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PRONOUNS, RELATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE. Who, that, and which Shakespearian use of

As regards the Shakespearian use, the following rules will generally hold good:--

(1) That is used as a relative (a) after a noun preceded by the article, (b) after nouns used vocatively, in order to complete the description of the antecedent by adding some essential characteristic of it.

(2) Who is used (a) as the relative to introduce a fact about the antecedent. It may often be replaced by "and he," "for he," "though he," &c. (b) It is especially used after antecedents that are lifeless or irrational, when personification is employed, but not necessarily after personal pronouns.

(3) Which is used (a) in cases where the relative clause varies between an essential characteristic and an accidental fact, especially where the antecedent is preceded by that; (b) where the antecedent is repeated in the relative clause; (c) in the form "the which," where the antecedent is repeated, or where attention is expressly called to the antecedent, mostly in cases where there is more than one possible antecedent and care is required to distinguish the real one; (d) where "which" means "a circumstance which," the circumstance being gathered from the previous sentence.

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