previous next

PROSODY.



The ordinary verse  

The ordinary line in blank verse consists of five feet of two syllables each, the second syllable in each foot being accented. “We bóth | have féd | as wéll, | and wé | can bóth
Endúre | the wínt | er's cóld | as wéll | as hé.” J. C. i. 2. 98-9.

This line is too monotonous and formal for frequent use. The metre is therefore varied, sometimes (1) by changing the position of the accent, sometimes (2) by introducing trisyllabic and monosyllabic feet. These licences are, however, subject to certain laws. It would be a mistake to suppose that Shakespeare in his tragic metre introduces the trisyllabic or monosyllabic foot at random. Some sounds and collections of sounds are peculiarly adapted for monosyllabic and trisyllabic feet. It is part of the purpose of the following paragraphs to indicate the laws which regulate these licences. In many cases it is impossible to tell whether in a trisyllabic foot an unemphatic syllable is merely slurred or wholly suppressed, as for instance the first e in "different." Such a foot may be called either dissyllabic or quasi-trisyllabic.


The "pause-accent"  

The accent after a pause is frequently on the first syllable. The pause is generally at the end of the line, and hence it is on the first foot of the following line that this, which may be called the "pause-accent," is mostly found. The first syllable of initial lines also can, of course, be thus accented. It will be seen that in the middle of the line these pause-accents generally follow emphasized monosyllables. (See 480-6.) “Cómfort, | my liége! | why loóks | your gráce | so pále?” Rich. II. iii. 2. 75.

Examples of the "pause-accent" not at the beginning.

(1) “Feéd and | regárd | him nót. | Aré you | a mán?” Macbeth, iii. 4. 58. Sometimes the pause is slight, little more than the time necessary for recovery after an emphatic monosyllable.

(2) “Be ín | their flów | ing cúps | fréshly | remémber'd.” Hen. V. iv. 3. 55. So arrange “And thése | fiátter | ing stréams, | and máke | our fáces.” Macbeth, iii. 2. 33. "These" may be emphasized. (See 484.)

(3) “Whó would | beliéve | me. O'! | péril | ous móuths.” M. for M. ii. 4. 172.

(4) “Afféc | tion, poóh! | You spéak | --líke a | green gírl.” Hamlet, i. 3. 101. “Wé shall | be cáll'd | -- púrgers, | not múr | derérs.” J. C. ii. 1. 180.

(5) “The lífe | of cóm | fort. Bút | for thée, | féllow.Cymb. iv. 3. 9. The old pronunciation "fellów" is probably not Shakespearian.

In (3) (4) and (5) "O," "speak," "call'd," and "thee" may, perhaps, be regarded as dissyllables (see 482-4), and the following foot a quasi-trisyllabic one. There is little practical difference between the two methods of scansion.

(6) “Sénseless | línen! | Háppier | thereín | than I.” Cymb. i. 3. 7.

Here either there is a pause between the epithet and noun, or else "senseless" may possibly be pronounced as a trisyllable, "Sénse (486) | less línen." The line is difficult. “Therefóre, | mérchant, | I'll lím | it thée | this dáy,” C. of E. i. 1. 151. seems to begin with two trochees, like Milton's famous line: “U'ni | vérsal | reproách | far wórse | to béar.” P. L. vi. 34. But "therefore" may have its accent, as marked, on the last syllable.

The old pronunciation "merchánt" is not probable. Or "there" may be one foot (see 480): "Thére | fore mérchant | ."

(7) “Ant. Obéy | it ón | all cáuse. |
Cleop. Párdon, | párdon.” A. and C. iii. 11. 68. is, perhaps, an instance of two consecutive trochees. (There seems no ground for supposing that "pardon" is to be pronounced as in French.) But if the diphthong "cause" be pronounced as a dissyllable (see 484), the difficulty will be avoided.

We find, however, a double trochee (unless "my" has dropped out) in “Sec. Cit. Cæ'sar | has hád | great wróng. |
Third Cit. Hás he, | másters?” J. C. iii. 2. 115.

Even here, however, "wrong" may be a quasi-dissyllable (486).

(8) Between noun and participle a pause seems natural. Often the pause represents "in" or "a-" (178). “Thy knée | bússing | the stónes.” Coriol. iii. 2. 75. “The smíle | mócking | the sígh.” Cymb. iv. 2. 54. “My wínd | cóoling | my bróth.” M. of V. i. 1. 22.

In these lines the foot following the emphasized monosyllable may (as an alternative to the "pause-accent") be regarded as quasi-trisyllabic.


Emphatic accents  

Emphatic Accents. The syllable that receives an accent is by no means necessarily emphatic. It must be emphatic relatively to the unaccented syllable or syllables in the same foot, but it may be much less emphatic than other accented syllables in the same verse. Thus the last syllable of "injuries," though accented, is unemphatic in “The ín | juríes | that théy | themsélves | procúre.” Lear, ii. 4. 303.

Mr. Ellis (Early English Pronunciation, part i. p. 334) says that "it is a mistake to suppose that there are commonly or regularly five stresses, one to each measure." From an analysis of several tragic lines of Shakespeare, taken from different plays, I should say that rather less than one of three has the full number of five emphatic accents. About two out of three have four, and one out of fifteen has three. But as different readers will emphasize differently, not much importance can be attached to such results. It is of more importance to remember, (1) that the first foot almost always has an emphatic accent; (2) that two unemphatìc accents rarely, if ever, come together ("for" may perhaps be emphatic in “Heár it | not, Dún | can; fór | it ís | a knéll,” Macbeth, ii. 1. 63); and (3) that there is generally an emphatic accent on the third or fourth foot.

The five emphatic accents are common in verses that have a pauseaccent at the beginning or in the middle of the line. “Náture | seems déad, | and wíck | ed dréams | abúse.” Macbeth, ii. 1. 50. “The hánd | le tóward | my hánd. | Cóme, let | me clútch
thee.” Ib. ii. 1. 34. And in antithetical lines: “I háve | thee nót, | and yét | I sée | thee stíll.” Macbeth, ii. 1. 35. “Bríng with | thee aírs | from héaven | or blásts | from héll.Hamlet, i. 4. 41.


The "pause-extra-syllable"  

An extra syllable is frequently added before a pause, especially at the end of a line:

a) “'Tis nót | alóne | my ínk | y clóak, | good móther.Hamlet, i. 2. 77. but also at the end of the second foot:

b) “For míne | own sáfeties; | you máy | be ríght | ly júst.” Macbeth, iv. 3. 30. and, less frequently, at the end of the third foot:

c) “For góod | ness dáres | not chéck thee; | wear thoú | thy
wróngs.” Macbeth, iv. 3. 33. and, rarely, at the end of the fourth foot:

d) “With áll | my hón | ours ón | my bróther: | whereón.” Temp. i. 2. 127. But see 466. “So déar | the lóve | my peó | ple bóre me: | nor sét.” Ib. i. 2. 141.


"pause-extra-syllable" rarely a monosyllable except in Henry VIII.  

The extra syllable is very rarely a monosyllable, still more rarely an emphatic monosyllable. The reason is obvious. Since in English we have no enclitics, the least emphatic monosyllables will generally be prepositions and conjunctions. These carry the attention forward instead of backward, and are therefore inconsistent with a pause, and besides to some extent emphatic.

The fact that in Henry VIII., and in no other play of Shakespeare's, constant exceptions are found to this rule, seems to me a sufficient proof that Shakespeare did not write that play. “Go gíve | 'em wél | come; yóu | can spéak | the Frénch
tongue.Hen. VIII. i. 4. 57. “Féll by | our sérv | ants, by | those mén | we lóv'd most.Ib. ii. 1. 122. “Be súre | you bé | not lóose; | for thóse | you máke
friends.Hen. VIII. ii. 1. 127. “To sí | lence én | vious tóngues. | Be júst | and feár not.Ib. iii. 2. 447. So Hen. VIII. ii. 1. 67, 78, 97; and seven times in iii. 2. 442-451; eight times in iv. 2. 51-80.

Even where the extra syllable is not a monosyllable it occurs so regularly, and in verses of such a measured cadence, as almost to give the effect of a trochaic1 line with an extra syllable at the beginning, thus: “In || áll my | míser | íes; but | thóu hast | fórced me
Out || óf (457a) thy | hónest | trúth to | pláy the | wóman.
Let's || drý our | éyes:and | thús far | héar me, | Crómwell:
And || whén 1 | ám for- | gótten, | ás I | sháll be,
And || sléep in | dúll cold | márble | whére no | méntion
Of || mé must | móre be | héard of, | sáy I | táught thee.
Say, || Wólsey, | thát once | tród the | wáys of | glóry
And || sóunded | áll the | dépths and | shóals of | hónour,
Found || thée a | wáy, out | óf (457 a) his | wréck, to | ríse in
A || súre and | sáfe one, | thóugh thy | máster | míssed it.” Hen. VIII. iii. 2. 430-9. It may be safely said that this is not Shakespearian.

"Boy" is unaccented and almost redundant in “I párt | ly knów | the mán: | go cáll | him híther, boy.(Folio) Rich. III. iv. 2. 41. (Hither, a monosyllable, see 189.) And even here the Globe is, perhaps, right in taking "Boy exit" to be a stage direction.

In “Bíd him | make háste | and meét | me át | the Nórth
gate,” T. G. of V. iii. 1. 258. "gate" is an unemphatic syllable in "Nórthgate," like our "Néwgate." So “My mén | should cáll | me lórd: | I ám | yoúr good-man.T. of Sh. Ind. 2. 107. “A hált | er grát | is: nó | thing élse, | for Gód's-sake.M. of V. iv. 1. 379.

"Parts," like "sides," is unemphatic, and "both" is strongly emphasized, in “Ráther | to shów | a nób | le gráce | to bóth parts.Coriol. v. 3. 121. So "out" is emphatic in “We'll háve | a swásh | ing ánd | a márt | ial oútside.A. Y. L. i. 3. 122.

The 's for "is" is found at the end of a line in “Perceive I speak sincerely, and high note's
Ta'en of your many virtues.” Hen. VIII. ii. 3. 59.


Unaccented monosyllables  

Unaccented Monosyllables. Provided there be only one accented syllable, there may be more than two syllables in any foot. "It is he" is as much a foot as "'tis he;" "we will serve" as "we'll serve;" "it is over" as "'tis o'er."

Naturally it is among pronouns and the auxiliary verbs that we must look for unemphatic syllables in the Shakespearian verse. Sometimes the unemphatic nature of the syllable is indicated by a contraction in the spelling. (See 460.) Often, however, syllables must be dropped or slurred in sound, although they are expressed to the sight. Thus in “Províde thee | two próp | er pál | freys, bláck | as jet,” T. A. v. 2. 50. "thee" is nearly redundant, and therefore unemphatic.

"If" and "the" are scarcely pronounced in “And ín it | are the lórds | of Yórk, | Bérkeley, | and Séymour.” Rich. II. ii. 3. 55.Mir. I év | er sáw | so nóble. |
Prosp. It goes ón, | I sée.” Temp. i. 2. 419. “Bút that | the séa, | moúnting | to the wél | kin's chéek.” Ib. i. 2. 4.

("The" need not be part of a quadrisyllabic foot, nor be suppressed in pronouncing “The cúr | iósi | ty of ná | tions tó | depríve me.” Lear, i. 2. 4. Compare, possibly, “But I have ever had that cúriósity.B. and F. (Nares).)

So "to," the sign of the infinitive, is almost always unemphatic, and is therefore slurred, especially where it precedes a vowel. Thus: “In séeming | to augmént | it wástes | it. Bé | advís'd.” Hen. VIII. i. 1. 145. where "in" before the participle is redundant and unemphatic. “For trúth | to (t') over(o'er)péer. | Ráther | than fóol | it só.” Coriol. ii. 3. 128.

So the "I" before "beseech" (which is often omitted, as Temp. ii. 1. 1), even when inserted, is often redundant as far as sound goes. “(I) beseéch | your májes | ty, gíve | me léave | to gó.” 2 Hen. VI. ii. 3. 20. “(I) beséech | your grác | es bóth | to pár | don mé.” Rich. III. i. 1. 84. So Ib. 103.

Perhaps “(I) pray thee (prithee) stáy | with ús, | go nót | to Wítt | enbérg,” Hamlet, i. 2. 119. though this verse may be better scanned “I práy | thee stáy | with us, | go nót | to Wíttenberg.” See 469. “Let me sée, | let me sée; | ís not | the léaf | turn'd dówn?” J. C. iv. 3. 273. So (if not 501) “And I' | will kíss | thy fóot: | (I) prithee bé | my gód.” Temp. ii. 2. 152.

"With you" is "wi' you" (as in "good-bye" for "God be with you"); "the" is th', and "of" is slurred in “Two nó | ble párt | ners wíth you; | the old dúch | ess
of Nórfolk.” Hen. VIII. v. 3. 168.

To write these lines in prose, as in the Folio and Globe, makes an extraordinary and inexplicable break in a scene which is wholly verse.

For the quasi-suppression of of see “The bás | tard of O'r | leáns | with hím | is joín'd,
The dúke | of Alén | çon fií | eth tó | his síde.” 1 Hen. VI. i. 1. 92, 93.

In the Tempest this use of unaccented monosyllables in trisyllabic feet is very common. “Go máke | thysélf | like a nýmph | o' the séa; | be súbject
To no síght | but thíne | and míne.” Temp. i. 2. 301.

Even in the more regular lines of the Sonnets these superfluous syllables are allowed in the foot. Thus: “Excúse | not sí | lence só; | for 't lies | in thée.” Sonn. 101. And even in rhyming lines of the plays: “Cáll them | agaín, | sweet prínce, | accépt | their suít;
I'f you | dený | them, áll | the lánd | will rúe 't.Rich. III. iii. 7. 221.

