PRONOUNS, RELATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE. Relative omittedOmission of the Relative. The relative is frequently omitted, especially where the antecedent clause is emphatic and evidently incomplete. This omission of the relative may in part have been suggested by the identity of the demonstrative that and the relative that:--
We speak that (dem.) that (rel.) we do know,may naturally be contracted into--
We speak that we do know.Thus--
“And that (that) most deeply to consider is
The beauty of his daughter.
“Thy honourable metal may be wrought
From that (to which) it is disposed.
“Now follows that (that) you know, young Fortinbras, &c.
i.e. "which is worse." So often in the A. V. of the Bible, "that is, being interpreted," means "which is" (as the Greek shows), though a modern reader would suppose that to be the demonstrative. In many cases the antecedent immediately precedes the verb to which the relative would be the subject.
“And that (that) is worse--the Lords of Ross are fled.
; C. of E. v. 1. 283.
“I have a brother (who) is condemned to die.
“I have a mind (which) presages.
“In war was never lion (that) raged more fierce.” Ib. ii. 1. 173.
“The hate of those (who) love not the king.
“And sue a friend (who) 'came debtor for my sake.
; W. T. iv. 4. 378, 512.
“What wreck discern you in me (that）
Deserves your pity?
“You are one of those (who）
Would have him wed again.
“I'll show you those (who) in troubles reign,
Losing a mite, a mountain gain.
“And they are envious (that) term thee parasite.” B. J. Fox, i. 1.
“Of all (who have) 'say'd (tried) yet, may'st thou prove prosperous.
i.e. "On one occasion (on which) we stood up," &c. Compare--
“For once (when) we stood up about the corn, he himself stuck
not to call us the many-headed multitude.
“Was it not yesterday (on which) we spoke together?
“Off with his head,
And rear it in the place (in which) your father's stands.
“Declare the cause
(for which) My father, Earl of Cambridge, lost his head.
“O that forc'd thunder (that) from his breath did fly!
O that sad breath (that) his spongy lungs bestow'd!
“And being frank she lends to these (who) are free.
“To me (whom) you cannot reach you play the spaniel.
So M. for M. iii. 2. 165. Most of these examples (except those in which when and why are omitted) omit the nominative. Modern usage confines the omission mostly to the objective. "A man (whom) I saw yesterday told me," &c. We must either explain thus:
“That's to you sworn (that) to none was ever said.
or suppose (more probably), that there is some confusion between "conceiving enmity" and "disliking parts." In
“Myself and Toby
Set this device against Malvolio here (which device),
Upon some stubborn and discourteous parts,
We had conceiv'd against him,
that probably means "as to that which." Other instances are:
“To her own worth
She shall be prized: but that you say 'Be 't so,'
I'll speak it in my spirit and honour 'No.'
“My sister . . . a lady, sir (who), though it was said she much
resembled me, was yet of many accounted beautiful.
“What should I do (that) I do not?
Either a relative or a nominative (see 399) is omitted in
“Of every virtue (that) gives renown to men.
“These are my mates that make their wills their law
(Who) have some unhappy passenger in chace.
either the relative is omitted after "justice," or "that" is used for "because" (284). So, after disobeying King Cymbeline by allowing Posthumus to speak to the King's daughter, the Queen, while purposing to betray Posthumus, says aside:
“And curse that justice did it,
The relative adverb where is omitted in “From that place (where) the morn is broke
“Yet I'll move him (the king)
To walk this way: I never do him (the king) wrong
But he (who, like Posthumus) does buy my injuries to be friends,
Pays dear for my offences.
To that place (where) day doth unyoke.” B. and F. F. Sh. i. 1. That, meaning "when," is omitted after "now." (See 284.)