take thought 177 for preparation of war; for when he listed, with one stamp of his foot on the ground, he would fill all Italy with soldiers." This notwithstanding, Pompey at that time had a greater number of soldiers then 178 Caesar: but they would never let him follow his own determination. For they brought him so many lies, and put so many examples of fear before him, as if Caesar had been already at their heels, and had won all: so that in the end he yielded unto them, and gave place to their fury and madness, determining (seeing all things in such tumult and garboil 179 that there was no way but to forsake the city; and thereupon commanded the Senate to follow him, and not a man to tarry there, unless he loved tyranny more than his own liberty and the commonwealth.

Thus the Consuls themselves, before they had done their common sacrifices accustomed 180 at their going out of the city, fled every man of them. So did likewise the most part of the senators, taking their own things in haste such as came first to hand, as if by stealth they had taken them from another. And there were some of them also that always loved Caesar, whose wits were then so troubled and besides 181 themselves with the fear they had conceived, that they also fled, and followed the stream of this tumult, without manifest cause or necessity. But above all things it was a lamentable sight to see the city itself, that in this fear and trouble was left at all adventure, as a ship tossed in storm of sea, forsaken of 182 her pilots and despairing of her safety. This their departure being thus miserable, yet men esteemed their banishment (for the love they bare unto Pompey) to be their natural country, and reckoned Rome no better than Caesar's camp.

Labienus forsook Caesar, and fled to Pompey.
At that time also Labienus, who was one of Caesar's greatest friends, and had been always used as his lieutenant in the wars of Gaul, and had valiantly fought in his cause, he likewise forsook him then, and fled unto Pompey. But Caesar sent his money and carriage 183 after him, and then went and encamped before the city of Corfinium, the which Domitius kept with thirty cohorts or ensigns. When Domitius saw he was besieged, he straight thought himself but undone; and despairing of his success, he bade a physician, a slave of his, give him poison. The physician gave him a drink, which he drank, thinking 184 to have died. But shortly after, Domitius hearing them report what clemency and wonderful courtesy Caesar used unto them he took, repented him then that he had drunk this drink, and began to lament and bewail his desperate resolution taken to die. The physician did comfort him again, and told him that he had taken a drink only to make him sleep, but not to destroy him.
Domitius escaped from Caesar, and fled to Pompey.
Then Domitius rejoiced, and went straight and yielded himself unto Caesar; who gave him his life, but he notwithstanding stole away immediately and fled unto Pompey. When these news were brought to Rome, they did marvellously rejoice and comfort them that still remained there: and moreover there were of 185 them that had forsaken Rome, which returned thither again.

In the meantime Caesar did put all Domitius' men in pay, and he did the like through all the cities, where he had taken any captains that levied men for Pompey. 30. Now Caesar, having assembled a great and dreadful power together, went straight where he thought to find Pompey himself.

Pompey flieth into Epirus.
But Pompey tarried not his coming, but fled into the city of Brundusium; from whence he had sent the two Consuls before, with that army he had, unto Dyrrachium: and he himself also went thither afterwards, when he understood that Caesar was come, as you shall hear more amply hereafter in his life. Caesar lacked no good will to follow him, but, wanting 186 ships to take the seas, he returned forthwith to Rome: so that in less than threescore days he was lord of all Italy, without any bloodshed. Who when he was come to Rome, and found it much quieter then he looked for, and many senators there also, he courteously intreated 187 them, and prayed them to send unto Pompey to pacify all matters between them, upon reasonable conditions. But no man did attempt it, either because they feared Pompey, for that they had forsaken him, or else for that they thought Caesar meant not as he spake, but that they were words of course 188 to colour 189 his purpose withal. And when Metellus also, one of the tribunes, would not suffer him to take any of the common treasure out of the temple of Saturn, but told him that it was against the law: "Tush," said he, " time of war, and law, are two 190 things. If this that I do,"
'Silent leges interarma.'
quoth he, "do offend thee, then get thee hence for this time: for war cannot abide this frank and bold speech. But when wars are done, and that we are all quiet again, then thou shalt speak in the pulpit what thou wilt: and yet I do tell thee this of favour, impairing so much my right; for thou art mine, both thou, and all them that have risen against me, and whom I have in my hands." When he had spoken thus unto Metellus,
Caesar taketh money out of the temple of Saturn.
he went to the temple-door where the treasure lay, and, finding no keys there, he caused smiths to be sent for, and made them break open the locks. Metellus thereupon began again to withstand him, and certain men that stood by praised him in his doing: but Caesar at length, speaking bigly to him, threatened him he would kill him presently, if he troubled him any more: and told him furthermore, "Young man," quoth he, " thou knowest it is harder for me to tell it thee, than to do it." That word made Metellus quake for fear, that he got him away roundly 191; and ever after that Caesar had all at his commandment for the wars.
Caesar's journey into Spain, against Pompey's lieutenants.

From thence he went into Spain, to make war with Petreius and Varro, Pompey's lieutenants: first to get their armies and provinces into his hands which they governed, that afterwards he might follow Pompey the better, leaving never an enemy behind him. In this journey he was oftentimes himself in danger through the ambushes that were laid for him in divers strange sorts and places, and likely also to have lost all his army for lack of victuals. All this notwithstanding, he never left 192 following of Pompey's lieutenants, provoking them to battle and intrenching them in, until he had gotten their camp and armies into his hands, albeit that the lieutenants themselves fled unto Pompey.

When Caesar returned again to Rome, Piso his father-in-law gave him counsel to send ambassadors unto Pompey, to treat for peace. But Isauricus, to flatter Caesar, was against it. 31.

Caesar Dictator.
Caesar being then created Dictator by the Senate, called home again all the banished men, and restored their children to honour, whose fathers before had been slain in Sylla's time: and did somewhat cut off the usuries that did oppress them; and besides, did make some such other ordinances as those, but very few. For he was Dictator but eleven days only, and then did yield it up of himself, and
Caesar and Isauricus Consuls.
made himself Consul with Servilius Isauricus, and after that determined to follow the wars. All the rest of his army he left, coming on the way, behind him, and went himself before with six hundred horse, and five legions only of footmen, in the winter quarter, about the month of January, which after the Athenians is called Posideon. Then having passed over the sea Ionium, and landed his men, he wan 193 the cities of Oricum and Apollonia. Then he sent his ships
Caesar goeth into the kingdoms of Epirus
back again unto Brundusium, to transport the rest of his soldiers that could not come with that speed he did. They, as they came by the way, (like men whose strength of body and lusty youth was decayed) being wearied with so many sundry battles as they had fought with their enemies, complained of Caesar in this sort:—
Complaints of the old soldiers against Caesar.
"To what end and purpose cloth this man hale 194 us after him, up and down the world, using us like slaves and drudges? It is not our armour, but our bodies that bear the blows away: and what, shall we never be without our harness 195 on our backs, and our shields on our arms? Should not Caesar think, at the least when he seeth our blood and wounds, that we are all mortal men, and that we feel the misery and pains that other men do feel? And now, even in the dead of winter, he putteth us unto the mercy of the sea and tempest, yea, which the gods themselves cannot withstand, as if he fled before his enemies and pursued them not." Thus spending time with this talk, the soldiers, still marching on, by small journeys came at length unto the city of Brundusium. But when they were come, and found that Caesar had already passed over the sea, then they straight 196 changed their complaints and minds. For they blamed themselves, and took on 197 also with their captains, because they had not made them make more haste in marching: and sitting upon the rocks and cliffs of the sea, they looked over the main sea, towards the realm of Epirus, to see if they could discern the ships returning back to transport them over.

Caesar in the mean time, being in the city of Apollonia, having but a small army to fight with Pompey, it grieved him for that the rest of his army was so long a-coming, not knowing what way to take.

A great adventure of Caesar.
In the end he followed a dangerous determination, to imbark 198 unknown in a little pinnace of 12 oars only, to pass over the sea again unto Brundusium, the which he could not do without great danger, considering that all that sea was full of Pompey's ships and armies. So he took ship in the night, apparelled like a slave, and went aboard upon this little pinnace, and said never a word, as if he had been some poor man of mean condition. The pinnace lay in the mouth of the
Anius fl.
river of Anius, the which commonly was wont to be very calm and quiet, by reason of a little wind that came from the shore, which every morning drave 199 back the waves far into the main sea. But that night (by ill fortune) there came a great wind from the sea, that overcame the landwind, insomuch as, the force and strength of the river fighting against the violence of the rage and waves of the sea, the encounter was marvellous dangerous, the water of the river being driven back and rebounding upward, with great noise and danger in turning of the water. Thereupon the master of the pinnace, seeing that he could not possibly get out of the mouth of this river, bade the mariners to cast about 200 again, and to return against the stream. Caesar hearing that, straight discovered himself unto the master of the pinnace, who at the first was amazed when he saw him; but Caesar then taking him by the hand, said unto him, " Good fellow, be of good cheer, and forwards hardily; fear not, for thou hast Caesar and his fortune with thee." Then the mariners, forgetting the danger of the storm they were in, laid on load 201 with oars, and laboured for life what they could against the wind, to get out of the mouth of this river. But at length, perceiving they laboured in vain, and that the pinnace took in abundance of water, and was ready to sink, Caesar then, to his great grief, was driven to return back again: who when he was returned unto his camp, his soldiers came in great companies unto him, and were very sorry that he mistrusted he was not able with them alone to overcome his enemies, but would put his person in danger to go fetch them that were absent, putting no trust in them that were present.