This sometimes modifies the scansion. "Hour" is a dissyllable, and 't is absorbed, in “You knów | I gáve 't | you hálf | an hoú | r sínce.” C. of E. iv. 1. 65.

Almost any syllables, however lengthy in pronunciation, can be used as the unaccented syllables in a trisyllabic foot, provided they are unemphatic. It is not usual, however, to find two such unaccented syllables as “Which most gíb | inglý, | ungráve | ly hé | did fáshion.” Coriol. ii. 3. 233.


Accented monosyllables  

Accented monosyllables. On the other hand, sometimes an unemphatic monosyllable is allowed to stand in an emphatic place, and to receive an accent. This is particularly the case with conjunctions and prepositions at the end of the line. We still in conversation emphasize the conjunctions "but," "and," "for," &c. before a pause, and the end of the line (which rarely allows a final monosyllable to be light, unless it be an extra-syllable) necessitates some kind of pause. Hence “This my mean task
Would be as heavy to me as odious, but
The mistress which I serve quickens what's dead.” Temp. iii. 1. 5. “Or ere
It should the good ship so have swallow'd and
The fraughting souls within her.” Ib. i. 2. 12. “Freed and enfranchised, not a party to
The anger of the king, nor guilty of
(If any be) the trespass of the queen.” W. T. ii. 2. 62, 63. So Temp. iii. 2. 33, iv. 1. 149; W. T. i. 2. 372, 420, 425, 432, 449, 461, &c.

The seems to have been regarded as capable of more emphasis than with us: “Whose shadow the dismissed bachelor loves.” Temp. iv. 1. 67. “With silken streamers the young Phœbus fanning.” Hen. V. iii. Prol. 6. “And your great uncle's, Edward the Black Prince.” Ib. i. 1. 105, 112. “And Prosp'ro (469) the prime duke, being (470) so reputed.” Temp. i. 2. 72. “Your breath first kindled the dead coal of war.” K. J. v. 2. 83. “Omitting the sweet benefit of time.” T. G. of V. ii. 4. 65. “So doth the woodbine, the sweet honeysuckle.” M. N. D. iv. 1. 47. “Then, my queen, in silence sad,
Trip we after the night's shade.” Ib. iv. 1. 101. “His brother's death at Bristol the Lord Scroop.” 1 Hen. IV. i. 3. 271. “So please you something touching the Lord Hamlet.” Hamlet, i. 3. 89. “Thou hast affected the fine strains of honour.” Coriol. v. 3. 149, 151.

In most of these cases the precedes a monosyllable which may be lengthened, thus: “Your bréath | first kíndled | the déa | d (484) cóal | of wár.” So Temp. i. 2. 196, 204; ii. 2. 164; iv. 1. 153. Compare “Oh, weep for Adonais. The quick dreams.” SHELLEY, Adonais, 82.

But this explanation does not avail for the first example, nor for “That heals the wound and cures not the disgrace.” Sonn. 34. “More needs she the divine than the physician.” Macb. v. 1. 82. (Unless, as in Rich. II. i. 1. 154, "physician" has two accents:

More néeds she | the divíne | thán the | physí | cián.)

On the whole there seems no doubt that "the" is sometimes allowed to have an accent, though not (457 a) an emphatic accent.

Scan thus: “A dévil (466), | a bór | n (485) dév | il (475), ón | whose
náture.” Tempest, iv. 1. 188. avoiding the accent on a.

The in “Then méet | and joín. | Jove's líght | nings, thé | precúrsors,” Tempest, i. 2. 201. seems to require the accent. But "light(e)nings" is a trisyllable before a pause in Lear, iv. 7. 35 (see 477), and perhaps even the slight pause here may justify us in scanning--

Jove's líght | (e)níngs, | the precúrsors.


Accented monosyllabic prepositions  

Accented Monosyllabic Prepositions. Walker (Crit. on Shakespeare, ii. 173-5) proves conclusively that "of" in "out of" frequently has the accent. Thus: “The fount out of which with their holy hands.” B. and F. “Into a relapse; or but suppose out of.MASSINGER. “Still walking like a ragged colt,
And oft out of a bush doth bolt.” DRAYTON.

Many other passages quoted by Walker are doubtful, but he brings forward a statement of Daniel, who, remarking that a trochee is inadmissible at the beginning of an iambic verse of four feet, instances:

Yearly out of his wat'ry cell,
which shows that he regarded "out óf" as an iambus. Walker conjectures "that the pronunciation (of monosyllabic prepositions) was in James the First's time beginning to fluctuate, and that Massinger was a partisan of the old mode." Hence, probably, the prepositions received the accent in “Such mén | as hé | be né | ver át | heart's éase.” J. C. i. 1. 208. “Therefóre (490), | out óf | thy lóng | expér | ienc'd tíme.” R. and J. iv. 1. 60; Coriol. i. 10. 19. “Vaunt cóur | iers | oak-cléav | ing thún | der-bólts.” Lear, iii. 2. 5. So Hen. VIII. iii. 2. 431, 438. “To bríng | but fíve | and twén | ty; | no móre.” Lear, ii. 4. 251.Lor. Who únd | ertákes | you | your end. |
Vaux. Prepáre there.” Hen. VIII. ii. 2. 97.

For this reason I think it probable that "to" in "in-to," "un-to," sometimes receives the accent, thus: “That év | er lóve | did máke | thee rún | intó.A. Y. L. ii. 4. 35. “Came thén | intó | my mínd, | and yét | my mínd.” Lear, iv. 1. 36. “Fán you | intó | despáir. | Have the pów | er stíll.” Coriol. iii. 3. 127. “I had thóught, | by mák | ing thís | well knówn | untó you.” Lear, i. 4. 224; M. of V. v. 1. 169. “By thís | vile cón | quest sháll | attaín | untó.J. C. v. 5. 38; Rich. III. iii. 5. 109. “Discúss | untó | me. A'rt | thou óff | icér?” Hen. V. iv. 1. 38. (But this is Pistol.)

With in "without" seems accented in “That wón | you wíth | out blóws.” Coriol. iii. 3. 133.


Two "pause-extra-syllables"  

Two extra syllables are sometimes allowed, if unemphatic, before a pause, especially at the end of the line. For the details connected with this licence see 467-9, and 494, where it will be seen that verses with six accents are very rare in Shakespeare, and that therefore the following lines are to be scanned with five accents. “Perúse | this létter. | Nóthing | almóst | sees míracles.Lear, ii. 2. 172. “Múst be | a fáith | that réa | son wíth | out míracle.Ib. i. 1. 225. “Like óne | that méans | his pró | per hárm | in mánacles.Coriol. i. 9. 57. “Was dúke | dom lárge | enóugh: | of témp(o) | ral
róyalties.Tempest, i. 2. 110. “I dáre | avóuch | it, sír. | What, fíf | ty fóllowers!Lear, ii. 4. 240. “You fóol | ish shép | herd, whére | fore dó | you fóllow
her?A. Y. L. iii. 5. 49. “Of whóm | he's chíef, | with áll | the síze | that vérity.Coriol. v. 2. 18.Ely. Inclíne | to ít, | or nó. |
Cant. He séems | indífferent.Hen. V. i. 1. 72. “As íf | I lóv'd | my lítt | le shóuld | be díeted.Coriol. i. 9. 52. “Why, só | didst thóu. | Come théy | of nó | ble fámily?Hen. V. ii. 2. 129. “That né | ver máy | ill óff | ice ór | fell jéalousy.Ib. v. 2. 491. “That hé | suspécts | none; ón | whose fóol | ish hónesty.Lear, i. 2. 197. “Withín | my tént | his bónes | to-níght | shall líe
Most líke | a sóld | ier, órd | er'd hón | (ourablý.J. C. v. 5. 79. Compare “Young mán, | thou cóuld'st | not díe | more hón | (ourable.Ib. v. 1. 60.

If "ily" were fully pronounced in both cases, the repetition would be intolerable in the following:-- “Cor. But whát | is líke | me fór | merlý. |
Men. That's wórthily.Coriol. iv. 1. 53. “The rég | ion óf | my héart: | be Ként | unmánnerly.Lear, i. 1. 147. “Lóok, where | he cómes! | Not póp | py nór | mandrágora.Othello, iii. 3. 330. “A's you | are óld | and réverend, | you shóuld | be wíse.” Lear, i. 4. 261. “To cáll | for récompense: | appeár | it tó | your mínd.” Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 8. “Is nót | so ést | imable, próf | itáb | le neíther.” M. of V. i. 3. 167. “Agé is | un-néc | essary: ón | my knées | I bég.” Lear, ii. 4. 157. “Our múst | y sú | perflúity. | Sée our | best élders.” Coriol. i. 1. 230.


WRITTEN CONTRACTIONS:-- Elizabethan spelling, contractions in

The spelling (which in Elizabethan writers was more influenced by the pronunciation, and less by the original form and derivation of the word, than is now the case) frequently indicates that many syllables which we now pronounce were then omitted in pronunciation.


WRITTEN CONTRACTIONS:-- Prefixes dropped

Prefixes are dropped in the following words:--

'bolden'd for “embolden'd.” Hen. VIII. i. 2. 55.

'bove for “above.” Macbeth, iii. 5. 31.

'bout for “about.” Temp. i. 2. 220.

'braid for “upbraid.” P. of T. i. 1. 93.

'call for “recall.” B. and F.

'came for “became.” Sonn. 139.

'cause for “because.” Macbeth, iii. 6. 21.

'cerns for "concerns." “What 'cerns it you.” T. of Sh. v. 1. 77.

'cide for “decide.” Sonn. 46.

'cital for "recital." “He made a blushing 'cital of himself.” 1 Hen. IV. v. 2. 62.

'collect for “recollect.” B. J. Alch. i. 1.

'come for "become." “Will you not dance?
How 'come you thus estranged?” L. L. L. v. 2. 213.

'coraging for “encouraging.” ASCH. 17.

'count for "account." “Why to a public 'count I might not go.” Hamlet, iv. 7. 17.

'dear'd for “endear'd.” A. and C. i. 4. 4.

'fall for “befall.” Ib. iii. 7. 40. So in O. E.

'friend for “befriend.” Hen. V. iv. 5. 17.

'gain-giving for "against-giving," like our “misgiving.” Hamlet, v. 2. 226.

'gave for “misgave.” Coriol. iv. 5. 157 (perhaps). So "My minde 'gives me that all is not well" (Nares). But the dropping of this essential prefix seems doubtful. "Gave" would make sense, though not such good sense. In “Then sáy | if théy | be trúe. | This (mis-)shá | pen knáve,” Temp. v. 1. 268. Walker with great probability conjectures "mís-shap'd." In “Told thee no lies, made thee no mistakings, serv'd,” Temp. i. 2. 248. it is more probable that the second "thee," not mis-, is slurred.

'get for “beget.” Othello, i. 3. 191.

'gree for “agree.” M. of V. ii. 2. 108; T. G. of V. ii. 4. 183; A. and C. ii. 6. 38.

'haviour for “behaviour.” Hamlet, i. 2. 81.

'joy for “enjoy.” 2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 365.

'larum for "alarum." “Then shall we hear their 'larum and they ours.” Coriol. i. 4. 9. Folio, "their Larum."

'las for “alas.” Othello, v. 1. 111.

'lated for “belated.” A. and C. iii. 11. 3.

'less for “unless.” B. J. Sad Sh. iii. 1.

'longs for “belongs.” Per. ii. Gow. 40.

'longing for “belonging.” Hen. VIII. i. 2. 32; W. T. iii. 2. 104; Hen. V. ii. 4. 80.

'miss for “amiss.” V. and A.

'mong (pronounced) for "among." “Be bríght | and jóv | ial amóng | your gúests | to-níght.” Macbeth, iii. 2. 28.Cel. That líved | amongst mén. |
Oliv. And wéll | he míght | do só.” A. Y. L. iv. 3. 124.

'nighted for “benighted.” Lear, iv. 5. 13.

'nointed for “anointed.” W. T. iv. 4. 813.

'noyance for “annoyance.” Hamlet, iii. 3. 13.

'pairs for “impairs.” B. E. 91. So in O. E.

'pale 2 for "impale," "surround." “And will you 'pale your head in Henry's glory,
And rob his temples of the diadem.” 3 Hen. VI. i. 4. 103.

'parel for “apparel.” Lear, iv. 1. 51.

'plain for "complain." (Fr. plaindre.) “The king hath cause to plain.Lear, iii. 1. 39; Rich. II. i. 3. 175.

'rag'd for “enraged.” Rich. II. ii. 1. 70.

'ray for “array.” B. J. Sad Sh. ii. “Battel ray.N. P. 180. O. E.

'rested for “arrested.” C. of E. iv. 2. 42. Dromio uses whichever form suits the metre best. “I knów | not át | whose súit | he ís | arrés | ted wéll;
But hé's | in a súit | of búff | which résted | him, thát can |
I téll.” C. of E. iv. 2. 43. So should be read “King. Or yield up Aquitaine.
Princess. We (arrest your word.” L. L. L. ii. 1. 160. It has been objected that 'rested is a vulgarism only fit for a Dromio. But this is not the case. It is used by the master Antipholus E. (C. of E. iv. 4. 3).

'say'd for “assay'd.” Per. i. 1. 59. Comp. B. J. Cy.'s Rev. iv. 1.

'scape for "escape" freq.

'scuse for “excuse.” Othello, iv. 1. 80; M. of V. iv. 1. 444.

'stall'd apparently for “forestalled.” B. J. Sejan. iii. 1; for “install'd.” Rich. III. i. 3. 206.

'stonish'd for "astonish'd." “Or' stonish'd as night-wanderers often are.” V.andA.825.

'stroy'd for "destroy'd." “'Stroy'd in dishonour.” A. and C. iii. 11. 54.

'tend for “attend.” Hamlet, iv. 3. 47.

'turn for "return;" 'lotted for "allotted."

unsisting for "unresisting" (explained in the Globe Glossary as "unresting"). “That wounds the unsisting postern with these blows.” M. for M. iv. 2. 92.

