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PRONOUNS, RELATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE. The--that; that--which

The . . . that; that . . . which. In A.-S. "pe" (the) was the relative and "se" the article. When the form "pe" (the) became the article, "that" became the relative. In the same way it perhaps arises that when that was applied to the antecedent, the relative form preferred by Shakespeare was which. "The man that says" = "whoever says," and the indefinite that is sufficient; but "that man," being more definite, requires a more definite relative. After a proper name, who would answer the purpose; but after "that man," that being an adjective, "which man" was the natural expression, which being originally also an adjective. Hence the marked change in

“If he sees aught in you that makes him like
That anything he sees which moves his liking.

“When living blood doth in these temples beat
Which owe the crown that thou o'er-masterest.” Ib. ii. 1. 109.

Possibly "that" is a demonstrative, and "he" is used for "man" in the following, which will account for the use of which; but more probably which is here used for that, and there is a confusion of constructions.

“Rather proclaim it, Westmoreland, through our host,
That he which hath no stomach to this fight,
Let him depart.

1

1 See 415 and compare T. A. iii. 1. 151; Lear, ii. 1. 63.

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