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PREPOSITIONS. With for "by;" for other prepositions

With (which, like "by," signifies juxtaposition) is often used to express the juxtaposition of cause and effect.

“I live with (on) bread like you.

We could say "he trembles with fear," "fear" being regarded as connected with the trembler, but not

“My inward soul
With nothing trembles: at something it grieves
More than with parting from my lord the king.

“As an unperfect actor on the stage
Who with his fear is put besides his part.

We should say "in his fear" (or "by his fear," personifying Fear); or append the clause to the verb, "put beside his part with fear."

“It were a better death than die with mocks,
Which is as bad as die with tickling.

“Another choaked with the kernell of a grape, and an emperour
die by the scratch of a combe, and Aufidius with stumbling against
the doore, and Lepidus with hitting his foot.” MONTAIGNE, 32. Here the use of "by" seems intended to distinguish an external from an internal cause.

We say "so far gone in fear," but not

“Thus both are gone with conscience and remorse.

“This comes with seeking you.

“I feel remorse in myself with his words.

More rarely, with is used with an agent:

“Rounded in the ear
With that same purpose-changer, that sly devil.

“We had like to have had our two noses snapped off with two
old men without teeth.

“Boarded with a pirate.

“He was torn to pieces with a bear.

“Assisted with your honoured friends.” Ib. v. 1. 13. This explains

“Since I am crept in favour with myself
I will maintain it with some little cost.

The obvious interpretation is, "since I have crept into the good graces of myself;" but the second line shows the "I" to be superior to "myself," which is to be maintained by the "I." The true explanation is, "since I have crept into (Lady Anne's) favour with the aid of my personal appearance, I will pay some attention to my person." Add, probably, Hamlet, iii. 2. 207.

This meaning is common in E. E.: “He was slayn wyp (by) Ercules.” R. OF BRUNNE, Chron. i. 12. 340.

With == "by means of."

"He went about to make amends with committing a worse fault."--N. P. 176, where the French is "par une autre." So N. P. 176.

With == "in addition to," even when there are not two nouns to be connected together: “Very wise and with his wisdome very valiant.” N. P. 664.

With is, perhaps, used for "as regards," "in relation to," as in our modern "this has not much weight with me," in

“Is Cæsar with Antonius priz'd so slight?

though here, perhaps, as above, with may mean "by." At all events the passage illustrates the connection between "with" and "by." Compare

“His taints and honours
Wag'd equal with (i.e. in) him.

“So fond with gain.

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