This explains how we must scan “Prevént | it, resíst ('sist) | it, lét | it nót | be só.” Rich. III. iv. 1. 148. “A sóoth | sayer bíds | you bewáre ('ware) | the ídes | of
Márch.” J. C. i. 2. 19. “Envíron'd ('viron'd) | me abóut | and hów | led ín | mine
éars.” Rich. III. i. 4. 59. “At án | y tíme | have recóurse ('course) | untó | the
prínces.” Ib. iii. 5. 109. “Lest I' | revenge ('venge)--whát? | Mysélf | upón | mysélf?” Ib. v. 3. 185.

The apostrophe, which has been inserted above in all cases, is only occasionally, and perhaps somewhat at random, inserted in the Folio. It is therefore not always possible to tell when a verb is shortened, as "comes" for "becomes," or when a verb may, perhaps, be invented. For instance, "dear'd" may be a verbal form of the adjective "dear," or a contraction of the verb "endear'd." “Comes (becomes) dear'd (endear'd) by being lack'd.” A. and C. i. 4. 44.

Sometimes, perhaps, the prefix, though written, ought scarcely to be pronounced: “How fáres | the kíng | and's fóllow | ers? (Con) | fíned |
togéther.” Temp. v. 1. 7. “O (de)spiteful love ! unconstant womankind.” T. of Sh. iv. 2. 14. unless the "O" stands by itself. (See 512.) “(Be)lónging | to a mán. | O bé | some óth | er mán.” R. and J. ii. 2. 42.


WRITTEN CONTRACTIONS:-- Other written contractions

Other Contractions are:

Barthol'mew (T. of Sh. Ind. i. 105); Ha'rford for "Haverford" (Rich. III. iv. 5. 7); dis'ple for "disciple" (B. J. Fox, iv. 1; so SPENSER, F. Q. i. 10. 27); ignomy for "ignominy" (M. for M. ii. 4. 111, 1 Hen. IV. v. 4. 100 [Fol.]; genman (UDALL); gentl'man (Ham. [1603] i. 5); gent (SPENSER) freq. for "gentle" (so in O. E.); easly (CHAPMAN, Odyss.) for "easily;" par'lous for "perilous" (Rich. III. ii. 4. 35); inter'gatories for "interrogatories" (M. of V. v. 1. 298); canstick for "candlestick,"-- “I had rather hear a brazen canstick turned.” 1 Hen. IV. iii. 1. 131. Marle (B. J. E. out &c. v. 4) for "marvel;" whe'er for "whether" (O. E.); and the familiar contraction good-bye, "God be with you," which enables us to scan Macbeth, iii. 1. 44. We also find in's for "in his;" th'wert for "thou wert;" you're for "you were;" h'were for "he were." So "she were" is contracted in pronunciation: “'Twere goód | she were spó | ken wíth: | for shé | may
stréw.” Hamlet, iv. 5. 14. Y'are for "you are;" this' for "this is:" “O this' 3 the poison of deep grief; it springs
All from her father's death.” Hamlet, iv. 5. 76.Thís' a | good blóck.” Lear, iv. 6. 187.

So we ought to scan “Lear. Thís is a | dull síght. | Aré you | not Ként? |
Kent. The sáme.” Lear, v. 3. 282. “Sir, thís is | the gént | lemán | I tóld | you óf.” T. of Sh. iv. 4. 20. “Sir, thís is | the hoúse. | Pléase it | you thát | I cáll?” Ib. 1. This, for "this is," is also found in M. for M. v. 1. 131 (Fol. this 'a); Temp. iv. 1. 143; T. of Sh. i. 2. 45. Many other passages, such as T. G. of V. v. 4. 93, M. for M. iv. 2. 103, T. of Sh. iii. 2. 1, require is to be dropped in reading. This contraction in reading is common in other Elizabethan authors; it is at all events as early as Chaucer, Knighte's Tale, 233.

Shall is abbreviated into 'se and 's in Lear, iv. 6. 246; R. and J. i. 3. 9. In the first of these cases it is a provincialism, in the second a colloquialism. A similar abbreviation "I'st," for "I will," "thou'st" for "thou wilt," "thou shalt," &c., seems to have been common in the early Lincolnshire dialect (Gill, quoted by Mr. Ellis). Even where not abbreviated visibly, it seems to have been sometimes audibly, as, “If thát | be trúe | I shall sée | my bóy | agáin.” K. J. iii. 4. 78. “I shall gíve | worse páy | ment.” T. N. iv. 1. 21. “He ís, | Sir Jóhn: | I féar | we shall stáy | too lóng.” 1 Hen. IV. iv. 2. 83.

With seems often to have been pronounced wi', and hence combined with other words. We have "w'us," (B. and F. Elder Brother, v. 1) for "with us," and "take me w'ye" (ib.) for "with ye."

Beside the well-known "doff" "do-off," and "don" "do-on," we also find "dout" for "do-out" (Hamlet, iv. 7. 192); "probal" for "probable" (Othello, ii. 3. 344).


WORDS CONTRACTED IN PRONUNCIATION.


CONTRACTIONS in pronunciation not expressed in writing

Sometimes the spelling does not indicate the contracted pronunciation. For instance, we spell nation as though it had three syllables, but pronounce it as though it had two. In such cases it is impossible to determine whether two syllables coalesce or are rapidly pronounced together. But the metre indicates that one of these two processes takes place.

Syllables ending in vowels are also frequently elided before vowels in reading, though not in writing. Thus: “Prosp. Agaínst | what shoúld | ensúe. |
Mir. How cáme | we ashóre?” Temp. i. 2. 158. “You gíve | your wífe | too unkínd | a cáuse | of grief.” M. of V. v. 1. 175. “No (i)mpéd | imént | betwéen, | bút that | you múst.” Coriol. ii. 3. 236. “There wás | a yíeld | ing; thís | admíts | no (e)xcúse.” Ib. v. 6. 69. Here even the Folio reads "excuse." “It ís | too hárd | a knót | for mé | to untíe.” T. N. ii. 2. 42.

The is often elided before a vowel, and therefore we may either pronounce this is, this' (461), or write th' for the, in “O worthy Goth, this is the incarnate devil.” T. A. v. 1. 40.

Remembering that "one" was pronounced without its present initial sound of w, we shall easily scan (though "the" is not elided in many modern texts)-- “Th' one swéet | ly flátt | ers, th' óth | er féar | eth hárm.” R. of L. 172. “One hálf | of mé | is yóurs, | th' óther | half yóurs.” M. of V. iii. 2. 16. “Ránsom | ing hím (217) | or píty | ing, thréate | ning
th' other.Coriol. i. 6. 36. And this explains “And óf | his óld | expér(i) (467) | ence the) ón | ly dárling.” A. W. ii. 1. 110. “Has shóok | and trém | bled át | the ill néigh | bourhóod.” Hen. V. i. 2. 154. “Whére should | this mú | sic bé? | I' the áir, | or the éarth?Temp. i. 2. 387, 389. (Folio "i' th' air, or th' earth.")


CONTRACTIONS R softens or destroys a following vowel

R frequently softens or destroys a following vowel (the vowel being nearly lost in the burr which follows the effort to pronounce the r). “Whén the | alárum | were strúck | than í | dly sít.” Cor. ii. 2. 80.Ham. Perchánce | t'will wálk | agáin.
Hor. I wárrant | it will.” Hamlet, i. 2. 3. “I' have | cast óff | for éver; | thou shált, | I wárrant thee.” Lear, i. 4. 332. “I bét | ter broók | than floúrish | ing péo | pled tówns.” T. G. of V. v. 4. 3. “Whiles I | in Ire | land nóurish 4 | a míght | y bánd.” 2 Hen. VI. iii. 1. 348. “Place bárrels | of pítch | upón | the fát | al stáke.” 1 Hen. VI. v. 4. 57. “'Tis márle | he stább' | d you nót.” B. J. E. out &c. v. 4; Rich. III. i. 4. 64. “A bárren | detést | ed vále | you sée | it is.” T. A. ii. 3. 92; 2 Hen. VI. ii. 4. 3. So "quarrel," Rich. III. i. 4. 209.

This is very common with "spirit," which softens the following i, or sometimes the preceding i, in either case becoming a monosyllable. “And thén, | they sáy, | no spírit | dares stír | abróad.” Hamlet, i. 1. 161. So scan “Hów now, | spírit, whither | wánder | you?” M. N. D. ii. 1. 1. ("Whither" is a monosyllable. See 466.) This curtailment is expressed in the modern "sprite." So in Lancashire, "brid" for "bird." Hence we can scan “In aíd | whereóf, | wé of | the spírit | ualty.Hen. V. i. 2. 132.

Instances might be multiplied.


CONTRACTIONS R softens or destroys a preceding vowel

R often softens a preceding unaccented vowel.

This explains the apparent Alexandrine “He thínks | me nów | incáp | ablé; | conféd(e)rates.” Temp. i. 2. 111, iv. 1. 140.


CONTRACTIONS Er, el, le final dropped

Er, el, and le final dropped or softened, especially before vowels and silent h. 5 The syllable er, as in letter, is easily interchangeable with re, as lettre. In O. E. "bettre" is found for "better." Thus words frequently drop or soften -er; and in like manner -el and -le, especially before a vowel or h in the next word:

(1) “Repórt | should rénd | er him hoúr | ly tó | your eár.” Cymb. iii. 4. 153. “Intó | a góod | ly búlk. | Good tíme | encoúnter her.” W. T. ii. 1. 20. “This létt | er he eár | ly báde | me gíve | his fáther.” R. and J. v. 3. 275. “You'll bé | good cómpany, | my síst | er and yoú.” MIDDLETON, Witch, ii. 2. “Than e'ér | the mást | er of árts | or gív | er of wít.” B. J. Poetast.

(2) “Trável you | far ón, | or áre | you át | the fárthest?” T. of Sh. iv. 2. 73.

(3) “That máde | great Jóve | to húmb | le him tó | her hánd.” Ib. i. 1. 174. “Géntlemen | and friénds, | I thánk | you fór | your páins.” Ib. iii. 2. 186. “I' am | a géntle | man óf | a cóm | paný.” Hen. V. iv. 1. 39, 42.

"Needle," which in Gammer Gurton rhymes with "feele," is often pronounced as a monosyllable. “Deep clerks she dumbs, and with her needle (Folio) composes.” P. of T. v. Gower, 5; Cymb. i. 1. 168. “Or when she would with sharp needle (Folio) wound
The cambric which she made more sound
By hurting it.” P. of T. iv. Gower, 23.

In the latter passage "needle wóund" is certainly harsh, though Gower does bespeak allowance for his verse. Mr. A. J. Ellis suggests "'Id" for "would," which removes the harshness. “And gríp | ing ít | the néedle | his fíng | er pricks.” R. of L. 319. “Their néedles | to lán | ces, ánd | their gént | le héarts.” K. J. v. 2. 157. “To thréad | the póst | ern óf | a smáll | needle's éye.” Rich. II. v. 5. 17.

"Needle's" seems harsh, and it would be more pleasing to modern ears to scan "the póst | ern óf a | small née | dle's éye." But this verse in conjunction with P. of T. iv. Gower, 23, may indicate that "needle" was pronounced as it was sometimes written, very much like "neeld," and the d in "neeld" as in "vild" (vile) may have been scarcely perceptible. “A sámple | to the yoúng | est, tó | the móre | matúre.” Cymb. i. 1. 48. “The cómm | on peóple | by númb | ers swárm | to ús.” 3 Hen. VI. iv. 2. 2; T. A. i. 1. 20.

And, even in the Sonnets: “And troúble | deaf heáv | en wíth | my bóot | less críes.” Sonn. 29. “Uncle Már | cus, sínce | it ís | my fá | ther's mínd.” T. A. v. 3. 1.Duke F. And gét | you fróm | our cóurt. |
Ros. Me, uncle? |
Duke F. You, cóusin?” A. Y. L. i. 3. 44.


CONTRACTIONS Th and v dropped between two vowels

Whether and ever are trequently written or pronounced whe'r or where and e'er. The th is also softened in either, hither, other, father, &c., and the v in having, evil, &c.

It is impossible to tell in many of these cases what degree of "softening" takes place. In "other," for instance, the th is so completely dropped that it has become our ordinary "or," which we use without thought of contraction. So "whether" is often written "wh'er" in Shakespeare. Some, but it is impossible to say what, degree of "softening," though not expressed in writing, seems to have affected th in the following words:--

Brother. “But fór | our trúst | y bróther | -in-láw, | the ábbot.” Rich. II. v. 3. 137.

Either.Either léd | or drív | en ás | we poínt | the wáy.” J. C. iv. 1. 23; Rich. III. i. 2. 64, iv. 4. 82. “Are híred | to béar | their stáves; | either thóu, | Macbéth.” Macbeth, v. 7. 18; M. N. D. ii. 1. 32.

Further. “As if | thou never (né'er) | walk'dst fúrther | than Fins | bury.” 1 Hen. IV. iii. 1. 257.

Hither. “'Tis hé | that sént us ('s) | hither nów | to slaúght | er thée.” Rich. III. i. 4. 250.

So the Quartos. The Folio, which I have usually followed in other plays, differs greatly from the Quartos in Rich. III. Its alterations generally tend to the removal of seeming difficulties.

Neither.Neither háve | I món | ey nór | commód | itý.” M. of V. i. 1. 178.

Rather.Ráther than | have máde | that sáv | age dúke | thine héir.” 3 Hen. VI. i. 1. 224. So Othello, iii. 4. 25; Rich. II. iv. 1. 16.

Thither.Thither gó | these néws | as fást | as hórse | can cárry 'em.” 2 Hen. VI. i. 4. 78.

Whether. “Good sír, | say whéther | you'll áns | wer mé | or nó.” C. of E. iv. 1. 60.

