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Thou (apostrophized: “th'art:” Shr. IV, 4, 17. All's II, 4, 28. III, 6, 88. Tw. II, 3, 128. Cor. IV, 5, 100. Tim. I, 2, 34. II, 2, 58. IV, 3, 481 etc. M. Edd. thou'rt. O. Edd. thou'rt in Wint. I, 2, 211. Meas. I, 2, 33 etc. “th'hast,” Tim. IV, 3, 394. Lr. V, 3, 35. Lr. V, 3, 35 “th'hadst:” Tim. IV, 3, 309; M. Edd. thou hadst), objective case thee; personal pronoun of the second person in the singular number; oftener used than at present, as being the customary address from superiors to inferiors, and expressive, besides, of any excitement of sensibility; of familiar tenderness as well as of anger; of reverence as well as of contempt. (Thus the constant address of Venus to Adonis in Ven. is thou, of Adonis to Venus you. Tarquin and Lucrece, being both in a state of extreme emotion, constantly address each other with thou. The swaggering host in Wiv. uses thou to every body, as long as he is in his pride, but you, when he is crestfallen, Wiv. IV, 6, 6. In a solemn style even princes are addressed with “thou:” Err. V, 191. H5 IV, 7, 74. H8 V, 1, 162. Cymb. III, 1, 5; whereas Falstaff uses you even to Jove: Wiv. V, 5, 6. cf. Abbott's Shakespearian Grammar p. 153 sq.). Thou and you alternating: “for you, most wicked sir, . . . I do forgive thy rankest fault, and require my dukedom of thee,” Tp. V, 133. sir, by your leave; hast thou or word or wit etc. Meas. V, 368. “what is in you? why doest thou tear it?” LLL IV, 3, 200. “what wilt thou do? . . . get you in,” As I, 1, 80. “your father were a fool to give thee all,” Shr. II, 403. “you notorious villain, didst thou never see thy master's father?” V, 1, 54. “come you, my lord, to see my open shame? now thou dost penance too,” H6B II, 4, 20 (you in the first sentence preferred on account of the appellative 'my lord'). “seal you this league with thy embracements,” R3 II, 1, 29 (Qq thou; cf. “my peace we will begin,” Cymb. V, 5, 459). “thou wouldst be gone to join with Richmond; I will not trust you, sir,” IV, 4, 491 ('when the appellative sir is used, even in anger, thou generally gives place to you'. Abbott). “if you plead as well for them as I can say nay to thee for myself,” III, 7, 53. “you play the spaniel, . . . but whatsoever thou takest me for, thou hast a cruel nature,” H8 V, 3, 128. “you are kindly met, sir: fare thee well,” Tim. III, 2, 31. “if thou beest not immortal, look about you,” Caes. II, 3, 7. “as in the rest you said thou hast been godlike perfect,” Per. V, 1, 208 etc.
Joined with other words; with an adjective: “by cruel cruel thee quite overthrown,” Rom. IV, 5, 57. “good thou, save me a piece of marchpane,” I, 5, 9. With substantives in the vocative case: “thou dearest Perdita,” Wint. IV, 4, 40. “thou Icarus,” H6A IV, 6, 55. “fellow thou, awake,” Caes. IV, 3, 301. “thou drone, thou snail,” Err. II, 2, 196. “O thou thing,” Wint. II, 1, 82. “thou dotard,” II, 3, 74. “why, thou loss upon loss,” Merch. III, 1, 96. “thou unadvised scold,” John II, 191. “thou full dish of fool,” Troil. V, 1, 10. “thou disease of a friend,” Tim. III, 1, 56. Preceding and following terms of reproach (in O. Edd. without the comma employed by M. Edd.): “thou deboshed fish thou,” Tp. III, 2, 29. “thou jesting monkey thou,” Tp. III, 2, 29 “thou drunkard thou,” Err. III, 1, 10. “thou gaoler thou,” IV, 4, 112. “thou dissembler thou,” Ado V, 1, 53. “thou knave thou,” H4A III, 3, 141. H4A III, 3, 141 “thou thing of no bowels thou,” Troil. II, 1, 54. “I shall forestall thee, Lord Ulysses thou,” IV, 5, 230. “thou damnable box of envy thou,” V, 1, 29. thou tassel of a prodigal's purse thou, 36 etc.
Redundant after imperatives: “wipe thou thine eyes,” Tp. I, 2, 25. “know thou, for this I entertain thee,” Gent. IV, 4, 75. “follow thou thy desperate sire,” H6A IV, 6. 54 etc. As a dativus commodi: “although thou steal thee all my poverty,” Sonn. 40, 10. “made thee no mistakings,” Tp. I, 2, 248. “thou wilt never get thee a husband,” Ado II, 1, 20. “I'll devise thee brave punishments for him,” V, 4, 130. “get thee a sword,” H6B IV, 2, 1 etc.
