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LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Words in which the accent is nearer the beginning than with us

Words in which the accent was nearer the beginning than with us. Ben Jonson (p. 777) says all nouns, both dissyllabic (if they be "simple") and trisyllabic, are accented on the first syllable. Perhaps this accounts for the accent on cónfessor, &c. The accent on the first syllable was the proper noun accent; the accent on the second (which in the particular instance of conféssor ultimately prevailed) was derived from the verb.

Archbishop.-- “The már | shal ánd | the árch | bishóp | are stróng.” 2 Hen. IV. ii. 3. 42, 65.

Cément (noun). “Your tém | ples búrn | ed ín | their cé | ment ánd.” Coriol. iv. 6. 85.

So the verb, A. and C. ii. 1. 48; iii. 2. 29.

Cómpell'd (when used as an adjective). “This cóm | pell'd fór | tune, háve | your móuth | fill'd úp.” Hen. VIII. ii. 3. 87. “I tálk | not of | your sóul: | our cóm | pell'd síns.” M. for M. ii. 4. 57.

Cómplete.-- “A máid | of gráce | and cóm | plete máj | estý.” L. L. L. i. 1. 137.

So Hamlet, i. 4. 52; Hen. VIII. i. 2. 118; Rich. III. iii. 1. 189.

Cónceal'd.-- “My cón | ceal'd lá | dy tó | her cán | cell'd lóve.” R. and J. iii. 3. 98.

Cónduct.--The verb follows the noun "safe-cónduct" in “Safe-cón | ductíng | the réb | els fróm | their shíps.” Rich. III. iv. 4. 483.

But the noun is condúct in T. A. iv. 3. 65.

Cónfessor.--Hen. VIII. i. 2. 149; R. and J. ii. 6. 21, iii. 3. 49. “O'ne of | our có (sic) | vent ánd | his cón | fessór.M. for M. iv. 3. 133.

Cóngeal'd.-- “O'pen | their cón | geal'd móuths | and bléed |
afrésh.” Rich. III. i. 2. 56.

Cónjure (in the sense of "entreat").--T. G. of V. ii. 7. 2; frequent.

Cónsign'd.-- “With dís | tinct bréath, | and cón | sign'd kíss | es
tó them.” Tr. and Cr. iv. 4. 47.

See "dístinct" below.

Córrosive.-- “Cáre is | no cúre, | but rá | ther cór | rosíve.1 Hen. VI. iii. 3. 3; 2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 403.

Délectable.-- “Máking | the hárd | way sóft | and dé | lectáble.Rich. II. ii. 3. 7.

Détestable.-- “And I' | will kíss | thy dé | testá | ble bónes.” K. J. iii. 4. 29; T. of A. iv. 1. 33.

Dístinct.-- “To offénd | and júdge | are dís | tinct óff | icés.” M. of V. ii. 9. 61.

See "cónsign'd" above.

Fórlorn.-- “Now fór | the hón | our óf | the fór | lorn Frénch.” 1 Hen. VI. i. 2. 19.

Húmane.-- “It ís | the húm | ane wáy, | the óth | er cóurse.” Coriol. iii. 1. 327.

Máintain.-- “That hére | you máin | tain sév | eral fác | tións.” 1 Hen. VI. i. 1. 71.

Máture.--So apparently in “Of múrder | ous léchers: | ánd in | the má | ture tíme.” Lear, iv. 6. 228. This is like "náture," but I know no other instance of "máture."

Méthinks (sometimes). “So yóur | sweet húe | which mé | thinks stíll | doth stánd.” Sonn. 104.

I cannot find a conclusive instance in Shakespeare, but this word is often (Walker) thus accented in Elizabethan writers.

Mútiners.--Coriol. i. 1. 492. See Píoners below.

Mýself (perhaps, but by no means certainly, in) “I mý | self fíght | not ónce | in fór | ty yéar.” 1 Hen. VI. i. 3. 91. But certainly hímself, mýself, &c. are often found in Elizabethan authors, especially in Spenser: “Mourns inwardly and makes to hímself mone.” SPENS. F. Q. ii. 1. 42. The reason for this is that self, being an adjective and not a noun, is not entitled to, and had not yet invariably received, the emphasis which it has acquired in modern times.

And so, perhaps: “And bánd | ing thém | selves ín | contrá (490) | ry párts.” 1 Hen. VI. iii. 1. 81.

Nórthampton.-- “Last níght | I héar | they láy | at Nórth- |
amptón.Rich. III. ii. 4. 1.