Perhaps “Which hé | desérves | to lóse. | Whether he wás
(h' was: 461) | combíned.” Macbeth, i. 3. 111. “But sée, | whether Brút | us bé | alíve | or déad.” J. C. v. 4. 30; Rich. III. iv. 2. 120. “A héart | y wélcome. | Whether thóu | beest hé | or nó.” Tempest, v. 1. 111.

Whither. “What meáns | he nów? | Go ásk | him whíther | he góes.” 1 Hen. VI. ii. 3. 28.Glouc. The king | is ín | high ráge. |
Corn. Whíther is | he góing?” Lear, ii. 4. 299. So scan “Hów now, | spírit ! whither | wánder | yoú?” M. N. D. ii. 1. 1.

This perhaps explains: “To fínd | the (462) other fórth, | and bý | advént | uring
bóth.” M. of V. i. 1. 143. But see 501.

Having. “Hów could | he sée | to dó | them? Háving | made óne.” M. of V. iii. 2. 124.Having lóst | the faír | discóv | ery óf | her wáy.” V. and A. 828. “Our grán | dam éarth | having thís | distémp | eratúre.” 1 Hen. IV. iii. 1. 34.

So Rich. III. i. 2. 235; T. of A. v. 1. 61; A. W. v. 3. 123; Cymb. v. 3. 45.

In all of these verses it may seem difficult for modern readers to understand how the v could be dropped. But it presents no more difficulty than the v in "ever," "over."

Evil.

It is also dropped in "evil" and "devil" (Scotch "de'il"). “The évils | she hátch'd | were nót | efféct | ed, só.” Cymb. v. 5. 60. “Of hórr | id héll | can cóme | a dévil | more dámn'd.” Macbeth, iv. 3. 56. “Evil-éyed | untó | you; y' áre (461) | my príson | er, bút.” Cymb. i. 1. 72.

So Rich. III. i. 2. 76. Of course, therefore, the following is not an Alexandrine: “Repróach | and díss | olú | tion háng | eth óver him.” Rich. II. ii. 1. 258.

Similarly the d is dropped in "madam," which is often pronounced "ma'am," a monosyllable.

The v is of course still dropped in hast for havest, has for haveth or haves. In the Folio, has is often written ha's, and an omission in other verbs is similarly expressed, as "sit's" for "sitteth" (K. J. ii. 1. 289).


CONTRACTIONS I unaccented in a polysyllable dropped

I in the middle of a trisyllable, if unaccented, is frequently dropped, or so nearly dropped as to make it a favourite syllable in trisyllabic feet.

(1) “Judí | cious púnish | ment! 'Twás | this flésh | begót.” Lear, iii. 4. 76; M. for M. i. 3. 39. “Our rév | (e)rend cárdi | nal cárried. | Líke it, | your
gráce.” Hen. VIII. i. 1. 100, 102, 105, &c. “With whóm | the Ként | ishmén | will wíll | ingly ríse.” 3 Hen. VI. i. 2. 41. “Which áre | the móv | ers óf | a lánguish | ing déath.” Cymb. i. 5. 9. “My thóught | whose múr | der yét | is bút | fantástical.Macbeth, i. 3. 139. “That lóv'd | your fáther: | the rési | due óf | your fórtune.” A. Y. L. ii. 7. 196.Prómising | to bríng | it tó | the Pór | pentíne.” C. of E. v. 1. 222. So 1 Hen. VI. iv. 1. 166.

(2) Very frequently before ly: “The méa | sure thén | of óne | is éasi | ly tóld.” L. L. L. v. 2. 190. “His shórt | thick néck | cannót | be eás | ily hármed.” V. and A. 627.Préttily | methóught | did pláy | the ór | atór.” 1 Hen. VI. iv. 1. 175.

(3) And before ty: “Such bóld | hostíli | ty, téach | ing his ('s) dú | teous lánd.” 1 Hen. IV. iv. 3. 44. “Of gód- | like ámi | ty, whích | appéars | most stróngly.” M. of V. iii. 4. 3. “A'riel | and áll | his quáli | ty.
Prosp. Hást | thou, spírit?” Tempest, i. 2. 193. “Of smóoth | civíli | ty yét | am I ín | land bréd.” A. Y. L. ii. 7. 96. Compare BUTLER, Hudibras, part ii. cant. 3. 945:

Which ín | their dárk | fatál | 'ties lúrk | ing
At dés | tin'd pér | iods fáll | a-wórk | ing.

This explains the apparent Alexandrines: “Thóu wilt | prove hís. | Táke him | to prí | son, ófficer.M. for M. iii. 2. 32. “Some trícks | of dés | perát | ion, áll | but máriners.Temp. i. 1. 211. “One dówle | that's ín | my plúme, | my féll | ow mínisters.Temp. iii. 2. 65, v. 1. 28; M. for M. iv. 5. 6; Macb. i. 5. 49. “Thís is | the gént | lemán | I tóld | your ládyship.T. G. of V. ii. 4. 87. “A vírt | uous gént | lewóm | an, míld | and beaútiful.T. G. of V. iv. 4. 184. “And té | diousnéss | the límbs | and oút | ward flóurishes.Hamlet, ii. 2. 91.

Sometimes these contractions are expressed in writing, as "par'lous," Rich. III. ii. 4. 35. This is always a colloquial form.


CONTRACTIONS Any vowel unaccented in a polysyllable may be dropped

Any unaccented syllable of a polysyllable (whether containing i or any other vowel) may sometimes be softened and almost ignored. Thus--

a “Hóld thee, | from thís, | for éver. | The bárb | arous
Scýthian.” Lear, i. 1. 118. “Sáy by | this tó | ken I' | desíre | his cómpany.” M. for M. iv. 3. 144.

ed “With thém | they thínk | on. Thíngs | withoút | all
rémedy.” Macbeth, iii. 2. 11.Men. Yoú must | retúrn | and ménd | it.
Sen. Thére's | no rémedy.” Coriol. iii. 2. 26; T. N. iii. 4. 367.

em “All bró | ken ímple | ments óf | a rú | ined hóuse.” T. of A. iv. 2. 16. “Joín'd with | an énemy | procláim'd; | and fróm | his cóffers.” Hen. V. ii. 2. 168; M. for M. ii. 2. 180; Macb. iii. 1. 105.

en “The méss | engers fróm | our sís | ter ánd | the kíng.” Lear, ii. 2. 54. “'Tis dóne | alréa | dy, ánd | the méss | enger góne.” A. and C. iii. 6. 31; A. W. iii. 2. 111.

Passenger is similarly used.

er “In oúr | last cónference, | páss'd in | probá | tion wíth
you.” Macbeth, iii. 1. 80.

es “This ís | his máj | esty, sáy | your mínd | to hím.” A. W. ii. 1. 98. “I thát | am rúde | ly stámped, | and wánt | love's májesty.” Rich. III. i. 1. 16.

Majesty is a quasi-dissyllable in Rich. III. i. 3. 1, 19, ii. 1. 75; Rich. II. ii. 1. 141, 147, iii. 2. 113, v. 2. 97, 3. 35; Macbeth, iii. 4. 2, 121.

ess “Our púr | pose néc | essary ánd | not én | vious.” J. C. ii. 1. 178.

i “Lét us | be sácrific | ers ánd | not bút | chers, Caíus.” Ib. ii. 1. 166. “The ínn | ocent mílk | in ít | most ínn | ocent moúth.” W. T. iii. 2. 101. “There táke | an ín | ventorý | of áll | I háve.” Hen. VIII. iii. 2. 452.

ua “Go thóu | to sánctua | ry [sanctu'ry or sanct'ry], ánd | good
thóughts | posséss thee.” Rich. III. iv. 1. 94. “Shall flý | out óf (457 a) | itsélf; | nor sléep | nor sánctuary.Coriol. i. 10. 19. “Some réad | Alvár | ez' Hélps | to Gráce,
Some Sánctua | ry óf | a tróub | led sóul.” COLVIL'S Whig Supplication, i. 1186 (Walker).

u “When lív | ing líght | should kíss | it; 'tís | unnátural.” Macbeth, ii. 4. 10; Hen. V. iv. 2. 13. “Thoughts spécu | latíve | their ún | sure hópes | reláte.” Macbeth, v. 4. 19. “And né | ver líve | to shów | the incrédu | lous wórld.” 2 Hen. IV. iv. 5. 153. “Hów you | were bórne | in hánd, | how cróss'd, | the ínstruments.” Macbeth, iii. 1. 81, iv. 3. 239.


CONTRACTIONS Polysyllabic names with but one accent

Hence polysyllabic names often receive but one accent at the end of the line in pronunciation.

Proper names, not conveying, as other nouns do, the origin and reason of their formation, are of course peculiarly liable to be modified; and this modification will generally shorten rather than lengthen the name. “To yoúr | own cón | science, sír, | befóre | Políxenes.W. T. iii. 2. 47. “That ére | the sún | shone bríght | on. O'f | Hermíone.Ib. v. 1. 95. “The rár | est óf | all wó | men. Gó, | Cleómenes.Ib. 112. “To oúr | most fáir | and prínce | ly cóus | in Kátharine.Hen. V. v. 2. 4. “My bróth | er ánd | thy ún | cle, cálled | António.Temp. i. 2. 66. “My lórd | Bassán | io, sínce | you have fóund | António.M. of V. i. 1. 59: so often in this play. “Then all | a-fíre | with mé | ; the kíng's | son Férdinand.Temp. i. 2. 212. “I rát | ifý | thís my | rich gíft. | O Férdinand.Ib. iv. 1. 8. “Then pár | don mé | my wróngs. | But hów | should
Próspero?Ib. v. 1. 119. “I'll áf | ter, móre | to bé | revenged | on E'glamour.T. G. of V. v. 2. 51. “Whát it | contáins. | I'f you | shall sée | Cordélia.Lear, iii. 1. 46. “Upón | such sácr | ifíc | es, mý | Cordélia.Ib. v. 3. 20, 245. So throughout the play. “When thóu | liest hów | ling. Whát! | the faír | Ophélia.Hamlet, v. 1. 265. “At Gré | cian swórd | contémn | ing. Téll | Valéria.Coriol. i. 3. 46. “Here, íf | it líke | your hón | our. Sée | that Cláudio.M. for M. ii. 1. 33, iii. 1. 48. “So thén | you hópe | of pár | don fróm | lord A'ngelo?Ib. iii. 1. 1, iv. 3. 147, i. 4. 79. “I sée | my són | Antíph | olús | and Drómio.C. of E. v. 1. 196. “The fórm | of déath. | Meantíme | I wrít | to Rómeo.R. and J. v. 3. 246. “Lóoks it | not líke | the kíng? | Márk it, | Horátio.Hamlet, i. 1. 43. “They lóve | and dóte | on; cáll | him boúnt | (e)ous Búckingham.Hen. VIII. ii. 1. 52; Rich. III. iv. 4. 508, ii. 2. 123.Vaux. The greát | ness óf | his pér | son.
Buck. Náy, | Sir Nícolas.Hen. VIII. ii. 1. 100. “But I' | beséech | you, whát's | becóme | of Kátharine?Ib. iv. 1. 22. “Sáw'st thou | the mél | anchól | y Lórd | Northúmberland?Rich. III. v. 3. 68. “Thérefore | presént | to hér, | as sóme | time Márgaret.Ib. iv. 4. 274. “And yóu | our nó | less lóv | ing són | of A'lbany.Lear, i. 1. 43. “Exásp | erátes, | makes mád | her sís | ter Góneril.Ib. v. 1. 60. “As fít | the bríd | al. Beshréw | me múch, | Emília.Othello, iii. 4. 150. “Is cóme | from Cæ's | ar; thére | fore héar | it, A'ntony.A. and C. i. 1. 27, i. 5. 21, &c. “Than Clé | opátr | a, nór | the quéen | of Ptólemy.Ib. i. 4. 6. “With thém, | the twó | brave beárs, | Wárwick | and
Móntague.3 Hen. VI. v. 7. 10.

Less frequently in the middle of the line: “My lórd | of Búckingham, | if mý | weak ór | atóry.” Rich. III. iii. 1. 37. “Cóusin | of Búck | ingham ánd | you ságe, | grave mén.” Ib. iii. 7. 217. “Lóoking | for A'ntony. | But áll | the chárms | of lóve.” A. and C. ii. 1. 20. “Did sláy | this Fórtinbras; | who, bý | a seál'd | compáct
(490).” Hamlet, i. 1. 86. “Thrift, thríft, | Horátio, | the fú | nerál | bak'd méats.” Ib. i. 2. 180. “He gáve | to Alexánder; | to Ptólem | y hé | assígned.” Ib. iii. 6. 15. “Thou árt | Hermíone; | or ráth | er, thoú | art shé.” W. T. v. 3. 25. “To sóft | en A'ngelo, | and thát's | my píth | of búsiness.” M. for M. i. 4. 70.

Enobárbus in A. and C. has but one accent, wherever it stands in the verse: “Bear háte | ful mémo | ry, póor | Enobár | bus did.” A. and C. iv. 9. 9, &c. “Of yóur | great pré | decéssor, | King E'dward | the Thírd.” Hen. V. i. 2. 248.

It may here be remarked that great licence is taken with the metre wherever a list of names occurs: “That Harry duke of Hereford, Rainold lord Cobham,
Sir Thomas Erpingham, Sir John Ramston,
Sir John Norbery, Sir Robert Waterton, and Francis Quoint.” Rich. II. ii. 1. 279, 283, 284. “The spirits
Of valiant Shirley, Stafford, Blunt, are in my arms.” 1 Hen. IV. v. 4. 4. “Whither away, Sir John Falstaffe, in such haste?” 1 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 104. “John duke of Norfolk, Walter Lord Ferrers.” Rich. III. v. 5. 13. “Lord Cromwell of Wingfield, Lord Furnival of Sheffield.” Ib. iv. 7. 166. “Sir Gilbert Talbot, Sir William Stanley.” Ib. iv. 5. 10.

