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TRANSITIVE, mostly formed from adjectives and nouns

Verbs, Transitive (formation of). The termination en (the infinitive inflection) is sufficient to change an English monosyllabic noun or adjective into a verb. Thus "heart" becomes "hearten;" "light," "lighten;" "glad," "gladden," &c. The licence with which adjectives could be converted into verbs is illustrated by “Eche that enhauncith hym schal be lowid, and he that mekith
hymself shall be highid.” WICKLIFFE, St. Luke xiv. 11.

In the general destruction of inflections which prevailed during the Elizabethan period, en was particularly discarded. It was therefore dropped in the conversion of nouns and adjectives into verbs, except in some cases where it was peculiarly necessary to distinguish a noun or adjective from a verb. (So strong was the discarding tendency that even the e in "owen," "to possess," was dropped, and Shakespeare continually uses "owe" for "owen" or "own"1 (T. N. i. 5. 329; Rich. II. iv. 1. 185). The <*> has now been restored.) But though the infinitive inflection was generally dropped, the converting power was retained, undiminished by the absence of the condition. Hence it may be said that any noun or adjective could be converted into a verb by the Elizabethan authors, generally in an active signification, as--

“Which happies (makes happy) those that pay the willing lover.

“Time will unfair (deface) that (which) fairly doth excel.” Ib. 5.


Balm'd (healed).--Lear, iii. 6. 105.


“Barns a harvest.

Bench (sit).--Lear, iii. 6. 40.

Bold (embolden).--

“Not bolds the king.


“Such stuff as madmen
Tongue and brain not.

i.e. "such stuff as madmen use their tongues in, but not their brains."

Child.--"Childing autumn."--M. N. D. ii. 1. 112: i.e. "autumu producing fruits as it were children."


“Climates (neut.) [lives] here.


“That hath so cowarded and chased your blood.

Coy (to be coy).--

“Nay, if he coy'd.

Disaster (make disastrous-looking).--

“The holes where eyes should
be which pitifully disaster the cheeks.

False.-- “Has falsed his faith.” SPENS. F. Q. i. 19. 46.


“Fames his wit.

Fault.-- “Cannot fault (neut.) twice.” N. P. Pref.; B. J. Alch. iii. 1.


“And feebling such as stand not in their liking.

Fever (give a fever to).--

“The white hand of a lady fever thee,
Shake thou to look on't.


“My master loves her truly,
And I, poor monster, fond as much on him.

Fool (stultify).

“Why, that's the way
To fool their preparations.

This explains

“Why old men fool and children calculate.

Foot.--"Foots" (kicks).--Cymb. iii. 5. 148. On the other hand, in "A power already footed" (Lear, iii. 2. 14), it means "set on foot;" and in "the traitors late footed in the kingdom" (Ib. iii. 7. 45), it means "that have obtained a footing."

Force (to urge forcibly).--

“Why force you this?

Also (to attach force to, regard):

“But ah! who ever shunn'd by precedent
The destin'd ills she must herself assay,
Or forced examples 'gainst her own content,
To put the by-past perils in her way?

i.e. "whoever regarded examples." So L. L. L. v. 2. 441.


“Furnaces sighs.


“This day shall gentle his condition.


“He godded me.

Honest.-- “Honests (honours) a lodging.” B. J. Sil. Wom. i. 1.

Inherit (make an inheritor).

“That can inherit us
So much as of a thought of ill in him.

Knee (kneel).--

“Knee the way.

Lesson (teach).--

“Lesson me.

; Rich. III. i. 4. 246.

Linger (make to linger).

Which false hope lingers in extremity.

; M. N. D. i. 1. 4.


“Mads (makes angry).

Mellow (ripen, trans.).--T. N. i. 3. 43.

Mist (cover with mist).--

“If that her breath will mist or stain the

Malice.-- “Malices (bears malice to).” N. P.

Pale (make pale).--

“And 'gins to pale his uneffectual fire.

Panging (paining).

“'Tis a sufferance panging
As soul and body's severing.

Path (walk).--

“For if thou path (neuter), thy native semblance

Plain (make plain).--

“What's dumb in show I'll plain in speech.

Property (treat as a tool).--

“They have here propertied me.

; K. J. v. 2. 79.

Rag'd (enraged).--There is no corruption (though the passage is marked as corrupt in the Globe) in

“For young colts being rag'd do rage the more.


“And that which most with you should safe my going,
Fulvia is dead.

i.e. "make my departure unsuspected by you of dangerous consequences."

Scale (weigh, put in the scale).--

Scaling his present bearing with
his past.

Stage (exhibit).--

“I do not like to stage me to their eyes.

Stock (put in the stocks).--

“Stocking his messenger.

Stream (unfurl).--

“Streaming the ensign.

Toil (give labour to).--Probably in

“Why this same toil and most observant watch
So nightly toils the subject of the land.


“toil'd, passive.


“How might she tongue me?

i.e. "speak of, or accuse, me." "Tongue" means "speak" in

“Such stuff as madmen
Tongue, and brain not.


“Trifles (renders trifling) former knowing.


“My death's sad tale may yet undeaf his ear.

Verse (expressing in verse).--

“Versing love.

Violent (act violently).--

“And violenteth in a sense as strong.

Wage (pay: so E. E.).--

“He waged me.

Womb (enclose).--

“The close earth wombs or the profound sea hides.

Worthied (ennobled).--

“That worthied him.

The dropping of the prefix be was also a common licence. We have recurred to "bewitch" and "belate," but Shakespeare wrote--

“And witch the world with noble horsemanship.

“Now spurs the lated traveller apace.

“Disorder, that hath spoil'd us, friend us now.

1 Compare "The gates are ope," Coriol. i. 4. 48.

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