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PRONOUNS, RELATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE. Supplementary pronoun; when used

The Supplementary Pronoun is generally confined to cases (as above, 242) where the relative is separated from its verb by an intervening clause, and where on this account clearness requires the supplementary pronoun.

Who, when he lived, his breath and beauty set
Gloss on the rose, smell on the violet.

Which, though it alter not love's sole effect,
Yet doth it steal sweet hours from love's delight.

“And who, though all were wanting to reward,
Yet to himself he would not wanting be.” B. J. Cy.'s Rev.

Whom,
Though bearing misery, I desire my life
Once more to look on him.

“(The queen) whom Heavens in justice both on her and hers
Have laid most heavy hand.

Here the construction is further changed by the addition of "both . . . and hers."

“You are three men of sin whom Destiny
(That hath to instrument this lower world,
And what is in't) the never-surfeited sea
Hath caused to belch up you.

In the following passage the which may almost with better right be regarded as supplementary than the noun which follows:

“Our natural goodness
Imparts this; which if you or stupified
Or seeming so in skill, cannot or will not
Relish a truth like us, inform yourselves
We need no more of your advice.

Here which means "as regards which," and in this and in other places it approximates to that vulgar idiom which is well known to readers of "Martin Chuzzlewit." (See 272.)

The following seems at first as though it could be explained thus; but "who" is put for "whom" (see 274), and "exact the penalty" is regarded as a transitive verb:

Who, if he break, thou may'st with better face
Exact the penalty.

Or this may be an imitation of the Latin idiom which puts the relative before the conjunction, thus:

Who, when they were in health, I tell thee, herald,
I thought upon one pair of English legs
Did walk three Frenchmen.

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