In the last examples, and in some others, the pause between two names seems to license either the insertion or omission of a syllable.


CONTRACTIONS Power, prowess, being, knowing, monosyllables

Words in which a light vowel is preceded by a heavy vowel or diphthong are frequently contracted, as power, jewel, lower, doing, going, dying, playing, prowess, &c. “The whích | no sóon | er hád | his prówess | confírm'd.” Macbeth, v. 8. 41. Comp. “And he that routs most pigs and cows,
The fórm | idáb | lest mán | of prówess.Hudib. iii. 3. 357. Perhaps “Which bóth | thy dú | ty ówes | and óur | power cláims.” A. W. ii. 3. 168. (This supposes "our" emphasized by antithesis, but "and our pów | er cláims" (ELLIS) may be the correct scanning.)

Being.-- “That wíth | his pér | emptór | y "sháll" | being pút.” Coriol. iii. 1. 94, 2. 81. “The sóv | ereigntý | of eí | ther béing | so great.” R. of L. 69.

This explains the apparent Alexandrines: “And béing | but a tóy | that ís | no gríef | to gíve.” Rich. III. ii. 1. 114. “Withóut | a párall | el, thése | being áll | my stúdy.” Tempest, i. 2. 74.

Doing.-- “Can láy | to béd | for éver: | whiles yóu, | doing thús.” Ib. ii. 1. 284.

Seeing.-- “Or séeing | it óf | such chíld | ish fríend | linéss.” Coriol. ii. 3. 183. “I'll in | mysélf | to sée, | and in thée | seeing íll.” Rich. II. ii. 1. 94. “That yóu | at súch | times séeing | me né | ver sháll.” Hamlet, i. 5. 172.

-ying.-- “And próph | esýing | with ác | cents tér | rible.” Macbeth, ii. 3 62.

This may explain “Lóck'd in | her món(u) [468] | ment. Shé'd | a próphe)- |
sying féar.” A. and C. iv. 14. 120.

So with other participles, as “They, knówing | dame E'l | eanór's | aspír | ing húmour.” 2 Hen. VI. i. 2. 97.

The rhythm seems to demand that "coward" should be a quasimonosyllable in “Wrong ríght, | base nóble, | old yoúng, | coward vál | iánt.” T. A. iv. 1. 29. "Noble" a monosyllable. (See 465.) “Yét are | they páss | ing cówardly. | But I' | beséech you.” Coriol. i. 1. 207.


CONTRACTIONS -es or -s dropped after s, se, ce, ge

The plural and possessive cases of nouns in which the singular ends in s, se, ss, ce, and ge, are frequently written, and still more frequently pronounced, without the additional syllable: “A's the | dead | cár | casses óf | unbúr | ied mén.” Coriol. iii. 3. 122. “Thínking | upón | his sér | vices tóok | from yóu.” Ib. ii. 2. 231. “Their sénse | are [Fol. sic] shút.” Macbeth, v. 1. 29. “My sénse | are stópped.” Sonn. 112. “These vérse.DANIEL. “I'll tó | him; hé | is híd | at Láwr | ence' céll.” R. and J. iii. 2. 141. “Great kings of France and England! That I have laboured,
Your míght | inéss | on bóth | parts bést | can wítness.” Hen. V. v. 2. 28.

"Place" is probably used for "places" in “The frésh | springs, bríne- | pits, bár | ren pláce | and
fértile.” Tempest, i. 2. 338. “These twó | Antíph | olús [Folio], | these twó | so líke.” C. of E. v. 1. 357. “Are there balance?M. of V. iv. 1. 255. “(Here) have I, thy schoolmaster, made thee more profit
Than óth | er prín | cess [Folìo] cán | that háve | more
tíme.” Temp. i. 2. 173. “Sits on his horse back at mine hostess door.” K. J. ii. 1. 289 (Folio). “Looked pále | when théy | did héar | of Clár | ence (Folio)
déath.” Rich. III. ii. 1. 137, iii. 1. 144. Probably the s is not sounded (horse is the old plural) in “And Duncan's horses (a thing most strange and certain).” Macbeth, ii. 4. 14. “Lies in their purses, and whoso empties them.” Rich. II. ii. 2. 130.

Even after ge the s was often suppressed, even where printed. Thus: “How many ways shall Carthage's glory grow!” SURREY'S Æneid IV. (Walker).

But often the s was not written. So “In violating marriage sacred law.” Edward III. (1597 A.D.) (LAMB.)

The s is perhaps not pronounced in “Conjéct | (u)ral márr | iages); mák | ing párt | ies stróng.” Coriol. i. 1. 198. “Are brá | zen ím | ages óf | canón (491) | iz'd sáints.” 2 Hen. VI. i. 3. 63. “The ím | ages óf | revólt | and flý | ing óff!” Lear, ii. 4. 91. “O'ff with | his són | George's héad.” Rich. III. v. 3. 344. “Létters | should nót | be knówn, | riches póv | ertý.” Tempest, ii. 1. 150.

This may perhaps explain the apparent Alexandrines: “I próm | is'd yóu | redréss | of thése | same griévances.2 Hen. IV. iv. 2. 113. “This déi | ty in | my bós | om twén | ty cónsciences.Temp. ii. 1. 278. “And stráight | discláim | their tóngues? | Whát are | your
óffices?Coriol. iii. 1. 35. “Popíl | ius Lé | na spéaks | not óf | our púr | poses.J. C. iii. 1. 23. “She lév | ell'd át | our púr | poses, ánd | being (470) róyal,” A. and C. v. 2. 339. (or "| our púrposes), | and bé | ing róyal.") “A thíng | most brú | tish, I' | endówed | thy púrposes.Tempest, i. 2. 357. “Nor whén | she púrposes | retúrn. | Beséech | your híghness.” Cymb. iv. 3. 15. “As blánks, | benévo | lences ánd | I wót | not whát.” Rich. II. ii. 1. 250. “My sérv | ices whích | I have ('ve) dóne | the Sígn | iorý.” Othello, i. 2. 18. “These pípes | and thése | convéy | ances óf | our blóod.” Coriol. v. 1. 54.Profésses | to persuáde | the kíng | his són's | alíve.” Temp. ii. 1. 236.

Either "whom I" is a detached foot (499) or s is mute in “Whom I', | with thís | obéd | ient stéel, | three ínches of it
(inch of 't).” Tempest, ii. 1. 285.


CONTRACTIONS -ed dropped after d and t

Ed following d or t is often not written (this elision is very old: see 341, 342), and, when written, often not pronounced. “I hád | not quóted him. | I féar'd | he díd | but trífle.” Hamlet, ii. 1. 112.Reg. That ténded (Globe, 'tend') | upón | my fáther.
Glou. I knów | not, mádam.” Lear, ii. 1. 97. “Since nót | to bé | avóided | it fálls | on mé.” 1 Hen. IV. v. 4. 13. “But júst | ly ás | you háve | excéeded | all prómise.” A. Y. L. i. 2. 156. “For tréas | on éxe | cuted ín | our láte | king's dáys.” 1 Hen. VI. ii. 4. 91. “And só, | ríveted | with faíth | untó (457) | your flésh.” M. of V. v. 1. 169. “Be sóon | colléct | ed and áll | things thóught | upón.” Hen. V. i. 2. 305. “I's to | be fríghted | out of féar: | and ín | that móod.” A. and C. iii. 13. 196. “Was ápt | ly fítted | and nát | (u)rally | perfórm'd.” T. of Sh. Ind. 1. 87. “Is nów | convérted: | but nów | I wás | the lórd.” M. of V. iii. 2. 169. “Which I' | mistrústed | not: fáre | well thére | fore, Héro.” M. Ado, ii. 1. 189. “All ún | avóided | is the dóom | of dést | iný.” Rich. III. iv. 4. 217. but here "destiny" (467) may be a dissyllable, and -ed sonant.

This explains the apparent Alexandrine: “I thús | negléct | ing wórld | ly énds | all dédicated.Temp. i. 2. 89. “Shóuting | their ém | ulá | tion. Whát | is gránted them?” Coriol. i. 1. 218.

So strong was the dislike to pronouncing two dental syllables together, that "it" seems nearly or quite lost after "set" and "let" in the following: “I húmb | ly sét it | at your wíll; | but fór | my místress.” Cymb. iv. 3. 9. “To hís | expér | ienced tóngue; | yet lét it | please bóth.” Tr. and Cr. i. 3. 68. “Yóu are a | young húnt | sman, Már | cus: lét it alone.” T. A. iv. 2. 101. “You sée | is kíll'd | in hím: | and yét it | is dánger.” Lear, iv. 7. 79.

So perhaps “Of éx | cellént | dissémb | ling; ánd | let it lóok.” A. and C. i. 3. 79.

But more probably, "dissémbling; | and lét | it lóok."


CONTRACTIONS -est dropped in superlatives after dentals and liquids

Est in superlatives is often pronounced st after dentals and liquids. A similar euphonic contraction with respect to est in verbs is found in E. E. Thus "bindest" becomes "binst," "eatest" becomes "est." Our "best" is a contraction for "bet-est." “Twó of | the swéet'st | compán | ions ín | the wórld.” Cymb. v. 5. 349. “At yóur | kind'st léisure.” Macbeth, ii. 1. 24. “The stérn'st | good níght.” Ib. ii. 2. 4.Secret'st.Ib. iii. 4. 126. “Thís is | thy éld'st | son's són.” K. J. ii. 1. 177.

So Temp. v. 1. 186. “Since déath | of mý | dear'st móth | er.” Cymb. iv. 2. 190. “The lóy | al'st hús | band thát | did é'er | plight tróth.” Ib. i. 1. 96.

A. W. ii. 1. 163, "great'st." "The sweet'st, dear'st."--W. T. iii. 2. 202. "Near'st."--Macb. iii. 1. 118. "Unpleasant'st."--M. of V. iii. 2. 254. "Strong'st."--Rich. II. iii. 3. 201. "Short'st."--Ib. v. 1. 80. "Common'st."--Ib. v. 3. 17. "Faithfull'st."--T. N. v. 1. 117.

This lasted past the Elizabethan period. “Know there are rhymes which fresh and fresh apply'd
Will cure the arrant'st puppy of his pride.” POPE, Imit. Hor. Epist. i. 60. The Folio reads "stroakst," and "made" in “Thou stróakedst | me ánd | madest múch | of mé, | would'st
gíve me.” Tempest, i. 2. 333. But the accent on "and" is harsh. Perhaps "and má | dest."


VARIABLE SYLLABLES.


VARIABLE SYLLABLES. Ed final, mute and sonant in the same line

Ed final is often mute and sonant in the same line. Just as one superlative inflection -est does duty for two closely connected adjectives (398): “The generous and gravest citizens.” M. for M. iv. 6. 13. and the adverbial inflection ly does duty for two adverbs (397): “And she will speak most bitterly and strange.” M. for M. v. 1. 36. so, when two participles ending in -ed are closely connected by "and," the ed in one is often omitted in pronunciation. “Despís'd, | distréss | ed, hát | ed, márt | yr'd, kílled.” R. and J. iv. 5. 59. “We have wíth | a léav | en'd ánd | prepár | ed chóice.” M. for M. i. 1. 52. “To thís | unlóok'd | for, ún | prepár | ed pómp.” K. J. ii. 1. 560.

In the following the -ed sonant precedes: “That wére | embátt | ailéd | and ránk'd | in Ként.” K. J. iv. 2. 200. “We áre | impréss | ed ánd | engág'd | to fíght.” 1 Hen. IV. i. 1. 21. “For thís | they háve | engróss | ed ánd | pil'd úp.” 2 Hen. IV. iv. 5. 71. “Thou cháng | ed ánd | self-cóu | er'd thíng, | for sháme.” Lear, iv. 2. 62.

At the end of a line ed is often sounded after er: “Which hís | hell-góv | ern'd árm | hath bútc | heréd.Rich. III. i. 2. 74.

See J. C. ii. 1. 208; iii. 1. 17; iii. 2. 7, 10; iv. 1. 47; v. 1. 1. So Rich. III. iii. 7. 136; iv. 3. 17; v. 3. 92; M. N. D. iii. 2. 18, &c. This perhaps arises in part from the fact that "er" final in itself (478) has a lengthened sound approaching to a dissyllable.

Ed is very frequently pronounced in the participles of words ending in fy, "glorify," &c. “Most pút | rifí | ed córe, | so fáir | withóut.” Tr. and Cr. v. 9. 1. “My mórt | ifí | ed spírit. | Now bíd | me rún.” J. C. ii. 1. 324. “Váughan | and áll | that háve | miscárr | iéd.Rich. III. v. 1. 5. “The Frénch | and E'ng | lish thére | miscár | riéd.M. of V. ii. 8. 29. “That cáme | too lág | to sée | him bú | riéd.Ib. ii. 1. 90. So frequently in other Elizabethan authors. Also when preceded by rn, rm, "turned," "confirmed," &c., and in "followed:" “As théy | us tó | our trénch | es fóll | owéd.Coriol. i. 4. 42.

On the other hand, -ed is mute in “By whát | by-páths | and ín | diréct | crook'd wáys.” 2 Hen. IV. iv. 5. 185.

In “Warder. We dó | no óth | erwíse | than wé | are will'd.
Glou. Who wíll | ed yóu? | Or whóse | will stánds |
but míne,” 1 Hen. VI. i. 3. 11. it would seem that the latter "willed" is the more emphatic of the two, and it will probably be found that in many cases where two participles are connected, the more emphatic has ed sonant. Thus the former "banished" is the more emphatic of the two in “Hence bán | ishéd | is bánish'd fróm | the wórld.” R. and J. iii. 3. 19.