In the mean time Antonius arrived, and brought with him the rest of his army from Brundusium. 32.

Caesar's dangers and troubles in the realm of Epirus.
Then Caesar, finding himself strong enough, went and offered Pompey battle, who was passingly 202 well lodged for victualling of his camp both by sea and land. Caesar on the other side, who had no great plenty of victuals at the first, was in a very hard case: insomuch as his men gathered roots, and mingled them with milk, and eat 203 them. Furthermore, they did make bread of it also; and sometime when they skirmished with the enemies, and came along by them that watched and warded 204, they cast of 205 their bread into their trenches, and said that, as long as the earth brought forth such fruits, they would never leave besieging of Pompey. But Pompey straitly commanded them, that they should neither carry those words nor bread into their camp, fearing lest his men's hearts would fail them, and that they would be afraid when they should think of their enemies' hardness 206, with whom they had to fight, sith 207 they were weary with no pains, no more than brute beasts.
Caesar's army fled from Pompey.
Caesar's men did daily skirmish hard to the trenches of Pompey's camp, in the which Caesar had ever the better, saving once only, at which time his men fled with such fear, that all his camp that day was in great hazard to have been cast away. For Pompey came on with his battle upon them, and they were not able to abide it, but were fought with, and driven into their camp, and their trenches were filled with dead bodies, which were slain within the very gate and bulwarks of their camp, they were so valiantly pursued. Caesar stood before them that fled, to make them to turn head again, but he could not prevail. For when he would have taken the ensigns to have stayed them, the ensign-bearers threw them down on the ground: so that the enemies took two and thirty of them, and Caesar's self also escaped hardly with life. For, striking a great big soldier that fled by him, commanding him to stay 208 and turn his face to his enemy: the soldier, being afraid, lift 209 up his sword to strike at Caesar. But one of Caesar's pages, preventing 210 him, gave him such a blow with his sword that he strake 211 off his shoulder. Caesar that day was brought unto so great extremity, that (if Pompey had not either for fear, or spiteful fortune, left off to follow his victory, and retired into his camp, being contented to have driven his enemies into their camp) returning to his camp with his friends, he said unto them:
Caesar's words of Pompey's victory.
"The victory this day had been our enemies', if they had had a captain that could have told how to have overcome." So when he was come to his lodging, he went to bed, and
Caesar troubled in mind after his loss.
that night troubled him more than any night that ever he had. For still his mind ran with great sorrow of the foul fault he had committed in leading of his army, of self-will to remain there so long by the sea-side, his enemies being the stronger by sea, considering that he had before him a goodly country, rich and plentiful of all things, and goodly cities of Macedon and Thessaly: and had not the wit to bring the war from thence, but to lose his time in a place, where he was rather besieged of his enemies for lack of victuals than that he did besiege them by force of arms. Thus fretting and chafing to see himself so straighted 212 with 213 victuals, and to think of his ill luck he raised his camp, intending to go set upon 214 Scipio, making account, that either he should draw Pompey to battle against his will, when he had not the sea at his back to furnish him with plenty of victuals; or else that he should easily overcome Scipio, finding him alone, unless he were aided.
Pompey's determination for the war.

This remove of Caesar's camp did much encourage Pompey's army and his captains, who would needs in any case have followed after him, as though he had been overcome and had fled. But for Pompey himself, he would in no respect hazard battle, which was a matter of so great importance. For finding himself so well provided of all things necessary to tarry time, he thought it better to draw this war out in length by tract 215 of time, the rather to consume this little strength that remained in Caesar's army: of the which, the best men were marvellous well trained and good soldiers, and for valiantness at one day's battle were incomparable. But on the other side again, to remove here and there so oft, and to fortify their camp where they came, and to besiege any wall, or to keep watch all night in their armour: the most part of them could not do it, by reason of their age, being then unable to away with 216 their pains, so that the weakness of their bodies did also take away the life and courage of their hearts. Furthermore, there fell a pestilent disease among them, that came by ill meats hunger drave 217 them to eat. Yet was not this the worst: for besides, he had no store of money, neither could tell how to come by 218 victuals; so that it seemed, in all likelihood, that in very short time he would come to nothing.

For these respects Pompey would in no case fight, and yet had he but Cato only of his mind in that, who stuck 219 in it the rather, because he would avoid shedding of his countrymen's blood. For when Cato had viewed the dead bodies slain in the camp of his enemies at the last skirmish that was between them, the which were no less than a thousand persons, he covered his face, and went away weeping. All other 220 but he, contrarily 221, fell out with him, and blamed him because he so long refrained from battle: and some pricks him forward, and

Pompey called Agamemnon, and king of kings.
called him Agamemnon, and king of kings, saying that he delayed this war in this sort, because he would not leave his authority to command them all, and that he was glad always to see many captains round about him, which came to his lodging to honour him and wait upon him. And Faonius also, a hare-brained fellow, franticly counterfeiting the round 222 and plain speech of Cato, made as though he was marvellous angry, and said: " Is it not great pity, that we shall not eat this year of Tusculum figs, and all for Pompey's ambitious mind to reign alone?" and Afranius, who not long before was but lately come out of Spain (where, because he had but ill success, he was accused of treason, that for money he had sold his army unto Caesar), he went busily asking, " why they fought not with that merchant, unto whom they said he had sold the province of Spain? " So that Pompey, with these kinds of speeches, against his will, was driven to follow Caesar to fight with him. Then was Caesar at the first marvellously perplexed and troubled by the way, because he found none that would give him any victuals, being despised of every man for the late loss and overthrow he had received. But after he had taken the 223city of Gomphes in Thessaly, he did not only meet with plenty of victuals to relieve his army with, but he strangely also did rid them of their disease. For the soldiers meeting with plenty of wine, drinking hard, and making merry, crave away the infection of the pestilence. For they disposed themselves unto dancing, masking, and playing the Baccherians 224 by the way, insomuch that drinking drunk they overcame their disease, and made their bodies new again.

33. When they both came into the country of Pharsalia, and troth camps lay before each other, Pompey returned again to his former determination, and the rather, because he had ill signs and tokens of misfortune in his sleep.

Pompey's dream in Pharsalia.
For he thought in his sleep that, when he entered into the theatre, all the Romans received him with great clapping of hands*. Whereupon they that were about him grew to such boldness
The security of the Pompeians.
and security, assuring themselves of victory, that Domitius, Spinther, and Scipio in a bravery 225 contended between themselves for the chief bishopric which Caesar had. Furthermore, there were divers that sent unto Rome to hire the nearest houses unto the market-place, as being the fittest places for Praetors and Consuls: making their account already, that those offices could not scape them, incontinently 226 after the wars. But besides those, the young gentlemen and Roman knights were marvellous desirous to fight, that were bravely mounted, and armed with glistering 227 gilt armours, their horses fat and very finely kept, and themselves goodly young men, to the number of seven thousand, where the gentlemen of Caesar's side were but one thousand only. The number of his footmen 228 also were much after the same reckoning.
Pompey's army as great again as Caesar's.
For he had five and forty thousand against two and twenty thousand.

Wherefore Caesar called his soldiers together, and told them how Cornificius was at hand who brought two whole legions, and that he had fifteen ensigns led by Calenus, the which he made to stay about Megara and Athens. Then he asked them, if they would tarry for that aid or not, or whether they would rather themselves alone venture battle. The soldiers cried out to him, and prayed him not to defer battle, but rather to devise some fetch 229 to make the enemy fight as soon as he could. Then as he sacrificed unto the gods, for the purifying of his army, the first beast was no sooner sacrificed but his soothsayer assured him that he should fight within three days. Caesar asked him again, if he saw in the sacrifices any lucky sign or token of good luck. The soothsayer answered: " For that, thou shalt answer thyself better than I can do: for the gods do promise us a marvellous great change and alteration of things that are now, unto another clean contrary. For if thou beest well now, cost thou think to have worse fortune hereafter ? and if thou be ill, assure thyself thou shalt have better."