O'bscure (adj.; as a verb, obscúre). “To ríb | her cére | cloth ín | the ób | scure gráve.” M. of V. ii. 7. 51. “His méans | of déath, | his ób | scure fú | nerál.” Hamlet, iv. 5. 213.

O'bservant.-- “Than twén | ty síll | y dúck | ing ób | servánts.Lear, ii. 2. 109.

Perséver-- “Ay, dó, | persév | er, count | erféit | sad lóoks.” M. N. D. iii. 2. 236; A. W. iii. 7. 31; K. J. ii. 1. 421; Hamlet, i. 2. 92.

This is the Latin accent in accordance with Ben Jonson's rule. “Bóunty, | persév | (erance, mér | cy, lów | linéss.” Macbeth, iv. 3. 93.

Pérspective.--A. W. v. 3. 48; Rich. II. ii. 2. 18.

The double accent seems to have been disliked by the Elizabethans. They wrote and pronounced "muleters" for "muleteers," "enginer" (Hamlet, iii. 4. 206) for "engineer," "pioners" for "pioneers." This explains:

Píoners.-- “A wórth | y píoner. | Once móre | remóve, | good
fríends.” Hamlet, i. 5. 162.

Plébeians (almost always). “The pléb | eiáns | have gót | your fél | low-tríbune.” Coriol. v. 4. 39; i. 9. 7, &c. This explains “Lét them | have cúsh | ions bý you. | You're pléb | eiáns.Ib. iii. 1. 101. Exceptions: Hen. V. v. Chorus, 27; T. A. i. 1. 231.

So "Epicúrean" in Elizabethan authors and A. and C. ii. 1. 24. The Elizabethans generally did not accent the e in such words.

Púrsuit.-- “In púr | suit óf | the thíng | she wóuld | have stáy.” Sonn. 143. “We trí | fle tíme. | I prí | thee púr | sue séntence.” M. of V. iv. 1. 298.

Púrveyor.-- “To bé | his púr | veyór: | but hé | rides wéll.” Macbeth, i. 6. 22.

Quíntessence.-- “Téaching | áll that | réad to | knów
The quínt | essénce | of év | ery spríte.” A. Y. L. iii. 2. 147.

Récordér(?).-- “To bé | spoke tó | but by | the ré | cordér.Rich. III. iii. 7. 30. So also Walker, who quotes from DONNE'S Satires, v. 248, Ed. 1633:

Recorder to Destiny on earth, and she.
But this line might be scanned otherwise.

Rélapse.-- “Kílling | in ré | lapse óf | mortál | itý.” Hen. V. iv. 3. 107.

Rhéumatic.-- “O'erwórn, | despís | ed, rhéu | matíc, | and óld.” V. and A. 135; M. N. D. ii. 1. 105.

So “These prág | matíc | young mén | at théir | own wéapons.” B. J.

Sécure.-- “Upón | my sé | cure hóur | thy ún | cle stóle.” Hamlet, i. 5. 61; Othello, iv. 1. 72.

Séquester'd.-- “Whý are | you sé | questér'd | from áll | your tráin?” T. A. ii. 3. 75.

Súccessor (rare). “For béing | not própp'd | by án | cestrý | whose gráce
Chalks súcc | essórs | their wáy, | nor cáll'd | upón, &c.” Hen. VIII. i. 1. 60.

Súccessive (rare).-- “Are nów | to háve | no súcc | essíve | degrées.” M. for M. ii. 2. 98.

Tówards (sometimes). “And sháll | contín | ue our grác | es tó | wards hím.” Macbeth, i. 6. 30. “I gó, | and tó | wards thrée | or fóur | o'clóck.” Rich. III. iii. 5. 101. Compare “Should, líke | a swáll | ow préy | ing tó | wards stórms.” B. J. Poetast. iv. 7. “O' the plágue, | he's sáfe | from thínk | ing tó | ward Lóndon.” B. J. Alchemist, i. 1. So, perhaps, “I ám | infórmed | that hé | comes tó | wards Lóndon.” 3 Hen. VI. iv. 4. 26. “And tó | ward Lón | don théy | do bénd | their cóurse.” Rich. III. iv. 5. 14.

U'tensils (perhaps). “He has brave útensils; for so he calls them.” Temp. iii. 2. 104.

Wíthout.--See 457 a.

The English tendency, as opposed to the Latin, is illustrated by the accentuation of the first syllable of "ígnominy," and its consequent contraction into "ígnomy" (1 Hen. IV. v. 4. 100, &c.).

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