VARIABLE SYLLABLES. Words prolonged by emphasis

A word repeated twice in a verse often receives two accents the first time, and one accent the second, when it is less emphatic the second time than the first. Or the word may occupy the whole of a foot the first time, and only part of a foot the second. Thus in “Fáre (480) | well, gen | tle mís | tress: fáre | well, Nán.” M. W. of W. iii. 4. 97.Fáre (480) | well, gén | tle cóus | in. Cóz, | farewéll.K. J. iii. 2. 17. “Of gréat | est júst | ice. Wrí | te (484), wríte, | Rináldo.” A. W. iii. 4. 29. “These ví | olént | desíres | have vío | lent énds.” R. and J. ii. 6. 9. “With hér | that hát | eth thée | and hátes | us áll.” 2 Hen. VI. ii. 4. 52. Here the emphasis is on "ends" and "us all." “Duke. Stíll (486) | so crú | el?
Oliv. Stíll | so cón | stant, lórd.” T. N. v. 1. 113.Com. Knów (484), | I práy | you.
Coriol. I' | 'll knów | no fúrther.” Coriol. iii. 3. 87.Déso | late, dés | olate, wíll | I hénce | and díe.” Rich. II. i. 2. 73.

The former "Antony" is the more emphatic in “But wére | I Brútus
And Brú | tus A'n | toný, | thére were | an A'ntony.J. C. iii. 2. 231.

So, perhaps, the more emphatic verb has the longer form in “He róus | eth úp | himsélf | and mákes | a páuse.” R. of L. 541. This is often the case with diphthongic monosyllables. See 484. Compare “Nów | it schéy | neth, nów | it réyn | eth fáste.” CHAUCER, C. T. 1537.


VARIABLE SYLLABLES. Words shortened by want of emphasis

On the other hand, when the word increases in emphasis, the converse takes place. “And lét | thy blóws, | dóubly | redóub | (eléd.Rich. II. i. 3. 80.Virg. O, héavens, | O, héav | ens.
Coriol. Náy, | I prí | thee, wóman.” Coriol. iv. 1. 12. “Wás it | his spírit | by spír | its táught | to wríte?” Sonn. 86. “And wíth | her pérson | age, hér | tall pér | sonáge.M. N. D. iii. 2. 292.Március | would háve | all fróm | you--Már | ciús,
Whom láte | you have námed | for cónsul.” Coriol. iii. 1. 95. Even at the end of the verse Marcius has but one accent, as a rule. But here it is unusually emphasized. “And whé'r | he rún | or flý | they knów | not whéther.V. and A. 304.King. Be pát | ient, gént | le quéen, | and I' | will stáy.
Queen. Whó can | be pát | iént | in thése | extrémes.” 3 Hen. VI. i. 1. 215-6.Yield, my lórd | protéct | or, yí | eld, Wínch | estér.” 1 Hen. VI. iii. 1. 112.Citizens. Yield, Már | cius, yí | eld.
Men. Hé | ar (480) mé, | one wórd.” Coriol. iii. 1. 215. “A dévil (466), | a bór | n (485) dé | vil, ín | whose náture.” Tempest, iv. 1. 188. So arrange “You héavens (512), |
Gíve me | that pát | ience, pát | iénce | I néed.” Lear, ii. 4. 274. ("Patient" was treated as a trisyllable by the orthoepists of the time.) “Being hád, | to trí | umph bé | ing (on the other hand)
láck'd, | to hópe.” Sonn. 52. Similarly “Which árt | my néar'st | and déar | est én | emý.” 1 Hen. IV. iii. 2. 123.

On the other hand, perhaps, "sire," and not "cówards," is a dissyllable in “Cowards fá | ther cówards, | and báse | things sí | re base.” Cymb. iv. 2. 26. So, perhaps, “Pánting | he líes | and bréath | eth ín | her fáce.” V. and A. 62. Here "lies" is unemphatic, "breatheth" emphatic.

For diphthongic monosyllables see 484.

The same variation is found in modern poetry. In the following line there is, as it were, an antithetical proportion in which the two middle terms are emphatic, while the extremes are unemphatic: “Tówer be | yond tów | er, spí | re bé | yond spíre.TENNYSON.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. R and l after a consonant introduce an additional syllable, e.g. "Eng(e)land"

R, and liquids in dissyllables, are frequently pronounced as though an extra vowel were introduced between them and the preceding consonant: “The párts | and grá | ces óf | the wrés | t(e)lér.” A. Y. L. ii. 2. 13. “In séc | ond ácc | ent óf | his órd | (i)nánce.” Hen. V. ii. 4. 126.

The Folio inserts i here, and e, Ib. iii. Prologue, 26. In the latter passage the word is a dissyllable. “If yóu | will tár | ry, hó | ly pílg | (e)rím.” A. W. iii. 5. 43. “While shé | did cáll | me rás | cal fíd | d(e)lér.” T. of Sh. ii. 1. 158. “The lífe | of hím. | Knów'st thou | this cóun | t(e)rý?” T. N. i. 2. 21. So Coriol. i. 9. 17; 2 Hen. VI. i. 1. 206. “And thése | two Dróm | ios, óne | in sémb | (e)lánce.” C. of E. v. 1. 358; T. G. of V. i. 3. 84. “Yóu, the | great tóe | of thís | assémb | l(e)ý.” Coriol. i. 1. 158.Cor. Be thús | to thém. |
Patr. You dó | the nó | b(e)lér.” Ib. iii. 2. 6.Edm. Sír, you | speak nó | b(e)lý. |
Reg. Whý is | this réason'd?” Lear, v. 1. 28.

(?) “Go séarch | like nó | b(e)lés, | like nó | ble súbjects.” P. of T. ii. 4. 50.

The e is actually inserted in the Folio of Titus Andronicus in "brethren:" “Give Mú | cius búr | ial wíth | his bréth | erén.” T. A. i. 1. 347. And this is by derivation the correct form, as also is "childeren." “These áre | the pár | ents óf | these chíl | d(e)rén.” C. of E. v. 1. 360. “I gó. | Wríte to | me vér | y shórt | (e)lý.” Rich. III. iv. 4. 428. “A rót | ten cáse | abídes | no hánd | (e)líng.” 2 Hen. IV. iv. 1. 161. “The fríends | of Fránce | our shróuds | and táck | (e)língs.” 3 Hen. VI. v. 3. 18. “Than Ból | ingbróke's | retúrn | to E'ng | (e)lánd.” Rich. II. iv. 1. 17. “And méan | to máke | her quéen | of E'ng | (e)lánd.” Rich. III. iv. 4. 263. So in E. E. "Engeland." “To bé | in án | ger ís | impí | etý;
But whó | is mán | that ís | not án | g(e)rý?” T. of A. iii. 5. 56. in which last passage the rhyme indicates that angry must be pronounced as a trisyllable. “And stréngth | by límp | ing swáy | disá | b(e)léd.” Sonn. 66. So also in the middle of lines-- “Is Cáde | the són | of Hén | (e)rý | the Fífth?” 2 Hen. VI. iv. 8. 36. This is common in Hen. VI., but not I think in the other plays--not for instance in Rich. II. “That cróaks | the fá | tal én | t(e)ránce | of Dúncan.” Macbeth, i. 5. 40. “Cárries | no fá | vour ín't | but Bért | (e)rám's.” A. W. i. 1. 94. “O mé! | you júgg | (e)lér! | you cán | ker blóssom.” M. N. D. iii. 2. 282. “'Tis mónst | (e)róus. | Iá | go, whó | begán it?” Othello, ii. 3. 217. “And thát | hath dázz | (e)léd | my réa | son's líght.” T. G. of V. ii. 4. 210. “Béing | so frús | t(e)ráte. | Téll him | he mócks.” A. and C. v. 1. 2. “Lord Dóug | (e)lás, | go yóu | and téll | him só.” 1 Hen. IV. v. 2. 33. “Gráce and | remém | b(e)ránce | be tó | you bóth.” W. T. iv. 4. 76. “Of quíck | cross líght | (e)ning? | To wátch, | poor pérdu.” Lear, iv. 7. 35. “Thou kíll'st | thy míst | (e)réss: | but wéll | and frée.” A. and C. ii. 5. 27. “To táunt | at sláck | (e)néss. | Caníd | ius wé.” Ib. iii. 7. 28. So also probably "sec(e)ret," "monst(e)rous" (Macbeth, iii. 6. 8), "nob(e)ly," "wit(e)ness," T. G. of V. iv. 2. 110, and even "cap(i)tains" (French "capitaine:" Macbeth, i. 2. 34, 3 Hen. VI. iv. 7. 32, and perhaps Othello, i. 2. 53).

Spenser inserts the e in some of these words, as "handeling," F. Q. i. 8. 28; "enterance," ib. 34.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. R preceded by a vowel lengthens pronunciation

Er final seems to have been sometimes pronounced with a kind of "burr," which produced the effect of an additional syllable; just as "Sirrah" is another and more vehement form of "Sir." Perhaps this may explain the following lines, some of which may be explained by 505-10, but not all: “Corn. We'll téach | you----
Kent. Sír, | 'I'm | too óld | to léarn.” Lear, ii. 2. 135. (But? "I' am.") “Lénds the | tongue vóws; | these blá | zes dáugh | tér.Hamlet, i. 3. 117. “And thére | upón, | gíve me | your dáugh | tér.Hen. V. v. 2. 475.Bru. Spread fúr | thér. |
Menen. One wó | rd (485) móre, | one wórd.” Coriol. iii. 1. 311. “Líke a | ripe sís | tér: | the wóm | an lów.” A. Y. L. iv. 3. 88. “Of óur | dear sóuls. | Meantíme, | sweet sís | tér.T. N. v. 1. 393. “I práy | you, úncle (465), | gíve me | this dág | gér.Rich. III. iii. 1. 110. “A bróth | er's múr | dér. | Práy can | I nót.” Hamlet, iii. 3. 38. “Fríghted | each óth | ér. | Whý should | he fóllow?” A. and C. iii. 13. 6. “And só | to árms, | victór | ious fá | thér.2 Hen. VI. v. 1. 211. “To céase. | Wast thóu | ordáin'd, | dear fá | thér?Ib. v. 2. 45.Corn. Whére hast | thou sént | the kíng? |
Glouc. To Dó | vér.Lear, iii. 7. 51. “Will I' | first wórk. | Hé's for | his más | tér.Cymb. i. 5. 28.Lear. Thán the | sea-móns | tér. |
Alb. Práy, sir, | be pátient.” Lear, i. 4. 283. But perhaps "patient" may have two accents. In that case "ter" is a pause-extra syllable.

In the two following lines s follows the r: “To spéak | of hór | rórs, | he cómes | befóre me.” Hamlet, ii. 1. 84. “Públius, | how nów? | How nów, | my más | térs?T. A. iv. 3. 35; and perhaps Macbeth, iii. 4. 133. “And gíve | him hálf: | and fór | thy víg | óur.Tr. and Cr. ii. 2. 272. “Téll me, | how fáres | our lóv | ing móth | ér?Rich. III. v. 3. 82.Cass. Good níght, | my lórd. |
Brut. Good níght, | good bróth | ér.J. C. iv. 3. 237. “He whóm | my fáth | er námed? | Your E'd | gár.Lear, ii. 1. 94. (? "(484) | med? Yoú | r (480) E'dgar.") “I'll fól | low yóu | and téll | what án | swér.3 Hen. VI. iv. 3. 55. “I have síx | ty sáil: | Cæ'sar | none bét | tér.A. and C. iii. 7. 50. “This woód | en slá | very, thán | to súff | ér.Temp. iii. 1. 62.

Sometimes this natural burr on r influences the spelling. In Genesis and Exodus (Early English Text Society, Ed. Morris) we have "coren" for "corn," "boren" for "born." Thus the E. E. "thurh" is spelt "thorugh" by early writers, and hence even by Shakespeare in “The fálse | revólt | ing Nór | mans thó | rough thée.” 2 Hen. VI. iv. 1. 87. So M. N. D. ii. 1. 3, 5; Coriol. v. 3. 115.

In the following difficult lines it may be that r introduces an extra syllable: “I'gnomy | in rán | som ánd | free pá | rdón
A're of | two hóu | ses, láw | ful mé | rcý.M. for M. ii. 4. 111, 112.

It would of course save trouble to read "ignominy," against the Folio. But compare “Thy íg | nomý (Fol.) | sleep wíth | thee ín | thy gráve.” 1 Hen. IV. v. 4. 100. “Hence, brók | er láck | ey! I'g | nomý | and sháme.” Tr. and Cr. v. 10. 33. and in T. A. iv. 2. 115 (where the Folio reads "ignominy") the i is slurred. “No mán | knows whíther. | I crý | thee mé | rcý.Rich. III. iv. 4. 515. “It ís | my són, | young Hár | ry Pé | rcý.Rich. II. ii. 3. 21. “Thou, Rích | ard, shált | to the dúke | of Nór | fólk.3 Hen. VI. i. 2. 38. So we sometimes find the old comparative "near" for the modern "nearer." “Bétter | far óff | than néar | be né'er | the néar.Rich. II. v. 1. 88. “The néar | in blóod |
The néar | er blóody.” Macbeth, ii. 3. 146. “Nor near nor farther off . . . than this weak arm.” Rich. II. iii. 2. 64. And "far" for "farther," the old "ferror." “Fár than | Deucá | lion óff.” W. T. iv. 4. 442.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. I and e pronounced before vowels

The termination "ion" is frequently pronounced as two syllables at the end of a line. The i is also sometimes pronounced as a distinct syllable in soldier, courtier, marriage, conscience, partial, &c.; less frequently the e in surgeon, vengeance, pageant, creature, pleasure, and treasure.

The cases in which ion is pronounced in the middle of a line are rare. I have only been able to collect the following: “With ób | servá | tión | the whích | he vénts.” A. Y. L. ii. 7. 41. “Of Hám | let's tráns | formá | tión: | so cáll it.” Hamlet, ii. 2. 5. “Be chósen | with pró | clamá | tións | to-dáy.” T. A. i. 1. 190.

