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ADJECTIVES All, both, each, every, other

The Adjectives all, each, both, every, other, are sometimes interchanged and used as Pronouns in a manner different from modern usage.

All for any: “They were slaine without all mercie.” HOLINSHED.

“Without all bail.

“Without all reason.” ASCH. 48. (Comp. in Latin "sine omni, &c.") Heb. vii. 7: Wickliffe, "withouten ony agenseiyinge;" Rheims, Geneva, and A. V. "without all contradiction."

This construction, which is common in Ascham and Andrewes, is probably a Latinism in those authors. It may be, however, that in "things without all remedy," Macb. iii. 2. 11, "without" is used in the sense of "outside," "beyond." See Without (197).

All for every: “Good order in all thyng.” ASCH. 62.

“And all thing unbecoming.

We still use "all" for "all men." But Ascham (p. 54) wrote: "Ill commonlie have over much wit," and (p. 65) "Infinite shall be made cold by your example, that were never hurt by reading of bookes." This is perhaps an attempt to introduce a Latin idiom. Shakespeare, however, writes:

“What ever have been thought on.

Each for "all" or "each one of:"

“At each his needless heavings.

So every (i.e. "ever-ich," "ever-each"):

“Of every these happen'd accidents.

And "none:"

“None our parts.

Each for "both:"

“And each though enemies to either's reign
Do in consent shake hands to torture me.

“Each in her sleep themselves so beautify.

“Tell me
In peace what each of them by the other lose.

This confusion is even now a common mistake. Compare “How pale each worshipful and rev'rend guest
Rise from a Clergy or a City feast.” POPE, Imit. Hor. ii. 75.

Each for "each other:"

“But being both from me, both to each friend.

(i.e. both friends each to the other.)

Both seems put for "each," or either used for "each other," in

“They are both in either's powers.

There may, however, be an ellipsis of each after both: “They are both (each) in either's powers.
” Compare

“A thousand groans ...
Came (one) on another's neck.

It is natural to conjecture that this is a misprint for "one or other's." But compare

“I think there is not half a kiss to choose
Who loves another best.

(See 88)

Every one, Other, Neither, are used as plural pronouns:

“And every one to rest themselves betake.

“Every one of these considerations, syr, move me.” ASCH. Dedic.

In readiness for Hymenæus stand.

“Smooth every passion
That in the nature of their lord rebel.

"Every" is a pronoun in

“If every of your wishes had a womb.

; A. Y. L. v. 4. 180.

“Thersites' body is as good as Ajax'
When neither are alive.

“Other have authoritie.” ASCH. 46.

“And therefore is the glorious planet Sol
In noble eminence enthron'd and spher'd
Amidst the other.

Other is also used as a singular pronoun (even when not preceded by "each"):1

“Every time gentler than other.

“With greedy force each other doth assail.” SPENS. F. Q. i. 5. 6. i.e.

“each doth assail the other.

“We learn no other but the confident tyrant
Keeps still in Dunsinane.

“He hopes it is no other
But, for your health and your digestion's sake,
An after-dinner's breath.

“If you think other.

“Suppose no other.

In the two last passages "other" may be used adverbially for "otherwise," as in Macbeth, i. 7. 77, which may explain

“They can be meek that have no other cause.

i.e. "no cause otherwise than for meekness."

The use of alle) and othere) as plural pronouns is consistent with ancient usage. It was as correct as "omnes" and "alii" in Latin, as "alle" and "andere" in German. Our modern "others said" is only justified by a custom which might have compelled us to say "manys" or "alls said," and which has induced us to say "our betters," though not (with Heywood) "our biggers." The plural use of neither, "not both," depends on the plural use of either for "both," which is still retained in "on either side," used for "on both sides." This is justified by the original meaning of ei-ther, i.e. "every one of two," just as whe-ther means "which of two." "Either" in O.E. is found for "both." Similarly we say "none were taken" instead of "none (no one) was taken." We still retain the use of other as a pronoun without the in such phrases as "they saw each other," for "they saw each the other." Many is also used as a noun. (See 5.) Hence we have:

“In many's looks.

Beside the adjective "mani," "moni" (many), there was also in Early English the noun "manie" or "meine" (multitude, from Fr. "maisgnée," Lat. "minores natu"). But it is doubtful whether this influenced the use just mentioned.

1 It is used as a singular adjective, without the article, in

“You think of other place.

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