A wonder seen in the element, before the battle in Pharsalia.
The night before the battle, as he went about midnight to visit the watch, men saw a great firebrand in the element 230, ail of a light fire, that came over Caesar's camp, and fell down in Pompey's. In the morning also, when they relieved the watch, they heard a false alarm in the enemies' camp, without any apparent cause: which they commonly call a sudden fear, that makes men besides 231 themselves. This notwithstanding, Caesar thought not to fight that day, but was determined to have raised his camp from thence, and to have gone towards the city of Scotusa:

and his tents in his camp were already overthrown 232, when his scouts came in with great speed, to bring him news that his enemies were preparing, themselves to fight. Then was he very glad, and after he had made his prayers unto the gods to help him that day,

Caesar's army and his order of battle, in the fields of Pharsalia.
he set his men in battle ray 233, and divided them into three squadrons, giving the middle battle 234 unto Domitius Calvinus, and the left wing unto Antonius, and placed himself in the right wing, choosing his place to fight in the tenth legion. But seeing that against that his enemies had set all their horsemen, he was half afraid when he saw the great number of them, and so brave besides. Wherefore he closely 235 made six ensigns to come from the rereward 236 of his battle, whom he had laid as an ambush behind his right wing, having first appointed his soldiers what they should do when the horsemen of the enemies came to give them charge.
Pompey's army and his order of battle.
On the other side Pompey placed himself in the right wing of his battle, gave the left wing unto Domitius, and the middle battle unto Scipio his father-inlaw. Now all the Roman knights (as we have told you before) were placed in the left wing, of purpose 237 to environ Caesar's right wing behind, and to give their hottest charge there, where the general of their enemies was: making their account, that there was no squadron of footmen, how thick soever they were, that could receive the charge of so great a troop of horsemen, and that at the first onset they should overthrow them all, and march upon their bellies. When the trumpets on either side did sound the alarm to the battle, Pompey commanded his footmen that they should stand still without stirring, to receive the charge of their enemies, until they came to throwing of their darts.
An ill counsel and foul fault of Pompey.
Wherefore Caesar afterwards said, that Pompey had committed a foul fault, not to consider that the charge which is given running with fury, besides that it giveth the more strength also unto their blows, cloth set men's hearts also on fire: for the common hurling 238 of all the soldiers that run together, is unto them as a box on the ear that sets men on fire. Then Caesar, making his battle 239 march forward to give the onset, saw one of his captains (a valiant man, and very skilful in war, in whom he had also great confidence) speaking to his soldiers that he had under his charge, encouraging them to fight like men that day. So he called him aloud by his name, and said unto him: "Well, Caius Crassinius, what hope shall we have to-day? how are we determined, to fight it out manfully? " Then Crassinius, casting up his hand, answered him aloud: "This day, O Caesar, we I shall have a noble victory, and I promise thee ere night thou shalt praise me alive or dead." When he had told him so, he was himself the foremost man that gave charge upon his enemies, with his band following of him, being about six score men; and making a lane through the foremost ranks with great slaughter, he entered far into the battle of his enemies, until that, valiantly fighting in this sort, he was thrust in at length into the mouth with a sword, that the point of it came out again at his neck.
The battle in the fields of Pharsalia.

Now the footmen of both battles being come to the sword, the horsemen of the left wing of Pompey did march as fiercely also, spreading out their troops, to compass in the right wing of Caesar's battle. But before they began to give charge, the six ensigns of footmen which Caesar had laid in ambush behind him, they began to run full upon them, not throwing away their darts far off, as they were wont to do, neither striking their enemies on the thighs nor on the legs, but to seek to hit them full in the eyes, and to hurt them in the face, as Caesar had taught them.

Caesar's strategem.
For he hoped that these lusty young gentlemen that had not been often in the wars nor were used to see themselves hurt, and the which, being in the prime of their youth and beauty, would be afraid of those hurts, as well for the fear of the present danger to be slain, as also for that their faces should not for ever be deformed. As indeed it came to pass, for they could never abide that they should come so near their faces with the points of their darts, but hung down their heads for fear to be hit with them in their eyes, and turned their backs, covering their face because they should not be hurt. Then, breaking of themselves 240, they began at length cowardly to fly, and were occasion also of the loss of all the rest of Pompey's army. For they that had broken them ran immediately to set upon the squadron of the footmen behind, and slew them. Then Pompey, seeing his horsemen, from the other wing of his battle, so scattered and dispersed, flying away,
Caesar overcometh Pompey.
forgat that he was any more Pompey the Great, which he had been before, but was rather like a man whose wits the gods had taken from him, being afraid and amazed with the slaughter sent from above, and so retired into his tent, speaking never a word, and sat there to see the end of this battle; until at the length all his army being overthrown and put to flight, the enemies came, and got up upon the rampiers 241 and defence of his camp, and fought hand to hand with them that stood to defend the same. Then as a man come to himself again, he spake but this only word: "What, even into our camp?" So in haste, casting off his coat-armour 242 and apparel of a general, he shifted him 243, and put on such as became his
Pompey's flight.
miserable fortune, and so stole out of his camp. Furthermore, what he did after this overthrow, and how he had put himself into the hands of the Egyptians' by whom he was miserably slain, we have set it forth at large in his life.

Then Caesar, entering into Pompey's camp, and seeing the bodies laid on the ground that were slain, and others also that were a-killing said, fetching a great sigh: "It was their own doing, and against my will. For Caius Caesar, after he had won so many famous conquests, and overcome so many great battles, had been utterly condemned notwithstanding, if he had departed from his army." Asinius Pollio writeth, that he spake these words then in Latin, which he afterwards wrote in Greek; and saith furthermore, that the most part of them which were put to the sword in the camp were slaves and bondmen, and that there were not slain in all this battle above six thousand soldiers. As for them that were taken prisoners, Caesar did put many of them amongst his legions, and did pardon also many men of estimation, among whom

Brutus that slew Caesar taken prisoner at the battle of Pharsalia.
Brutus was one, that afterwards slew Caesar himself: and it is reported that Caesar was very sorry for him, when he could not immediately be found after the battle, and that he rejoiced again when he knew he was alive, and that he came to yield himself unto him.

Caesar had many

Signs and tokens of Caesar's victory.
signs and tokens of victory before this battle, but the notablest of all other that happened to him, was in the city of Tralles. For in the temple of Victory, within the same city, there was an image of Caesar, and the earth all about it very hard of itself, and was paved besides with hard stone: and yet some say that there sprang up a palm hard by the base of the same image. In the city of Padua,
A strange tale of Cornelius an excellent pronosticator.
Caius Cornelius, an excellent soothsayer (a countryman and friend of Titus Livius the historiographer), was by chance at that time set to behold the flying of birds. He (as Livy reporteth) knew the very time when the battle began, and told them that were present, " Even now they give the onset on both sides, and both armies do meet at this instant." Then sitting down again, to consider of the birds, after he had bethought him of the signs, he suddenly rose up on his feet, and cried out as a man possessed with some spirit: " O Caesar, the victory is thine." Every man wondering to see him, he took the crown he had on his head, and made an oath that he would never put it on again, till the event of his prediction had proved his art true. Livy testifieth that it came so to pass.

Caesar afterwards giving freedom unto the Thessalians, in respect of the victory which he wan 244 in their country, he followed after Pompey. When he came into Asia, he gave freedom also unto the Guidians for Theopompus' sake, who had gathered the fables together. He did release Asia also the third part of the tribute which the inhabitants paid unto the Romans. Then he came into Alexandria after Pompey was slain: and detested Theodotus that presented him Pompey's head, and turned his head aside because he would not see it. Notwithstanding, he took his seal, and beholding it, wept.

Caesar's clemency in victory.
Furthermore, he courteously used all Pompey's friends and familiars, who wandering up and down the country, were taken of 245 the king of Egypt, and wan 246 them all to be at his commandment. Continuing these courtesies, he wrote unto his friends at Rome. that the greatest pleasure he took of his victory was, that he daily saved the lives of some of his countrymen that bare arms against him. 34.
The cause of Caesar's war in Alexandria.
And for the war he made in Alexandria, some say he needed not to have done it, but that he willingly did it for the love of Cleopatra: wherein he wan 247 little honour, and besides did put his person in great danger. Others do lay the fault Upon the king of Egypt's ministers, but specially on
Pothinus the eunuch caused Pompey to be slain.
Pothinus the eunuch, who bearing the greatest sway of all the king's servants, after he had caused Pompey to be slain, and driven Cleopatra from the court, secretly laid wait all the ways he could, how he might likewise kill Caesar. Wherefore Caesar, hearing an inkling 248 of it, began thenceforth to spend all the night long in feasting and banqueting, that his person might be in the better safety. But besides all this, Pothinus the eunuch spake many things openly, not to be borne, only to shame Caesar, and to stir up the people to envy him. For he made his soldiers have the worst and oldest wheat that could be gotten: then, if they did complain of it, he told them they must be contented, seeing they eat at another man's cost. And he would serve them also at the table in treen 249 and earthen dishes, saying, 'that Caesar had away all their gold and silver, for a debt that the king's father (that then reigned) did owe unto him :' which was a thousand seven hundred and fifty myriads 250; whereof Caesar had before forgiven seven hundred and fifty thousand unto his children. Howbeit then he asked a million to pay his soldiers withal Thereto Pothinus answered him, that at that time he should do better to follow his other causes of greater importance, and afterwards that he should at more leisure recover his debt, with the king's good will and favour. Caesar replied unto him, and said, that he would not ask counsel of the Egyptians for his affairs, but would be paid: and thereupon secretly sent for Cleopatra, which was in the country, to come unto him.