Gill, 1621, always writes "ti-on" as two syllables. But there is some danger in taking the books of orthoepists as criteria of popular pronunciation. They are too apt to set down, not what is, but what ought to be. The Shakespearian usage will perhaps be found a better guide.

Tión, when preceded by c, is more frequently prolonged, perhaps because the c more readily attracts the t to itself, and leaves ion uninfluenced by the t. “It wére | an hón | est áct | ión | to sáy so.” Othello, ii. 3. 145; Tr. and Cr. i. 3. 340. “Her swéet | perféct | ións | with óne | self kíng.” T. N. i. 1. 39. “Yet háve | I fiérce | afféct | ións | and thínk.” A. and C. i. 5. 17. “With sóre | distráct | ión | what I' | have dóne.” Hamlet, v. 2. 241. “To ús | in oúr | eléct | ión | this dáy.” T. A. i. 1. 235.

In “That sháll | make áns | wer tó | such quést | ións.
It is enóugh. | I'll thínk | upón | the quést | ións,2 Hen. VI. i. 2. 80, 82. it seems unlikely that "questions" is to be differently scanned in two lines so close together. And possibly, "it is (it's) enóugh," is one foot. Still, if "questions" in the second verse be regarded as an unemphatic (475) repetition, it might be scanned:

It ís | enóugh. | I'll thínk | upón | the quéstions.

The Globe has “Jóin'd in | commíss | ion wíth him; | but éither (466) |
Had bórne || the action of yourself, or else
To him || had left it solely.” Coriol. iv. 6. 14. But better arrange as marked above, avoiding the necessity of laying two accents on "commission." So Folio--which, however, is not of much weight as regards arrangement.

I is pronounced in "business" in “To sée | this bús | inéss. | To-mór | row néxt.” Rich. II. ii. 1. 217; Rich. III. ii. 2. 144; M. of V. iv. 1. 127; Coriol. v. 3. 4. “Divín | est cré | atúre, | Astræ' | a's dáughter.” 1 Hen. VI. i. 6. 4. So probably “Than thése | two cré | atŭres. | Whích is | Sebástian?” T. N. v. 1. 231. “But hé's | a tríed | and vál | iant sóld | iér.J. C. iv. 1. 28. “Your sís | ter ís | the bét | ter sól | diér.Lear, iv. 5. 3. “Máking | them wóm | en óf | good cárr | iáge.R. and J. i. 4. 94.Márri | age ís | a mát | ter óf | more wór | th.” 1 Hen. VI. v. 5. 55, v. 1. 21. “To wóo | a máid | in wáy | of márr | iáge.M. of V. ii. 9. 13. “While I' | thy ám | iá | ble chéeks | do cóy.” M. N. D. iv. 1. 2. “Young, vál | iánt, | wíse, and, | no dóubt, | right róyal.” Rich. III. i. 1. 245; Tempest, iii. 2. 27. “With th' án | ciént | of wár | on óur | procéedings.” Lear, v. 1. 32. “You have dóne | our plé | asúres | much gráce, | fair
ládies.” T. of A. i. 2. 151. So “Táke her | and úse | her át | your plé | asúre.B. and F. (Walker). “We'll léave | and thínk | it ís | her plé | asúre.Ib. “But 'tís | my lórd | th' Assíst | ant's plé | asúre.Ib. “He dáre | not sée | you. A't | his plé | asúre.Ib. “Yóu shall | have ránsom. | Lét me | have súr | geóns.Lear, iv. 6. 196. “If ón | ly to gó | '(484) wárm | were górg | eóus.Ib. ii. 4. 271. “Your mínd | is tóss | ing ón | the ó | ceán.M. of V. i. 1. 8; Hen. V. iii. 1. 14. “The néw | est státe. | Thís is | the sér | geánt.Macbeth, i. 2. 3. Similarly “But théy | did sáy | their práy | ers ánd | addréss'd
them.” Ib. ii. 2. 25; Coriol. v. 3. 105. “Hath túrn'd | my féign | ed práy | er ón | my héad.” Rich. III. v. 1. 21, ii. 2. 14. Even where "prayer" presents the appearance of a monosyllable, the second syllable was probably slightly sounded.

For i and e sonant in "-ied," see 474.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Monosyllabic feet in Chaucer

Monosyllabic feet in Chaucer. Mr. Skeat (Essay on Metres of Chaucer, Aldine Edition, 1866) has shown that Chaucer often uses a monosyllabic foot, but the instances that have been pointed out are restricted to the first foot. “May, | with all thyn floures and thy greene.” C. T. 1512.Til | that deeth departe schal us twayne.” Ib. 1137.Ther | by aventure this Palamon.” Ib. 1518.Now | it schyneth, now it reyneth fast.” Ib. 1537.Al | by-smoterud with his haburgeon.” Ib. 77.

It will be shown in paragraphs 480-6 that Shakespeare uses this licence more freely, but not without the restrictions of certain natural laws.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Monosyllabic feet ending in r or re

Fear, dear, fire, hour, your, four, and other monosyllables ending in r or re, preceded by a long vowel or diphthong, are frequently pronounced as dissyllables. Thus "fire" was often spelt and is still vulgarly pronounced "fier." So "fare" seems to have been pronounced "fa-er;" "ere," "e-er;" "there," "the-er," &c.

It is often emphasis, and the absence of emphasis, that cause this licence of prolongation to be adopted and rejected in the same line:

Fair.-- “Ferd. Or níght | kept cháin'd | belów. |
Prosp. Fáir | ly spóke.” Tempest, iv. 1. 31. (or perhaps (484) "belów. | 'Fáir | ly spóke.")

Fare.-- “Póison'd, | ill fá | re, déad, | forsóok, | cast óff.” K. J. v. 7. 35. “Lóath to | bid fá | rewéll, | we táke | our léaves.” P. of T. ii. 5. 13. “Lúcius, | my gówn. | Fáre | well, góod | Méssala.” J. C. iv. 3. 231. “Died év | ery dáy | she lív'd (Fol.). | Fáre | thee wéll.” Macbeth, iv. 3. 111.Fáre | well, kíns | man! I' | will tálk | with yóu.” 1 Hen. IV. i. 3. 234. “For wórms, | brave Pér | cy. Fá | rewéll (so Folio), |
great héart.” Ib. v. 4. 87. “Why thén | I wí | ll (483). Fá | rewéll, | old Gáunt.” Rich. II. i. 2. 44.

So J. C. iv. 3. 231; 1 Hen. IV. iv. 3. 111 (Folio); M. W. of W. iii. 4. 97; K. J. iii. 2. 17. (See 475.)

Ere.-- “For I' | inténd | to háve | it ér | e (é-er) lóng.” 1 Hen. VI. i. 3. 80.

I should prefer to prolong the emphatic here, rather than "our," in “What shóuld | be spók | en hé | re (hé-er) whére | our fáte.” Macbeth, ii. 3. 128.

Mere.--The pause after "night" enables us to scan thus: “They have tráv | ell'd áll | the níght (484). | 'Mé | re
fétches.” Lear, ii. 4. 90.

There.-- “Hath déath | lain wíth | thy wífe. | Thére | she líes.” R. and J. iv. 5. 36. “Towards Cálais; | now gránt | him thé | re, thé | re seen.” Hen. V. v. Prol. 7.

(I have not found a Shakespearian instance of "Caláis." Otherwise at first sight it is natural to scan "Towárds | Caláis.") “Exe. Like mú | sic.
Cant. Thé | refóre | doth héav'n | divíde.” Hen. V. i. 2. 183.

Where.-- “I knów | a bánk, | whére | the wíld | thyme blóws.” M. N. D. ii. 1. 249.Hor. Whére, | my lórd? |
Ham. I'n my | mind's eýe, | Horátio.” Hamlet, i. 2. 185.

(But Folio inserts "Oh" before "where.")

Rarely.-- “I's not | this búck | led wéll? | Ráre | ly, rárely.” A. and C. iv. 4. 11.

(The first "rarely" is the more emphatic: or? (483), "well.")

Dear.-- “As dóne: | persév | eránce, | déar | my lórd.” Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 150.Déar | my lórd, | íf you, | in yóur | own próof.” M. Ado, iv. 1. 46. “The kíng | would spéak | with Córnwall: | the dé | a<*>
fáther.” Lear, ii. 4. 102.Oliv. Than mú | sic fróm | the sphé | res.
Viol. Dé | ar lády.” T. N. iii. 1. 1.1.

Fear.-- “Féar | me nót, | withdráw, | I héar | him cóming.” Hamlet, iii. 4. 7.

Hear.-- “Hear, Ná | ture, hé | ar, dé | ar Gód | dess, héar.Lear, i. 4. 297.

(The emphasis increases as the verse proceeds.)

Near.-- “Néar, | why thén | anóth | er tíme | I'll héar it.” T. of A. i. 2. 184.

Tears.-- “Auf. Náme not | the Gód, | thou bóy | of té | ars.
Coriol. Há!” Coriol. v. 6. 101.Téar | for téar, | and lóv | ing kíss | for kíss.” T. A. v. 3. 156.

Year.-- “Twelve yé | ar sínce, | Mirán | da, twélve | year sínce.” Tempest, i. 2. 53.

(The repeated "year" is less emphatic than the former.) And, perhaps, if the line be pronounced deliberately, “Mány | yéars | of háp | py dáys | befál.” Rich. II. i. 1. 21.

It might be possible to scan as follows: “Well strúck | in yé | ars, fá | ir ánd | not jéalous.” Rich. III. i. 1. 92. But the Folio has "jealious," and the word is often thus written (Walker) and pronounced by Elizabethan authors.

Their (?).--If the text be correct, in. “The commons hath he pill'd with grievous taxes,
And quite lóst | their héarts. | The nó | bles háth | he fín'd
For án | cient quárrels (463), | and quíte | lost thé | ir
hearts,” Rich. II. ii. 1. 247-8. it is almost necessary to suppose that the second their is more emphatic than the first. Else the repetition is intolerable. See 475, 476. But even with this scansion the harshness is so great as to render it probable that the text is corrupt.

Hire.-- “A shíp | you sént | me fór | to hí | re wáftage.” C. of E. iv. 1. 95.

Sire.-- “And ís | not líke | the sí | re: hón | ours thríve.” A. W. ii. 3. 142.

Door.-- “And wíth | my swórd | I'll kéep | this dó | or sáfe.” T. A. i. 1. 288.

More.-- “If móre, | the mó | re hást | thou wróng'd | (èd) mé.” Lear, v. 3. 168.

(The second "more" is the more emphatic.) “As máy | compáct | it mó | re. Gét | you góne.” Ib. i. 4. 362. “Who hádst | desérv | ed | re thán | a príson.” Temp. i. 2. 362.

Our (perhaps).-- “To líst | en óu | r púr | pose. Thís is (461) | thy
óffice.” M. Ado, iii. 1. 12.

("This is" is a quasi-monosyllable. See 461.) “And bý | me, hád | not óu | r háp | been bád.” C. of E. i. 1. 39.First Sen. Which wé | devíse | him.
Corn. O'u | r spóils | he kíck'd at.” Coriol. ii. 2. 128.

"First" requires emphasis in “Sic. In óu | r fírst | way.
Men. I' | 'll bríng | him tó you.” Ib. iii. 1. 334.

Hour (often).-- “A't the | sixth hóu | r, át | which tíme | my lórd.” Tempest, v. 1. 4.

Your.-- “And só, | though yóu | rs, nót | yours 6 --próve | it só.” M. of V. iii. 2. 20.Lart. My hórse | to yóu | rs, nó! |
Mart. 'Tis dóne! |
Lart. Agréed.” Coriol. i. 4. 2. “And pún | ish thém | to yoú | r héight | of pléasure.” M. for M. v. i. 240.

Unless "pleasure" is a trisyllable. (See 479.) “Is he párd | on'd ánd | for yóu | r lóve | ly sáke.” Ib. 496.

There is an emphatic antithesis in “Whó is | lost tóo. | Take yóu | r pá | tience tó you,
And I'll say nothing.” W. T. iii. 2. 232. “And sháll | have yóu | r wíll, | becáuse | our kíng.” 3 Hen. VI. iv. 1. 17.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Monosyllables, when prolonged

Monosyllables which are emphatic either (1) from their meaning, as in the case of exclamations, or (2) from their use in antithetical sentences, or (3) which contain diphthongs, or (4) vowels preceding r, often take the place of a whole foot. This is less frequent in dissyllabic words. In (1) and (2) as well as (3) the monosyllables often contain diphthongs, or else long vowels.

In many cases it is difficult, perhaps impossible, to determine whether a monosyllable should be prolonged or not. Thus, in “On thís | unwórth | y scáff | old tó | bring fórth,” Hen. V. Prologue, 10. many may prefer to scan " | -old to brí | ng fórth," and to prolong the following monosyllable rather than to accent "to;" and in “Came póur | ing líke | the tíde | intó | a bréach,” Hen. V. i. 2. 149. it is possible to prolong the preceding monosyllable, "the tí | de in | to a bréach." Such cases may often be left to the taste of the reader (but for the accent of "into" see 457a). All that can safely be said is, that when a very unemphatic monosyllable, as "at," "and," "a," "the," &c. has the accent, it is generally preceded or followed by a very strongly accented monosyllable, as “Assume the port of Mars; and at his heels.” Hen. V. Prologue, 6.

It is equally a matter of taste whether part of the prolonged monosyllable should be considered to run on into the following foot, or whether a pause be supposed after the monosyllable, as “Gírding | with gríev | ous síege | cástles | and tówns.” Hen. V. i. 2. 152. “As knóts | bý the | conflúx | of méet | ing sáp.” Tr. and Cr. i. 3. 7.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Monosyllables, exclamations

Monosyllabic exclamations.

