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LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Words in which the accent is nearer the end than with us

Words in which the accent is nearer the end than with us.

Many words, such as "edict," "outrage," "contract," &c., are accented in a varying manner. The key to this inconsistency is, perhaps, to be found in Ben Jonson's remark that all dissyllabic nouns, if they be simple, are accented on the first. Hence "edict" and "outrage" would generally be accented on the first, but, when they were regarded as derived from verbs, they would be accented on the second. And so, perhaps, when "exile" is regarded as a person, and therefore a "simple" noun, the accent is on the first; but when as "the state of being exiled," it is on the last. But naturally, where the difference is so slight, much variety may be expected. Ben Jonson adds that "all verbs coming from the Latin, either of the supine or otherwise, hold the accent as it is found in the first person present of those Latin verbs; as from célebro, célebrate." Without entering into the details of this rule, it seems probable that "edíct," "precépt," betray Latin influence. The same fluctuation between the English and French accent is found in CHAUCER (Prof. Child, quoted by Ellis, E. E. Pronunc. i. 369), who uses "batáille," C. T. 990, and "bátail," ib. 2099: "Fortúne," ib. 917, and "fórtune," ib. 927; "daungér," and "dáunger."

Abjéct (Latin).-- “Wé are | the quéen's | abjécts, | and múst | obéy.” Rich. III. i. 1. 106. But if the monosyllable "queen" be emphasized, we may scan

Wé are | the qué | en's ábjects, | and múst | obéy.

Accéss (Latin).--W. T. v. 1. 87.

Aspéct (Latin).--A. and C. i. 5. 33; T. N. i. 4. 28.

Charácters.-- “I sáy | withóut | charác | ters fáme | lives lóng.” Rich. III. iii. 1. 81; Hamlet, i. 3. 59.

Comméndable. “Thanks fáith, | for sílence | is ónly | comménd | ablé
In a néat's | tongue dríed | and a máid | not vénd | iblé.” M. of V. i. 1. 111.

This shows how we must scan “'Tis swéet and (497) | comménd | able ín | your ná | ture,
Hámlet.” Hamlet, i. 2. 87. But, on the other hand, “And pówer, | untó | itsélf | most cóm | mendáble.Coriol. iv. 7. 51.

Commérce (Latin).--So arrange “Péaceful | commérce | from dí | vidá- | ble shóres.” Tr. and Cr. i. 3. 105.

Confíscate (Latin).--C. of E. i. 1. 21; but "cónfiscáte," ib. i. 2. 2.

Consórt (Latin).-- “What sáy'st | thou? Wílt | thou bé | of óur |
consórt?T. G. of V. iv. 1. 64.Edmund. Yes, madam,
He wás | of thát | consórt.
Reg. No már | vel, thén.” Lear, ii. 1. 99.

Contráry (Latin).-- “Our wílls | and fátes | do só | contrá | ry rún.” Hamlet, iii. 2. 221.

Contráct (Latin). “Márk our | contráct. | Márk your | divórce, | young sír.” W. T. iv. 4. 428; A. W. ii. 3. 185; 1 Hen. VI. iii. 1. 143, v. 4. 156; Rich. III. iii. 7. 5, 6; Temp. ii. 1. 151.

Compáct (Latin, noun).--Rich. III. ii. 2. 133; J. C. ii. 2. 215.

Différent (Latin).-- “And múch | différ | ent fróm | the mán | he
wás.” C. of E. v. 1. 46. Here, however, by emphasizing the monosyllable "much," the word "different" may be pronounced in the usual way.

Edíct (Latin).--2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 258, and “It stánds | as án | edíct | in dés | tiný.” M. N. D. i. 1. 151.

Effígies (Latin unaltered). “And ás | mine éye | doth hís | effí | gies wítness.” A. Y. L. ii. 7. 193.

Envý (verb; noun, énvy). “I's it | for hím | you dó | envý | me só?” T. of Sh. ii. 1. 18.

Execútors.--Hen. V. i. 2. 203 is not an instance, for it means "executioners." In its legal sense, Ib. iv. 2. 51, it is accented as with us.

Exíle (Latin).--R. and J. v. 3. 211 (frequent).

Instínct (noun, Latin). “Háth, by | instínct, | knówledge | from óth | ers' éyes.” 2 Hen. IV. i. 1. 86. “Bý a | divíne | instínct | men's mínds | mistrúst.” Rich. III. ii. 3. 42; Coriol. v. 3. 35.

Intó.--See 457 a.