She, only taking Apollodorus Sicilian of all her friends,

Cleopatra came to Caesar.
took a little boat, and went away with him in it in the night, and came and landed hard by the foot of the castle. Then having no other mean 251 to come into the court without being known,
Cleopatra trussed up in a mattress, and so brought to Caesar, upon Apollodorus' back.
she laid herself down upon a mattress or flockbed, which Apollodorus her friend tied and bound up together like a bundle with a great leather thong, and so took her upon his back and brought her thus hampered in this fardle 252 unto Caesar in at the castle gate. This was the first occasion (as it is reported) that made Caesar to love her: but afterwards, when he saw her sweet conversation 253 and pleasant entertainment, he fell then in further liking with her, and did reconcile her again unto her brother the king, with condition that they two jointly should reign together. Upon this new reconciliation, a great feast being prepared, a slave of Caesar's that was his barber, the fearfullest wretch that lived, still 254 busily prying and listening abroad in every corner, being mistrustful by nature, found that Pothinus and Achillas did lie in wait to kill his master Caesar. This being proved unto Caesar, he did set such sure watch about the hall, where the feast was made, that in fine 255 he slew the eunuch Pothinus himself. Achillas on the other side saved himself, and fled unto the king's camp, where he raised a marvellous dangerous and difficult war for Caesar: because he, having then but a few men about him, was to fight against a great and strong city. The first danger he fell into was the want of water: for that his enemies had stopped the mouth of the pipes, the which conveyed the water into the castle. The second danger he had was, that seeing his enemies came to take his ships from him, he was driven to repulse that danger with fire, the which burnt the arsenal where the ships lay, and
The great library of Alexandria burnt.
that notable library of Alexandria withal. The third danger was in the battle by sea, that was fought by the tower of Phars 256: where meaning 257 to help his men that fought by sea, he leapt from the pier into a boat. Then the Egyptians made towards him with their oars on every side: but he, leaping into the sea, with great hazard saved himself by swimming. It is said,
Caesar's swimming with books in his hands.
that then, holding divers books in his hand, he did never let them go, but kept them always upon his head above water, and swam with the other hand, notwithstanding that they shot marvellously at him, and was driven sometime to duck into the water: howbeit the boat was drowned presently 258. In fine, the king coming to his men that made war with Caesar, he went against him and gave him battle, and wan 259 it with great slaughter and effusion of blood. But for the king, no man could ever tell what became of him after.
Caesar made Cleopatra queen of Egypt.
Thereupon Caesar made Cleopatra his sister queen of Egypt, who, being great with child by him, was
Caesarion, Caesar's son, begotten of Cleopatra.
shortly brought to bed of a son, whom the Alexandrians named Caesarion.

35. From thence he went into Syria, and so going into Asia, there it was told him that Domitias was overthrown in battle by Pharnaces, the son of king Mithridates, and was fled out of the realm of Pont with a few men with him: and that this king Pharnaces, greedily following his victory, was not contented with the winning of Bithynia and Cappadocia, but further would needs attempt to win Armenia the less, procuring 260 all those kings, princes, and governors of the provinces thereabouts to rebel against the Romans. Thereupon Caesar went thither straight with three legions, and

Caesar's victory of king Pharnaces.
fought a great battle with king Pharnaces by the city of Zela, where he slew his army, and drave 261 him out of all the realm of Pont. And because he would advertise one of his friends of the suddenness of this victory,
Caesar writeth three words to certify his victory.
he only wrote three words unto Anitius at Rome: ""Veni, vidi, vici:" I came, I saw, I overcame." These three words, ending all with like sound and letter in the Latin, have a certain short grace more pleasant to the ear than can be well expressed in any other tongue.

After this he returned again into Italy and came to Rome, ending his year for the which he was made dictator the second time, which office before was never granted for one whole year, but 262 unto him. Then was he chosen consul for the year following. Afterwards he was very ill spoken of, for that his soldiers in a mutiny having slain two Praetors, Cosconius and Galba, he gave them no other punishment for it, but instead of calling them soldiers he named them citizens, and gave unto every one of them a thousand drachmas a man, and great possessions in Italy. He was much misliked also for the desperate parts 263 and madness of Dolabella, for the covetousness of Anitius, for the drunkenness of Antonius and Cornificius; which made Pompey's house be pulled down and builded up again, as a thing not big enough for him, wherewith the Romans were marvellously offended. Caesar knew all this well enough, and would have been contented to have redressed them: but to bring his matters to pass, he pretended he was driven to serve his turn by such instruments.


Caesar's journey into Africa against Cato and Scipio.
After the battle of Pharsalia, Cato and Scipio being fled into Africa, king joined with them, and levied a great puissant 264 army. Wherefore Caesar determined to make war with them: and, in the middest 265 of winter, he took his journey into Sicily. There, because he would take all hope from his captains and soldiers to make any long abode there, he went and lodged upon the very sands by the seaside, and with the next gale of wind that came, he took the sea with three thousand footmen and a few horsemen. Then having put them a land 266, unawares to them he hoised 267 sail again to fetch the rest of his army, being afraid lest they should meet with some danger in passing over; and meeting them midway, he brought them all into his camp. Where, when it was told him that his enemies trusted in an ancient oracle, which said, that it was predestined unto the family of the Scipios to be conquerors in Africa: either of purpose to mock Scipio, the general of his enemies, or otherwise 268, in good earnest, to take the benefit of this name (given by the oracle) unto himself, in all the skirmishes and battles fought, he gave the charge of his army unto a man of mean quality and account, called Scipio Salutius, who came of the race of Scipio African, and made him always general when he fought. For he was eftsoons 269 compelled to weary and harry his enemies, for that
Caesar's troubles in Africa.
neither his men in his camp had corn enough, nor the beasts forage, but the soldiers were driven to take sea-weeds, called
Alga and dog's-tooth given to the horse to eat.
Alga: and (washing away the brackishness thereof with fresh water, putting to it a little herb called dog's-tooth) to cast it so to their horse 270 to eat. For the Numidians (which are light horsemen, and very ready of service) being a great number together, would be on a sudden in every place, and spread all the fields over thereabout, so that no man durst peep out of the camp to go for forage.
Caesar's dangers in Africa.
And one day, as the men of arms were staying to behold an African doing notable things in dancing and playing with the flute (they being set down quietly to take their pleasure of the view thereof, having in the meantime given their slaves their horses to hold) the enemies stealing suddenly upon them, compassed them in round about, and slew a number of them in the field, and chasing the other also that fled, followed them pellmell into their camp. Furthermore, had not Caesar himself in person, and Asinius Pollio with him, gone out of the camp to the rescue and stayed them that fled, the war that day had been ended. There was also another skirmish where his enemies had the upper hand, in the which it is reported that Caesar, taking the ensign-bearer by the collar that carried the eagle in his hand, stayed him by force, and turning his face, told him: " See, there be thy enemies."

These advantages did lift up Scipio's heart aloft, and gave him courage to hazard battle: and leaving Afranius on the one hand of him, and king Juba on the other hand, both their camps lying near together, he did fortify himself by the city of Thapsacus, above the lake, to be a safe refuge for them all in this battle. But whilst he was busy intrenching of himself, Caesar, having marvellous speedily passed through a great country full of wood by by-paths which men would never have mistrusted 271: he stole upon some behind, and suddenly assailed the other before, so that he overthrew them all, and made them fly. Then following the first good hap he had, he went forthwith to set upon the camp of Afranius, the which he took at the first onset, and the camp of the Numidians also, king Juba being fled.

Caesar's great victory and small loss.
Thus in a little piece of the day only, he took three camps, and slew fifty thousand of his enemies, and lost but fifty of his soldiers. In this sort is set down the effect of this battle by some writers. Yet others do write also, that Caesar self was not there in person at the execution of this battle.
Caesar's trouble with the falling sickness.
For as he did set his men in battle ray 272, the falling sickness 273 took him, whereunto he was given; and therefore feeling it coming, before he was overcome withal, he was carried into a castle not far from thence where the battle was fought, and there took his rest till the extremity of his disease had left him. Now for 274 the Praetor and Consuls that scaped from this battle, many of them being taken prisoners did kill themselves, and others also Caesar did put to death:

but he being specially desirous of all men else to have Cato alive in his hands, he went with all possible speed unto the city of Utica, whereof Cato was governor, by means whereof 'he was not at the battle. Notwithstanding being certified by the way that Cato had slain himself with his own hands, he then made open show that he was very sorry for it, but why or wherefore, no man could tell. But this is true, that Caesar said at that present time:

Caesar was sorry for the death of Cato.
"O Cato, I envy thy death, because thou didst envy my glory to save thy life." This notwithstanding,
Caesar wrote against Cato being dead.
the book that he wrote afterwards against Cato, being dead, did shew no very great affection nor pitiful heart towards him. For how could he have pardoned him, if living he had had him in his hands, that being dead did speak so vehemently against him? Notwithstanding, men suppose he would have pardoned him, if he had taken him alive, by the clemency he shewed unto Cicero, Brutus, and divers others that had borne arms against him. Some report that he wrote that book, not so much for any private malice he had to his death, as for civil ambition, upon this occasion.
Cicero wrote a book in praise of Cato being dead.
Cicero had written a book in praise of Cato, which he entitled 'Cato.' This book in likelihood was very well liked of, by reason of the eloquence of the orator that made it, and of the excellent subject thereof Caesar therewith was marvellously offended, thinking that to praise him of whose death he was author was even so much as to accuse himself: and therefore he wrote a letter against him, and heaped up a number of accusations against Cato, and entitled the book 'Anticaton.' Both these books have favourers unto this day, some defending the one for the love they bear to Caesar, and others allowing 275the other for Cato's sake.