Ay.-- “Polon. Whérefore | should yóu | do thís? |
Reg. A'y, | my lórd?” Hamlet, ii. 1. 36.King. Wíll you | be rúled | by mé? |
Laert. A'y, | my lórd.” Ib. iv. 7. 60.A'y, | what élse? | And bút | I bé | decéiv'd.” T. of Sh. iv. 4. 2.Vol. That bróught | thee tó | this wórld. |
Vir. A'y, | and míne.” Coriol. v. 3. 125.Corn. I's he | pursú | ed (474)?
Glou. A' | y, mý | good lórd.” Lear, ii. 1. 111.

Nay.-- “What sáys | he? Ná | y, nó | thing; áll | is sáid.” Rich. II. ii. 1. 148.Cor. How, trái | tor!
Com. Ná | y, tém | p(e)ratelý; | your prómise.” Coriol. iii. 3. 67.

Stay.-- “Stáy, | the kíng | hath thrówn | his wárd | er dówn.” Ib. i. 3. 118.

Yea.-- “Yéa, | my lórd. | How bróoks | your gráce | the aír?” Ib. iii. 2. 2.

Hail.-- “'Gaínst mý | captív | itý. | Háil, | brave fríend.” Macbeth, i. 2. 5.

O.-- “Cass. O<01>, | 'tis trúe. |
Hect. Ho! bíd | my trúm | pet sóund.” Tr. and Cr. v. 3. 13.Cleo. O<01>, | 'tis tréa | son.
Charm. Mádam, | I trúst | not só.” A. and C. i. 5. 7. “To híde | the sláin. | O<01>, | from thís | time fórth.” Hamlet, iv. 4. 65.Mir. O<01>, | good sír, | I dó. |
Prosp. I práy | thee, márk me.” Tempest, i. 2. 80. Perhaps “Pol. The dévil | himsélf. |
King. O<01>, | 'tis (it ís) | too trûe.” Ib. iii. 1. 49. “Sélf a | gainst sélf. | O<01>, | prepós | teróus.” Rich. III. ii. 4. 63. “Their cléa | rer réa | son. O<01>, | 'góod | Gonzálo.” Temp. v. 1. 68. I have not found "reason" a trisyllable in Shakespeare. “O<01>, | my fóllies! | Then E'd | gar wás | abúsed.” Lear, iii. 7. 91.O<01>, | the díff | erénce | of mán | and mán.” Ib. iv. 2. 26. ? “The héart | of wó | man ís. | O<01>, | (453) Brútus.” J. C. ii. 4. 40. “Struck Cæ' | sar ón | the néck. | O<01>, | you flátterers.” Ib. v. 1. 44.

Soft.-- “But só | ft/ cóm | paný | is cóm | ing hére.” T. of Sh. iv. 5. 26.

Come.-- “Cóme, | good féll | ow, pút | mine ír | on ón.” A. and C. iv. 4. 3.

What.-- “Whére be | these knáves? | Whát, | no mán | at dóor!” T. of Sh. iv. 1. 125.Whát, | unjúst! | Bé not | so hót; | the dúke.” M. for M. v. 1. 315.

Well.-- “Wéll, | gíve her | that ríng, | and thére | withál.” T. G. of V. iv. 4. 89.Gon. Rémem | ber whát | I téll | you.
Osw. Wé | ll, mádam.” Lear, i. 3. 21.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Monosyllables, prolonged by emphasis or antithesis

Monosyllables emphasized by position or antithesis. A conjunction like "yet" or "but," implying hesitation, may naturally require a pause immediately after it; and this pause may excuse the absence of an unaccented syllable, additional stress being laid on the monosyllable.

But.-- “Of góod | ly thóus | ands. Bú | t, fór | all thís.” Macbeth, iv. 3. 44. “The Góds | rebúke | me bú | t ít | is tídings.” A. and C. v. 1. 27.

Yet.-- “Thóugh I | condémn | not, yé | t, ún | der párdon.” Lear, i. 4. 365.Yét (as yet), | I thínk, | we áre | not bróught | so lów.” T. A. iii. 2. 76.Brut. When Cæ's | ar's héad | is óff. |
Cass. Yét | I féar him.” J. C. ii. 1. 183.

Pronouns emphasized by antithesis or otherwise, sometimes dispense with the unaccented syllable. “Shów | men dú | tifúl?
Why, só | didst thó | u. Séem | they gráve | and léarned?
Why, só | didst thóu.” Hen. V. ii. 2. 128.

(Possibly, however, "seem" may be prolonged instead of "thou.") “When yóu | shall pléase | to pláy | the thíeves | for wíves.
I'll wátch | as lóng | for yó | u thén. | Appróach.” M. of V. ii. 6. 24. “Were yó | u ín | my stéad, | would yóu | have héard?” Coriol. v. 3. 192.

You is emphatic from Desdemona to Othello in “Othello. 'Tís a | good hánd,
A fránk | one.
Desd. Yó | u máy | indéed | say só.” Othello, iii. 4. 44. So in “Hów in | my stréngth | you pléase. | For yó | u, E'dmund.” Lear, ii. 1. 114. and in the retort of Brutus on Cassius, “Lét me | tell yó | u, Cáss | ius, yóu | yoursélf
Are múch | condémn'd | to háve | an ítch | ing pálm.” J. C. iv. 3. 9.

Perhaps aware of Ferdinand's comment on his emotion, "your father's in some passion," Prospero turns to Ferdinand and says, "it is you who are moved" in “Yo'u | do lóok, | my són, | ín a | mov'd sórt.” Temp. iv. 1. 146. Otherwise the reading of the line so as to avoid accenting "my" seems difficult.

There is no prolongation, though there is antithetical emphasis, in “Lóok up | on hím, | love hím, | he wór | ships yóu.” A. Y. L. v. 2. 88.

The repeated "thence" seems to require a pause in “Thénce to | a wátch, | thénce | intó (457a) | a wéakness.” Hamlet, ii. 1. 148. But possibly, like "ord(i)nance," "light(e)ning" (see 477), so "weakness" may be pronounced a trisyllable.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Monosyllables, diphthongs and long vowels

Monosyllables containing diphthongs and long vowels, since they naturally allow the voice to rest upon them, are often so emphasized as to dispense with an unaccented syllable. When the monosyllables are imperatives of verbs, as "speak," or nouns used imperatively, like "peace," the pause which they require after them renders them peculiarly liable to be thus emphasized. Whether the word is dissyllabized, or merely requires a pause after it, cannot in all cases be determined. In the following examples the scansion is marked throughout on the former supposition, but it is not intended to be represented as necessary.

A (long). “Júst as | you léft | them, á | ll prís | 'ners, sír.” Temp. v. 1. 8. “Try mán | y, á | ll góod, | serve trú | ly néver.” Cymb. iv. 2. 373. “Yea, lóok'st | thou pá | le? Lét | me sée | the wríting.” Rich. II. v. 2. 57.Duke. Líke the | old á | ge.
Clown. A're | you réad | y, sír?” T. N. ii. 4. 50. “Yéa, his | dread trí | dent sháke. | My brá | ve spírit.” Temp. i. 2. 206.

Ai. “'Gainst mý | captív | itý. | Háil, | brave fríend.” Macbeth, i. 2. 5. “I'll bé | with (wi') you strái | ght. Gó | a líttle | befóre.” Hamlet, iv. 4. 31.

I should prefer to avoid laying an accent on "the" in “To fá | il ín the | dispós | ing óf | these chánces.” Coriol. iv. 7. 40. “Which ís | most fá | int. Nów | 'tis trúe
I múst | be hére | confín'd | by yóu.” Temp. Epilogue, 3.

Ay.Sáy | agáin, | whére didst | thou léave | these várlets?” Temp. iv. 1. 170.

So in the dissyllable "payment." “He húmb | ly práys | you spéed | y páy | mént.T. of A. ii. 2. 28.

Perhaps “What sá | y yóu, | my lórd? | Aré you | contént.” 1 Hen. VI. iv. 1. 70.

Perhaps

E.Senators. Wé | 'll súre | ty him.
Com. A'g | ed sír, | hands óff.” Coriol. iii. 1. 178.Men. The cón | sul Córi | olán | us----
Bru. Hé | 'cónsul!” Ib. iii. 1. 280.

Ea.Péace, | I sáy. | Good é | ven tó | you, fríend.” A. Y. L. ii. 3. 70. “Antón | ius dé | ad! I'f | thou sáy | so, víllain.” A. and C. ii. 5. 26.Doct. But, thóugh | slow, dé | adlý. |
Queen. I wón | der, dóctor.” Cymb. i. 5. 10. “Whý dost | not spéak? | What, dé | af: nót | a wórd?” T. A. v. 1. 46.Spéak, | Lavín | ia, whát | accúrs | ed hánd?” Ib. iii. 1. 66. “Which wás | to plé | ase. Nów | I wánt
Spírits to | enfórce, | nót to | enchánt.” Temp. Epilogue, 13. “Eárth's in | créase, | fóison | plénty,
Bárns and | gárners | néver | émpty.” Ib. iv. 1. 110.

Perhaps “Glou. Aláck, | the níght | comes ón, | and the (457)
blé | ak wínds.” Lear, ii. 4. 303.

Perhaps “Trúly | to spé | ak, ánd | with nó | addítion,” Hamlet, iv. 4. 17. or "Trúly | to spéak, | and with nó | addít | ión." “Be frée | and hé | althfúl. | So tárt | a fávour.” A. and C. ii. 5. 38. “The safety and health of this whole state,” Hamlet, i. 3. 21. could not be scanned without prolonging both "health" and "whole." Such a double prolongation is extremely improbable, considering the moderate emphasis required. More probably "sanity" should be read, as has been suggested, for "sanctity," the reading of the Folio.

Ee. “Fórward, | not pér | manént, | swéet, | not lásting.” Hamlet, i. 3. 8.Séek | me óut, | and thát | way I' | am wífe in.” Hen. VIII. iii. 1. 39. “The cúrt | ain'd slé | ep wítch | craft cél | ebrátes.” Macbeth, ii. 1. 51. “Doth cóm | fort thée in | thy slé | ep; líve, | and flóurish.” Rich. III. v. 3. 130. “This íg | norant prés | ent ánd | I fé | el nów.” Ib. i. 5. 58. “Enóugh | to fétch | him ín. | Sée | it dóne.” A. and C. iv. 1. 14. “Yét but | thrée. | Cóme one | móre,
Twó of | bóth kinds | máke up | fóur.” M. N. D. iii. 2. 437. “When sté | el gróws | sóft as | the pára | site's sílk.” Coriol. i. 9. 45.

"Soft" is emphasized as an exclamation (see 481), but perhaps on the whole it is better to emphasize "steel" here. “Ferd. Makes thís | place Pár | adíse.
Prosp. Swéet | now, sílence.” Temp. iv. 1. 124.

Eo. The eo in the foreign-derived word "leopard" stands on a different footing: “Or hórse | or óx | en fróm | the lé | opárd.1 Hen. VI. i. 5. 31.

So, often, in Elizabethan authors.

I. “Mén for | their wí | ves: wí | ves fór | their húsbands.” 3 Hen. VI. v. 6. 41. “Of gréat | est júst | ice. Wrí | te, wríte, | Rináldo.” A. W. iii. 4. 29. “Hórri | ble sí | ght! Nów | I sée | 'tis trúe.” Macbeth, iv. 1. 122. “Full fíf | teen húndred, | besí | des cóm | mon mén.” Hen. V. iv. 8. 84. I know of no instance where "hundred," like (477) "Henry," receives two accents. Else the "be-" in "besides" might (460) be dropped, and the verse might be differently scanned. “Each mán's | like mí | ne: yóu | have shéwn | all Héctors.” A. and C. iv. 8. 7. “At a póor | man's hóuse: | he ús'd | me kí | ndlý.Coriol. i. 9. 83. But see 477.

Ie. Possibly "friends" may require to be emphasized, as its position is certainly emphatic, in “Till déath | unlóads | thee. Frí | ends hást | thou nóne.” M. for M. iii. 1. 28. “No, sáy'st | me só, | fríend? | What cóun | trymán?” T. of Sh. i. 2. 190. “Yield, my lórd, | protéct | or yí | eld, Wín | chestér.” 1 Hen. VI. iii. 1. 112.

("My" is dropped, 497.) “Mórt de | ma ví | e! I'f | they ríde | alóng.” Hen. V. iii. 5. 11.

O. “Dríve him | to Ró | me: 'tís (ít | is) tíme | we twaín.” A. and C. i. 4. 73.Card. Róme | shall réme | dy thís. |
Glou. Roam thí | ther, thén.” 1 Hen. VI. iii. 1. 51. “While hé | himsélf | kéeps in | the có | ld fíeld.” 3 Hen. VI. iv. 3. 14. “Tóad that | únder | cóld | stóne
Dáys and | níghts has | thírty | óne.” Macbeth, iv. 1. 6.

So scan “Go tó the | creáting | a whó | le tríbe | of fóps.” Lear, i. 2. 14.

Oa. “Is gó | ads, thó | rns (485), nét | tles, táils | of wásps.” W. T. i. 2. 329.

Oi.Jóint | by jóint, | but wé | will knów | his púrpose.” M. for M. v. 1. 314. “What whéels, | racks, fíres? | What fláy | ing, bó | ilíng?W. T. iii. 2. 177. “God sáve | you, sír. | Where have yóu | been bró | ilíng?Hen. VIII. iv. 1. 56. “Of théir | own chó | ice: óne | is Jún | ius Brútus.” Coriol. i. 1. 220. “What sáy | you, bó | ys? Wíll | you bíde | with hím?” T. A. v. 2. 13.

Oo. “Than ín | my thóught | it líes. | Góod | my lórd.” A. W. v. 3. 184.

It might be thought that in the above the prolongation rests on lies (lieth), but that we have also “Góod | my lórd, | gíve me | thy fáv | our stíll.” