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ADVERBS Besides; briefly; by; chance; even; ever

By (original meaning "near the side." Hence "by and by" = "very near," which can be used either of time or, as in Early English, also of place) is used for "aside," "on one side," "away," in the phrase

“Stand by, or I shall gall you.

Whereas, on the other hand, "to stand by a person" means "to stand near any one."

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