37. Caesar, being now returned out of Africa, first of all made an oration to the people wherein he greatly praised and commended this his last victory, declaring unto them that he had conquered so many countries unto the empire of Rome, that he could furnish the commonwealth yearly with two hundred thousand bushels of wheat, and twenty hundred thousand pound weight of oil. Then he made three triumphs, the one for Egypt, the other for the kingdom of Pont, and the third for Africa: not because he had overcome Scipio there, but

Juba, the son of king Juba, a famous historiographer.
king Juba. Whose son being likewise called Juba, being then a young boy, was led captive in the show of this triumph. But this his imprisonment fell out happily for him: for, where he was but a barbarous Numidian, by the study he fell unto when he was prisoner, he came afterwards to be reckoned one of the wisest historiographers of the Grecians. After these three triumphs ended, he very liberally rewarded his soldiers: and to curry favour with the people,
Caesar's feasting of the Romans.
he made great feasts and common sports. For he feasted all the Romans at one time, at two and twenty thousand tables, and gave them the pleasure to see divers sword-players to fight at the sharp 276, and battles also by sea, for the remembrance of his daughter Julia, which was dead long before. Then after all these sports,
The muster taken of the Romans.
he made the people (as the manner was) to be mustered: and where there were, at the last musters before, three hundred and twenty thousand citizens, at this muster there were only but a hundred and fifty thousand. Such misery and destruction had this civil war brought unto the commonwealth of Rome, and had consumed such a number of Romans, not speaking at all of the mischiefs and calamities it had brought unto all the rest of Italy, and to the other provinces pertaining to Rome.


Caesar Consul the fourth time.
After all these things were ended, he was chosen Consul the fourth time, and went into Spain to make war with the sons of Pompey: who were yet but very young, but had notwithstanding raised a marvellous great army together, and shewed they had manhood and courage worthy to command such an army, insomuch as they put Caesar himself in great danger of his life.
Battle fought between Caesar and the young Pompeys, by the city of Munda.
The greatest battle that was fought between them in all this war, was by the city of Munda. For then Caesar, seeing his men sorely distressed, and having their hands full of their enemies, he ran into the prease 277 among his men that fought, and cried out unto them: "What, are ye not ashamed to be beaten and taken prisoners, yielding yourselves with your own hands to these young boys?"
Caesar's victory of the sons of Pompey.
And so, with all the force he could make, having with much ado put his enemies to flight, he slew above thirty thousand of them in the field, and lost of his own men a thousand of the best he had. After this battle he went into his tent and told his friends, that he had often before fought for victory, but, this last time now, that he had fought for the safety of his own life He wan 278 this battle on the very feast-day of the Bacchanalians, in the which men say that Pompey the Great went out of Rome, about four years before, to begin this civil war. For 279 his sons, the younger scaped from the battle; but, within few days after, Didius brought the head of the elder. This was the last war that Caesar made.
Caesar's triumph of Pompey's sons.
But the triumph he made into Rome for the same did as much offend the Romans, and more, than any thing that ever he had done before: because he had not overcome captains that were strangers, nor barbarous kings, but had destroyed the sons of the noblest man of Rome, whom fortune had overthrown. And because he had plucked up his race by the roots, men did not think it meet for him to triumph so for the calamities of his country, rejoicing at a thing for the which he had but one excuse to allege in his defence unto the gods and men, that he was compelled to do that he did. And the rather they thought it not meet, because he had never before sent letters nor messengers unto the commonwealth at Rome, for any victory that he had ever won in all the civil wars: but did always for shame refuse the glory of it.

39. This notwithstanding, the Romans, inclining to Caesar's prosperity and taking the bit in the mouth, supposing that to be ruled by one man alone, it would be a good mean 280 for them to take breath a little, after so many troubles and miseries as they had abidden 281 in these civil wars, they chose him perpetual Dictator.

Caesar Dictator perpetual.
This was a plain tyranny: for to this absolute power of Dictator, they added this, never to be afraid to be deposed. Cicero pronounced before the Senate, that they should give him such honours as were meet for amen: howbeit others afterwards added too honours beyond all reason. For men striving who should most honour him, they made him hateful and troublesome to themselves that most favoured him, by reason of the unmeasurable greatness and honours which they gave him. Thereupon it is reported, that even they that most hated him were no less favourers and furtherers of his honours than they that most flattered him,- because they might have greater occasions 282 to rise 283, and that it might appear they had just cause and colour 284 to attempt that they did against him. And now for himself, after he had ended his civil wars, he did so honourably behave himself, that there was no fault to be found in him: and therefore methinks, amongst other honours they gave him, he rightly deserved this, that
The temple of clemency dedicated unto Caesar, for his coutesy.
they should build him a temple of Clemency, to thank him for his courtesy he had used unto them in his victory. For he pardoned many of them that had borne arms against him, and furthermore, did prefer some of them to honour and office in the commonwealth: as, amongst others, 285Cassius and Brutus, both the which were made Praetors. And, where Pompey's images had been thrown down, he caused them to be set up again: whereupon Cicero said then, that, Caesar setting up Pompey's images again, he made his own to stand the surer. And when some of his friends did counsel him to have a guard for the safety of his person, and some also did offer themselves to serve him, he would never consent to it, but said:
Caesar;s saying of death.
"It was better to die once, than always to be afraid of death." But to
Goodwill of subjects, the best guard and safety for princes.
win himself the love and goodwill of the people, as the honourablest guard and best safety he could have, he made common feasts again and general distributions of corn. Furthermore, to gratify the soldiers also, he replenished many cities again with inhabitants, which before had been destroyed, and placed them there that had no place to repair unto: of the which the noblest and chiefest cities were these two, Carthage and Corinth: and it chanced also, that like as aforetime they had been both taken and destroyed together, even so were they both set on foot again, and replenished with people, at one self 286 time.

And as for greet personages, he wan 287 them also, promising some of them to make them Praetors and Consuls in time to come; and unto others honours and preferments: but to all men generally good hope, seeking all the ways he could to make every man contented with his reign. Insomuch as one of his Consuls called Maximus, chancing to die a day before his consulship ended, he

Caninius Rebilius consul for one day.
declared Caninius Rebilius Consul only for the day that remained. So, divers going to his house (as the manner was) to salute him, and to congratulate with him of his calling and preferment, being newly chosen officer, Cicero pleasantly said: "Come, let us make haste, and be gone thither before his consulship come out 288." Furthermore, Caesar being born to attempt all great enterprises, and having an ambitious desire besides to covet great honours, the prosperous good success he had of his former conquests bred no desire in him quietly to enjoy the fruits of his labours; but rather gave him the hope of things to come, still kindling more and more in him thoughts of greater enterprises and desire of new glory, as if that which he had present were stale and nothing worth. This humour of his was no other but an emulation with himself as with another man, and a certain contention to overcome the things he prepared to attempt. For he was determined, and made preparation also, to make war with the Persians. Then, when he had overcome them, to pass through Hyrcania (compassing in the sea Caspium, and mount Caucasus) into the realm of Pontus, and so to invade Scythia: and, overrunning all the countries and people adjoining unto high Germany, and Germany itself, at length to return by Gaul into Italy, and so to enlarge the Roman empire round, that it might be every way compassed in with the great sea Oceanum. But whilst he was preparing for this voyage, he attempted to cut the bar of the straight 289 of Peloponnesus, in the market-place where the city of Corinth standeth. Then he was minded to bring the
Anienes, Tiber flu.
rivers of Anienes and Tiber straight from Rome unto the city of Circees 290, with a deep channel and high banks cast up on either side, and so to fall into the sea at Terracina, for the better safety and commodity of the merchants that came to Rome to traffic there. Furthermore, he determined to drain and sew 291 all the water of the marishes 292 betwixt the cities of Nomentum and Setium, to make firm land, for the benefit of many thousands of people: and on the sea-coast next unto Rome, to cast great high banks, and to cleanse all the haven about Ostia of rocks and stones hidden under the water, and to take away all other impediments that made the harborough 293 dangerous for ships, and to make new havens and arsenals meet to harbour such ships as did continually traffic thither. All these things were purposed to be done, but took no effect.


Caesar reformed the inequality of the year.
But the ordinance 294 of the calendar, and reformation of the year, to take away all confusion of time, being exactly calculated by the mathematicians and brought to perfection, was a great commodity unto all men. For the Romans, using then the ancient computation of the year, had not only such uncertainty and alteration of the month and times, that the sacrifices and yearly feasts came, by little and little, to seasons contrary for the purpose they were ordained: but also, in the revolution of the sun (which is called Annus Solaris) no other nation agreed with them in account: and, of the Romans themselves, only the priests understood it. And therefore when they listed 295, they suddenly (no man being able to control them) did thrust in a month above their ordinary number, which they called in old time Mercedonius 296. Some say that Numa Pompilius was the first that devised this way, to put a month between: but it was a weak remedy, and did little help the correction of the errors that were made in the account of the year, to frame 297 them to perfection. But Caesar, committing this matter unto the philosophers and best expert mathematicians at that time, did set forth an excellent and perfect calendar, more exactly calculated than any other that was before: the which the Romans do use until this present day, and do nothing 298 err as others in the difference of time. But his enemies notwithstanding, that envied his greatness, did not stick to find fault withal. As Cicero the orator, when one said, "to-morrow the star Lyra will rise :" "Yea," said he, "at the commandment of Caesar;" as if men were compelled so to say and think by Caesar's edict.
Why Caesar was hated.