Thee reflexively: “withdraw thee,” Gent. V, 4, 18. “get thee away,” Err. I, 2, 16. “bear thee well,” Ado III, 1, 13. “set thee down,” LLL IV, 3, 4. “prepare thee,” Merch. IV, 1, 324. “till thou canst quit thee,” As III, 1, 11. “scratch thee but with a pin,” III, 5, 21. “warm thee,” Shr. Ind. 1, 10. “uncase thee,” I, 1, 212. “betake thee to't,” Tw. III, 4, 240. “discase thee,” Wint. IV, 4, 648. “yield thee to my hand,” John II, 156. “submit thee,” John II, 156 “cloister thee,” R2 V, 1, 23. “unbuttoning thee,” H4A I, 2, 3. “to hide thee,” II, 4, 291. “thou bearest thee like a king,” V, 4, 36. “employ thee for our good,” H6A III, 3, 16. “no way canst thou turn thee,” IV, 2, 25. “hide thee from their looks,” H6B II, 4, 23. “hast thought thee happy,” IV, 1, 55. “hide thee from the bear,” V, 2, 2. “address thee instantly,” V, 2, 2 “resolve thee,” H6C I, 1, 49. “bethink thee,” I, 4, 44. “hie thee to hell,” R3 I, 3, 143 (cf. Hie). “defend thee,” III, 5, 19. “guard thee well,” Troil. IV, 5, 253. “do not chafe thee,” Troil. IV, 5, 253 “speed thee,” Cor. IV, 5, 93. “hast thou hurt thee,” Tit. II, 3, 203. “calm thee,” IV, 1, 83. “lay thee all along,” Rom. V, 3, 3 etc.
Thou for thee: “nothing this wide universe I call, save thou, my rose,” Sonn. 109, 14. Thee for thou: “to breed another thee,” Sonn. 6, 7. “'tis thee, myself, that for myself I praise,” 62, 13. “if this should be thee,” Tw. II, 5, 113. “how agrees the devil and thee?” H4A I, 2, 127. “here's none but thee and I,” H6B I, 2, 69. “it is thee I fear,” IV, 1, 117. “I am not thee,” Tim. IV, 3, 277. “I would not be thee,” Lr. I, 4, 204. Particularly after imperatives: “look thee,” Gent. II, 5, 30. Wint. III, 3, 116. Cor. V, 2, 77. Tim. IV, 3, 530. “hark thee,” Gent. III, 1, 127. “run thee to the parlour,” Ado III, 1, 1.* “stand thee close,” III, 3, 110. IV, 1, 24. “sit thee down,” LLL I, 1, 317. Mids. IV, 1, 1. “hear thee,” Merch. II, 2, 189. “hold thee that to drink,” Shr. IV, 4, 17. All's IV, 5, 46. “hang thee,” Tw. II, 5, 114. “return thee,” H6A III, 3, 56. “stay thee,” H6C III, 2, 58. “take thee that,” Mcb. II, 1, 5. break thee “off,” Hml. I, 1, 40. “come thee on,” Ant. IV, 7, 16 etc. cf. fare thee well, sub Fare.
Thou easily omitted, as the second person is sufficiently indicated by the inflexion of the verb: “then camest in smiling,” Tw. V, 357. “pratest,” Rom. IV, 5, 135. 138 (Q2 prates; the surreptitious Q1 and most M. Edd. pretty). “shouldst have kept one to thyself,” Tim. I, 1, 275. Particularly in questions: “why dost abhor me?” Ven. 138. “why didst not tell me sooner?” Gent. III, 1, 390. “art not ashamed?” Ado III, 4, 28. “hast any philosophy in thee?” As III, 2, 22. “wast ever in court?” As III, 2, 22 “wast born in the forest here?” V, 1, 24. “art rich?” V, 1, 24 All's IV, 1, 10. Tw. II, 3, 26. Tw. II, 3, 26 V, 202. Wint. I, 2, 121. Wint. I, 2, 121 III, 2, 176. III, 3, 81. IV, 3, 78. IV, 4, 262. H4A II, 1, 34. II, 4, 3. H6A I, 3, 22. V, 3, 68. H8 I, 2, 202. Tit. II, 3, 209. II, 4, 21. V, 1, 46. Tim. I, 1, 206. Tim. I, 1, 206 Tim. I, 1, 206 Tim. I, 1, 206 II, 2, 84. IV, 3, 221. IV, 3, 221 Caes. I, 1, 31. Hml. III, 2, 298. V, 2, 83. Lr. II, 2, 1. Lr. II, 2, 1 II, 4, 196. III, 4, 4. Oth. II, 1, 260. III, 3, 110. Ant. V, 2, 296. Cymb. III, 5, 125. IV, 2, 81. IV, 2, 81 V, 5, 110 etc.
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