Miséry.--Some commentators lay the accent on the penultimate in “Of súch | misér | y dóth | she cút | me óff,” M. of V. iv. 1. 272. but much more probably "a" has dropped out after "such." The passage “And búss | thee ás | thy wífe. | Míser | y's lóve,” K. J. iii. 4. 35. proves nothing. The pause-accent is sufficient to justify "mísery."

Nothíng.--See Somethíng, below.

Obdúrate (Latin).--3 Hen. VI. i. 4. 142; M. of V. iv. 1. 8; T. A. ii. 3. 160; R. of L. 429. “A'rt thou | obdú | rate, flín | ty, hárd | as stéel?” V. and A. 198.

Oppórtune (Latin).-- “And móst | oppórt | une tó | our néed |
I háve.” W. T. iv. 4. 511. “The móst | oppórt | une pláce, | the stróng'st | suggéstion.” Temp. iv. 1. 26.

Outráge.--1 Hen. VI. iv. 1. 126.

Perémptory (perhaps). “Yea, mís | tress, áre | you só | perémp | tóry?” P. of T. ii. 5. 73. This accentuation is not found elsewhere in Shakespeare: but the author of Pericles of Tyre may have used it. It is possible, however, to scan

Yea, mís | t(e)réss (477), | are you | so pé | rempt(o)rý?

Porténts.-- “Thése are | porténts: | but yét | I hópe, | I hópe.” Othello, v. 2. 45.

So 1 Hen. IV. ii. 3. 65; Tr. and Cr. i. 3. 96.

Hence "fear" is not a dissyllable in “A pród | igý | of féar, | ánd a | portént.1 Hen. IV. v. 1. 20.

If "and" is correct, we must probably scan as follows: “And thése | doth she applý | for wárn | ings ánd | porténts.J. C. ii. 2. 80.

Precépts (Latin).--Hen. V. iii. 3. 26; but "précepts," Hamlet, ii. 2. 142.

Prescíence retains the accent of science, indicating that the word was not familiar enough as yet to be regarded as other than a compound: “Forestáll | prescí | ence ánd | estéem | no áct.” Tr. and Cr. i. 3. 199.

Recórd (noun, Latin).--Rich. III. iii. 1. 72, iv. 4. 28; T. N. v. 1. 253.

Sepúlchre (Latin).-- “Bánish'd | this fráil | sepúl | chre óf | our
flésh.” Rich. II. i. 3. 194. “Or, át | the léast, | in hérs | sepúl | chre thíne.” T. G. of V. iv. 2. 118. “May líke | wise bé | sepúl | chred ín | thy sháde.” R. of L. 805; and, perhaps, Lear, ii. 4. 134.

Siníster (Latin).-- “'Tis nó | sinís | ter nór | no áwk | ward cláim.” Hen. V. ii. 4. 85. So, but comically, in “And thís | the crán | ny ís, | ríght and | siníster,
Through whích | the féar | ful lóv | ers áre | to whísper.” M. N. D. v. 1. 164.

Sojóurn'd (perhaps) in “My héart | to hér | but ás | guest-wíse | sojóurn'd.Ib. iii. 2. 171. But(?) emphasize "her," and scan

My héart | to hér | ' bút | as gúest- | wise sójourn'd.

Somethíng (sometimes perhaps). “My ínward | sóul
At nó | thing trémb | les: át | somethíng | it gríeves.” Rich. II. ii. 2. 12.

Compare perhaps “And I' | nothíng | to báck | my súit | at áll.” Rich. III. i. 1. 236. But, if "I" be emphasized, "nothing" may be pronounced as usual. “I féar | nothíng | what máy | be sáid | agáinst me.” Hen. VIII. i. 2. 212. But "fear" may be a dissyllable, 480.

Sweethéart.--Hen. VIII. i. 4. 94: heart being regarded as a noun instead of the suffix -ard.

Triúmphing (Latin) sometimes. “As 't wére | triúmph | ing át | mine én | emíes.” Rich. III. iii. 4. 91.

Untó.--See 457 a.

Welcóme.-- “Nor fríends, | nor fóes, | to mé | welcóme | you áre.” Rich. II. ii. 3. 170.

This particular passage may be explained by a pause, but "welcóme" is common in other authors.

Wherefóre (in some cases), though it can often be taken as "thérefore," and explained by a preceding pause. “O'ft have | you (óft | en háve | you thánks | therefóre).” Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 20. “And wé | must yéarn | therefóre.Hen. V. ii. 3. 6. “Hate mé! | Wherefóre? | O mé! | what néws, | my lóve.” M. N. D. iii. 2. 272. Perhaps “Fór the | sound mán. | Déath on | my státe, | wherefóre?Lear, ii. 4. 113. But better

Death on my state! (512) Whérefore | should hé | sit hére? | This áct | persuádes me.

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