But the chiefest cause that made him mortally hated was the covetous desire he had to be called king: which first gave the people just cause, and next his secret enemies honest colour 299, to bear him ill-will. This notwithstanding, they that procured him this honour and dignity gave it out among the people that it was written in the Sybilline prophecies, 'how the Romans might overcome the Parthians, if they made war with them and were led by a king, but otherwise that they were unconquerable.' And furthermore they were so bold besides, that, Caesar returning to Rome from the city of Alba, when they came to salute him, they called him king. But the people being offended, and Caesar also angry, he said he was not called king, but Caesar. Then every man keeping silence, he went his way heavy and sorrowful. When they had decreed divers honours for him in the Senate, the Consuls and Praetors, accompanied with the whole assembly of the Senate, went unto him in the marketplace, where he was set by the pulpit for orations, to tell him what honours they had decreed for him in his absence. But he, sitting still in his majesty, disdaining to rise up unto them when they came in, as if they had been private men, answered them: 'that his honours had more need to be cut off than enlarged.' This did not only offend the Senate but the common people also, to see that he should so lightly esteem of the magistrates of the commonwealth: insomuch as every man that might lawfully go his way departed thence very sorrowfully. Thereupon also Caesar rising departed home to his house, and tearing open his doublet-collar, making his neck bare, he cried out aloud to his friends, 'that his throat was ready to offer to any man that would come and cut it.' Notwithstanding it is reported, that afterwards, to excuse his folly, he imputed it to his disease, saying, 'that their wits are not perfit 300 which have this disease of the falling evil 301, when standing on their feet they speak to the common people, but are soon troubled with a trembling of their body, and a sudden dimness and giddiness.' But that was not true, for he would have risen up to the Senate, but Cornelius Balbus one of his friends (or rather a flatterer) would not let him, saying: "What, do you not remember that you are Caesar, and will you not let them reverence you and do their duties?"

41. Besides these occasions 302 and offences, there followed also his shame and reproach, abusing the tribunes of the people in this sort.

The feast of Lupercalia.
At that time the feast Lupercalia was celebrated, the which in old time men say was the feast of shepherds or herdmen, and is much like unto the feast of the Lycaens in Arcadia. But howsoever it is, that day there are divers noblemen's sons, young men, (and some of them magistrates themselves that govern then), which run naked through the city, striking in sport them they meet in their way with leather thongs, hair and all on, to make them give place 303. And many, noblewomen and gentlewomen also go of purpose to stand in their way, and do put forth their hands to be stricken, as scholars hold them out to their schoolmaster to be stricken with the ferula 304: persuading themselves that, being with child, they shall have good delivery; and so, being barren, that it will make them to conceive with child. Caesar sat to behold that sport upon the pulpit for orations, in a chain of gold, apparelled in triumphant manner.
Antonius, being Consul, was one of the Lupercalians.
Antonius, who was Consul at that time, was one of them that ran this holy course. So when he came into the market-place, the people made a lane for him to run at liberty, and he came to Caesar, and
Antonius presented the diadem to Caesar.
presented him a diadem wreathed about with laurel. Whereupon there rose a certain cry of rejoicing, not very great, done only by a few appointed for the purpose. But when Caesar refused the diadem, then all the people together made an outcry of joy. Then Antonius offering it him again, there was a second shout of joy, but yet of a few. But when Caesar refused it again the second time, then all the whole people shouted. Caesar having made this proof, found that the people did not like of it, and thereupon rose out of his chair, and commanded the crown to be earned unto Jupiter in the Capitol. After that, there were set up images of Caesar in the city, with diadems upon their heads like kings. Those the two tribunes, Flavius and Marullus, went and pulled down, and furthermore, meeting with them that first saluted Caesar as king, they committed them to prison. The people followed them rejoicing at it, and called them Brutes, because of Brutus, who had in old time driven the kings out of Rome, and that brought the kingdom of one person unto government of the Senate and people. Caesar was so offended withal, that he deprived Marullus and Flavius of their tribuneships, and accusing them, he spake also against the people, and called them Bruti and Cumani, to wit, beasts and fools.

42. Hereupon the people went straight unto Marcus Brutus, who from his father came of the first Brutus, and by his mother of the house of the Servilians, a noble house as any was in Rome, and was also nephew and son-in-law of Marcus Cato. notwithstanding, the great honours and favour Caesar shewed unto him kept him back that of himself alone he did not conspire nor consent to depose him of his kingdom.

Caesar saved Brutus' life, after the battle of Pharsalia.
For Caesar did not only save his life after the battle of Pharsalia, when Pompey fled, and did at his request also save many mo 305 of his friends besides: but furthermore, he put a marvellous confidence in him. For he had already preferred him to the Praetorship for that year, and furthermore was appointed to be Consul the fourth year after that, having through Caesar's friendship obtained it before Cassius, who likewise made suit for the same: and Caesar also, as it is reported, said in this contention, "indeed Cassius hath alleged best reason, but yet shall he not be chosen before Brutus." Some one day accusing
Brutus conspireth against Caesar.
Brutus while he practised 306 this conspiracy, Caesar would not hear of it, but, clapping his hand on his body, told them, "Brutus will look for this skin :" meaning thereby, that Brutus for his virtue deserved to rule after him, but yet that, for ambition's sake, he would not shew himself unthankful or dishonourable. Now they that desired change, and wished Brutus only their prince and governor above all other, they durst not come to him themselves to tell him what they would have him to do, but in the night did cast sundry papers into the Praetor's seat, where he gave audience, and the most of them to this effect: "Thou sleepest, Brutus, and art not Brutus indeed."
Cassius stireth up Bruteth against Caesar.
Cassius, finding Brutus' ambition stirred up the more by these seditious bills 307, did prick 308 him forward and egg him on 309 the more, for a private quarrel he had conceived against Caesar: the circumstance whereof we have set down more at large in Brutus' life. Caesar also had Cassius in great jealousy, and suspected him much: whereupon he said on a time to his friends, "what will Cassius do, think ye? I like not his pale looks." Another time when Caesar's friends complained unto him of Antonius and Dolabella, that they pretended 310 some mischief towards him: he answered them again, "As for those fat men and smooth-combed heads,' quoth he, " l never reckon of them; but these pale-visaged and carrionlean people, I fear them most," meaning Brutus and Cassius.

43. Certainly destiny may easier be foreseen than avoided, considering the strange and wonderful signs that were said to be seen before Caesar's death. For, touching the fires in the element 311, and spirits running up and down in the night, and also

Predictions and foreshews of Caesar's death.
the solitary birds to be seen at noondays sitting in the great market-place, are not all these signs perhaps worth the noting, in such a wonderful chance as happened? But Strabo the philosopher writeth, that divers men were seen going up and down in fire: and furthermore, that there was a slave of the soldiers that did cast a marvellous burning flame out of his hand, insomuch as they that saw it thought he had been burnt; but when the fire was out, it was found he had no hurt. Caesar self 312 also doing sacrifice unto the gods, found that one of the beasts which was sacrificed had no heart: and that was a strange thing in nature, how a beast could live without a heart. Furthermore there was a certain
Caesar's day of his death prognosticated by a soothsayer.
soothsayer that had given Caesar warning long time afore, to take heed of the day of the Ides of March, (which is the fifteenth of the month), for on that day he should be in great danger. That day being come, Caesar going unto the Senate-house, and speaking merrily unto the soothsayer, told him, "the Ides of March be come :" " so they be," softly answered the soothsayer, " but yet are they not past." And the very day before, Caesar, supping with Marcus Lepidus, sealed certain letters, as he was wont to do, at the board: so, talk falling out amongst them, reasoning what death was best, he, preventing 313 their opinions, cried out aloud, " death unlooked for." Then going to bed the same night, as his manner was, and lying with his wife Calpurnia, all the windows and doors of his chamber flying open, the noise awoke him, and made him afraid when he saw such light: but more, when he heard his wife Calpurnia, being fast asleep, weep and sigh, and put forth many fumbling 314 lamentable speeches: for
The dream of Calpurnia, Caesar's wife.
she dreamed that Caesar was slain, and that she had him in her arms. Others also do deny that she had any such dream, as, amongst other, Titus Livius writeth that it was in this sort: the Senate having set upon the top of Caesar's house, for an ornament and setting forth 315 a of the same, a certain pinnacle, Calpurnia dreamed that she saw it broken down, and that she thought she lamented and wept for it. Insomuch that, Caesar rising in the morning, she prayed him, if it were possible, not to go out of the doors that day, but to adjourn the session of the Senate until another day. And if that he made no reckoning of her dream, yet that he would search further of the soothsayers by their sacrifices, to know what should happen him that day. Thereby it seemed that Caesar likewise did fear or suspect somewhat, because his wife Calpurnia until that time was never given to any fear and superstition: and that then he saw her so troubled in mind with this dream she had. But much more afterwards, when the soothsayers having sacrificed many beasts one after another, told him that none did like 316 them: then he determined to send Antonius to adjourn the session of the Senate.


Decius Brutus Albinus' persuasion to Caesar.
But in the mean time came Decius Brutus, surnamed Albinus, in whom Caesar put such confidence, that in his last will and testament he had appointed him to be his next heir, and yet was of the conspiracy with Cassius and Brutus: he, fearing that if Caesar did adjourn the session that day, the conspiracy would be betrayed, laughed at the soothsayers, and reproved Caesar, saying, " that he gave the Senate occasion to mislike with him, and that they might think he mocked them, considering that by his commandment they were assembled, and that they were ready willingly to grant him all things, and to proclaim him king of all his provinces of the Empire of Rome out of Italy, and that he should wear his diadem in all other places both by sea and land. And furthermore, that if any man should tell them from him they should 317 depart for that present time, and return again when Calpurnia should have better dreams, what would his enemies and ill-willers 318 say, and how could they like of 319 his friends' words? And who could persuade them otherwise, but that they would think his dominion a slavery unto them and tyrannical in himself? And yet if it be so," said he, "that you utterly mislike 320 of this day, it is better that you go yourself in person, and, saluting the Senate, to dismiss them till another time." Therewithal
Decius Brutus brought Caesar unto the Senate house.
he took Caesar by the hand, and brought him out of his house. Caesar was not gone far from his house, but a bond-man, a stranger, did what he could to speak with him: and when
The tokens of conspiracy against Caesar.
he saw he was put back by the great press and multitude of people that followed him, he went straight into his house, and put himself into Calpurnia's hands, to be kept till Caesar came back again, telling her that he had greater matters to impart unto him.

And one Artemidorus also, born in the isle of Cnidos, a doctor of rhetoric in the Greek tongue, who by means of his profession was very familiar with certain of Brutus' confederates, and therefore knew the most part of all their practices 321 against Caesar, came and brought him a little bill 322, written with his own hand, of all that he meant to tell him. He, marking how Caesar received all the supplications that were offered him, and that he gave them straight 323 to his men that were about him, pressed nearer to him, and said: " Caesar, read this memorial to yourself, and that quickly, for they be matters of great weight, and touch you nearly." Caesar took it of him, but could never read it, though he many times attempted it, for the number of people that did salute him: but holding it still in his hand, keeping it to himself, went on withal into the Senate-house. Howbeit others are of opinion, that it was some man else that gave him that memorial, and not Artemidorus, who did what he could all the way as he went to give it Caesar, but he was always repulsed by the people.

For these things, they may seem to come by chance; but

The place where Caesar was slain.
the place where the murther 324 was prepared, and where the Senate were assembled, and where also there stood up an image of Pompey dedicated by himself amongst other ornaments which he gave unto the theatre, all these were manifest proofs, that it was the ordinance of some god that made this treason to be executed, specially in that very place. It is also reported, that Cassius (though otherwise he did favour the doctrine of Epicurus) beholding the image of Pompey, before they entered into the action of their traitorous enterprise, he did softly call upon it to aid him: but the instant danger of the present time, taking away his former reason, did suddenly put him into a furious passion, and made him like a man half besides 325 himself.
Antonius, Caesar's faithful friend.
Now Antonius, that was a faithful friend to Caesar, and a valiant man besides of his hands, him Decius Brutus Albinus entertained out of the Senate-house, having begun a long tale of set purpose. So Caesar coming into the house, all the Senate stood up on their feet to do him honour. Then part of Brutus' company and confederates stood round about Caesar's chair, and part of them also came towards him, as though they made suit with Metellus Cimber, to call home his brother again from banishment: and thus prosecuting still their suit, they followed Caesar till he was set in his chair. Who denying their petitions, and being offended with them one after another, because the more they were denied the more they pressed upon him and were the earnester with him, Metellus at length, taking his gown with both his hands, pulled it over his neck, which was the sign given the confederates to set upon him.
Casca the first that struck at Caesar.
Then Casca, behind him, strake 326 him in the neck with his sword; howbeit the wound was not great nor mortal, because it seemed the fear of such a devilish attempt did amaze him and take his strength from him, that he killed him not at the first blow. But Caesar, turning straight unto him, caught hold of his sword and held it hard; and they both cried out, Caesar in Latin: " O vile traitor Casca, what doest thou?" and Casca, in Greek, to his brother: "Brother, help me." At the beginning of this stir, they that were present, not knowing of the conspiracy, were so amazed with the horrible sight they saw, they had no power to fly, neither to help him, nor so much as once to make an outcry. They on the other side that had conspired his death compassed him in on every side with their swords drawn in their hands, that Caesar turned him no where but he was stricken at by some, and still had naked swords in his face, and was hackled 327 and mangled among them, as a wild beast taken of 328 hunters. For it was agreed among them that every man should give him a wound, because all their parts should be in this murther 329: and then Brutus himself gave him one wound about his privities. Men report also, that Caesar did still defend himself against the rest, running every way with his body: but when he saw Brutus with his sword drawn in his hand, then he pulled his gown over his head, and made no more resistance, and was driven either casually or purposedly 330, by the counsel of the conspirators, against the base whereupon Pompey's image stood, which ran all of 331 a gore-blood till he was slain. Thus it seemed that the image took just revenge of Pompey's enemy, being thrown down on the ground at his feet, and yielding up the ghost there, for the number of wounds he had upon him. For it is reported,
Caesar slain, and had 23 wounds upon him.
that he had three and twenty wounds upon his body: and divers of the conspirators did hurt themselves, striking one body with so many blows.

45. When Caesar was slain, the Senate (though Brutus stood in the middest 332 amongst them, as though he would have said something touching this fact 333) presently ran out of the house, and flying, filled all the city with marvellous fear and tumult. Insomuch as some did shut to the doors, others forsook their shops and warehouses, and others ran to the place to see what the matter was: and others also that had seen it ran home to their houses again. But Antonius and Lepidus, which were two of Caesar's chiefest friends, secretly conveying themselves away, fled into other men's houses and forsook their own. Brutus and his confederates on the other side, being yet hot with this murther 334 they had committed, having their swords drawn in their hands, came all in a troup together

The murderers of Caesar do go to the market-place.
out of the Senate and went into the market-place, not as men that made countenance to fly, but otherwise boldly holding up their heads like men of courage, and called to the people to defend their liberty, and stayed to speak with every great personage whom they met in their way. Of them, some followed this troup and went amongst them, as if they had been of the conspiracy, and falsely challenged 335 part of the honour with them: amongst them was Caius Octavius and Lentulus Spinther. But both of them were afterwards put to death for their vain covetousness of honour, by Antonius and Octavius Caesar the younger; and yet had no part of that honour for the which they were both put to death, neither did any man believe that they were any of the confederates or of counsel with them. For they that did put them to death took revenge rather of the will they had to offend than of any fact 336 they had committed. The next morning, Brutus and his confederates came into the market-place to speak unto the people, who gave them such audience, that it seemed they neither greatly reproved nor allowed 337 the fact 338: for by their great silence they shewed that they were sorry for Caesar's death, and also that they did reverence Brutus. Now the Senate granted general pardon for all that was past; and, to pacify every man, ordained besides,
Caesar's funerals.
that Caesar's funerals should be honoured as a god, and established all things that he had done, and gave certain provinces also and convenient honours unto Brutus and his confederates, whereby every man thought all things were brought to good peace and quietness again.

But when they had opened Caesar's testament 339, and found a liberal legacy of money bequeathed unto every citizen of Rome, and that they saw his body (which was brought into the market-place) all bemangled 340 with gashes of swords, then there was no order to keep the multitude and common people quiet, but they plucked up forms, tables, and stools, and laid them all about the body, and setting them afire, burnt the corset Then when the fire was well kindled, they took the fire-brands, and went unto their houses that had slain Caesar, to set them afire. Others 341 also ran up and down the city to see if they could meet with any of them, to cut them in pieces: howbeit they could meet with never a man of them, because they had locked themselves up safely in their houses.

Cinna's dream of Caesar.
There was one of Caesar's friends called Cinna, that had a marvellous strange and terrible dream the night before. He dreamed that Caesar bad 342 him to supper, and that he refused and would not go: then that Caesar took him by the hand, and led him against his will. Now Cinna, hearing at that time that they burnt Caesar's body in the market-place, notwithstanding that he feared his dream, and had an ague on him besides, he went into the market-place to honour his funerals. When he came thither, one of the mean sort 343 asked him what his name was? He was straight called by his name. The first man told it to another, and that other unto another, so that it ran straight 344 through them all, that he was one of them that murthered 345 Caesar: (for indeed one of the traitors to Caesar was also called Cinna as himself) wherefore taking him for Cinna the murtherer 346,
The murder of Cinna.
they fell upon him with such fury that they presently 347 dispatched him in the market-place. This stir and fury made Brutus and Cassius more afraid than of all that was past, and therefore within few days after they departed out of Rome: and touching their doings afterwards, and what calamity they suffered till their deaths, we have written it at large in the life of Brutus.
Caesar 56 years old at his death.

Caesar died at six and fifty years of age, and Pompey also lived not passing four years more than he. So he reaped no other fruit of all his reign and dominion, which he had so vehemently desired all his life and pursued with such extreme danger, but a vain name only and a superficial glory, that procured him the envy and hatred of his country. 46.

The revenge of Caesar's death.
But his great prosperity and good fortune that favoured him all his lifetime, did continue afterwards in the revenge of his death, pursuing the murtherers 348 both by sea and land, till they had not left a man more to be executed, of all them that were actors or counsellers in the conspiracy of his death.
Cassius being overthrown at the battle of Philippes slew himself with the selfsame sword, wherewith he struck Caesar.
Furthermore, of all the chances that happen unto men upon the earth, that which came to Cassius above all other, is most to be wondered at: for he, being overcome in battle at the journey of Philippes, slew himself with the same sword with the which he strake 349 Caesar.
Wonders seen in the elements after Caesar's death.
Again, of signs in the element 350, the great comet, which seven nights together was seen very bright after Caesar's death, the eighth night after was never seen more. Also the brightness of the sun was darkened, the which all that year through rose very pale and shined 351 not out, whereby it gave but small heat: therefore the air being very cloudy and dark, by the weakness of the heat that could not come forth, did cause the earth to bring forth but raw and unripe fruit, which rotted before it could ripe 352. But above all, the ghost that appeared unto Brutus shewed plainly, that the gods were offended with the murther 353 of Caesar.
Brutus' vision.
The vision was thus: Brutus being ready to pass over his army from the city of Abydos to the other coast lying directly against it, slept every night (as his manner was) in his tent; and being yet awake, thinking of his affairs (for by report he was as careful a captain and lived with as little sleep as ever man did) he thought he heard a noise at his tent-door, and looking towards the light of the lamp that waxed very dim,
A spirit appeared unto Brutus.
he saw a horrible vision of a man, of a wonderful greatness and dreadful look, which at the first made him marvellously afraid. But when he saw that it did him no hurt, but stood by his bed-side and said nothing; at length he asked him what he was. The image answered him: "I am thy ill angel, Brutus, and thou shalt see me by the city of Philippes." Then Brutus replied again, and said, "Well, I shall see thee then." Therewithal the spirit presently 354 vanished from him. After that time Brutus, being in battle near unto the city of Philippes against Antonius and Octavius Caesar, at the first battle he wan 355 the victory, and overthrowing all them that withstood him, he drave 356 them into young Caesar's camp, which he took.
The second appearing of the spirit unto Brutus.
The second battle being at hand, this spirit appeared again unto him, but spake never a word. Thereupon Brutus, knowing that he should die, did put himself to all hazard in battle, but yet fighting could not be slain. So seeing his men put to flight and overthrown, he ran unto a little rock not far off, and there setting his sword's point to his breast, fell upon it and slew himself; but yet, as it is reported, with the help of his friend that despatched him.

1 vacant.

2 scarcely.

3 perceive.

4 isle.

5 as it were.

6 cared.

7 at once.

8 anchor.

9 island.

10 as for.

11 isle.

12 won.

13 expected.

14 fail.

15 it was evident.

16 Cicero's judgement of Caesar.

17 whereas

18 because.

19 whereas.

20 cheaply.

21 expenses.

22 won.

23 height.

24 kindred.

25 boldly.

26 place.

27 Finally.

28 XXX

29 betray.

30 convicted.

31 indictment.

32 so decide.

33 surpassing.

34 free.

35 sums of 10,000 drachmea.

36 on the contrary.

37 strictly watched.

38 upon.

39 arrange.

40 greatest.

41 betrayed.

42 with.

43 at once.

44 indict.

45 about.

46 acquit.

47 older.

48 regiments.

49 arranged.

50 that is.

51 unluckily

52 citing.

53 strife.

54 undercover.

55 strife.

56 fortunate.

57 midst

58 opportunity.

59 drove.

60 hinder.

61 shield.

62 unbecoming.

63 affianced.

64 himself.

65 could not put up with.

66 first.

67 again.

68 lastly.

69 boarding.

70 shield.

71 won.

72 marsh

73 drove.

74 lost.

75 aboard.

76 hardship.

77 epilepsy.

78 continually.

79 employ.

80 asperagus.

81 salad-oil.

82 ate.

83 eaves.

84 to.

85 yielded not.

86 array.

87 fort.

88 scarcely.

89 The Rhine.

90 intended

91 since.

92 disagreed.

93 since.

94 stood against.

95 in no wise

96 perplexity.

97 contrive.

98 interchangeably.

99 won.

100 warned.

101 most warlike.

102 army.

103 troop.

104 expecting.

105 broke.

106 himself.

107 as it were.

108 in order.

109 as for instance

110 Rhine.

111 ask for.

112 nowise suspected.

113 therupon.

114 Rhine.

115 as it were.

116 to behold.

117 causing pass.

118 wonderfully

119 island.

120 habitable.

121 next to.

122 enrich.

123 from.

124 warned.

125 unstable.

126 more.

127 try.

128 at once.

129 ramparts.

130 in order that.

131 in place of them.

132 broke.

133 plotted.

134 hard of access.

135 marshes.

136 overflowed.

137 Some say, that this place is to be read in the Greek, προς τὸν Ἀραριν. which is, to the river of Soane.

138 assaults.

139 letter carrier.

140 courier.

141 sad.

142 Sequani.

143 himself.

144 endeavoring.

145 impregnable.

146 from without.

147 outside.

148 won

149 urgent.

150 glittering.

151 equipped.

152 trappings.

153 prevent.

154 despised.

155 since.

156 soon.

157 pretext, excuse.

158 prolong.

159 contrivance.

160 thwart.

161 passed not over.

162 Since

163 of

164 caused.

165 apparently.

166 impartially.

167 are wont.

168 drove.

169 opportunity.

170 excuse.

171 all together.

172 halted.

173 inclining.

174 The Greek useth this phrase of speech: Cast the die.

175 as it were.

176 boastful mood.

177 be anxious.

178 than.

179 turmoil.

180 usual.

181 beside.

182 by.

183 baggage.

184 expecting.

185 some of.

186 lacking.

187 treated.

188 formal expressions.

189 disguise.

190 ie. different.

191 speedily.

192 ceased from.

193 won

194 drag.

195 armour.

196 at once.

197 were angry.

198 embark.

199 drove.

200 turn around.

201 toiled hard.

202 exceedingly.

203 ate.

204 kept guard.

205 some of.

206 endurance.

207 since.

208 halt.

209 lifted.

210 anticipating.

211 struck.

212 straitened.

213 for.

214 go and attack.

215 length.

216 support.

217 drove.

218 obtain.

219 continued.

220 others.

221 on the other hand.

222 outspoken.

223 The city of Gomphes in Thessaly.

224 Bacchanalians.

225 bragging mood.

226 immediately.

227 glittering.

228 .

229 scheme.

230 sky

231 beside.

232 takn down.

233 array.

234 battalion.

235 secretly.

236 rear guard.

237 on purpose.

238 tumult.

239 battalion.

240 breaking of their ranks.

241 ramparts.

242 uniform.

243 changes his apparel.

244 won.

245 by

246 won.

247 won.

248 hint.

249 wooden.

250 sums of 10,000 pieces.

251 means.

252 bundle.

253 behavior.

254 continually.

255 finally.

256 Pharos lighthouse.

257 intending.

258 soon.

259 won.

260 persuading.

261 drove.

262 except.

263 disposition.

264 powerful.

265 midst.

266 on land.

267 hoisted.

268 else.

269 at once.

270 horses.

271 suspected.

272 array

273 epilepsy.

274 as regards.

275 approving.

276 with sharp weapons.

277 press, throng.

278 won.

279 as for.

280 means.

281 undergone.

282 reasons.

283 rebel.

284 pretext.

285 Cassius and Brutus Praetors.

286 same.

287 won.

288 come to an end.

289 strait, isthmus.

290 Circeii.

291 drain.

292 marshes.

293 harbour.

294 ordering.

295 pleased.

296 Mercedonius mensis intercalaris.

297 arrange.

298 in no way.

299 good reason.

300 perfect.

301 epilepsy.

302 causes of dislike.

303 draw back.

304 punishing bat.

305 more.

306 plotted.

307 letters.

308 spur.

309 incite him.

310 plotted.

311 sky.

312 himself.

313 anticipating.

314 rambling.

315 decoration.

316 satisfy.

317 were to.

318 evil-wishers.

319 approve of.

320 disapprove.

321 plots.

322 scroll.

323 at once.

324 murder.

325 beside.

326 struck.

327 hacked.

328 by

329 murder.

330 purposely.

331 with.

332 midst.

333 deed.

334 murder.

335 claimed.

336 act.

337 approved of.

338 act

339 will.

340 mangled.

341 others.

342 invited.

343 common people.

344 at once.

345 murdered.

346 murderer.

347 soon.

348 murderers

349 struck.

350 sky.

351 shone.

352 ripen.

353 murder.

354 at once.

355 won.

356 drove.

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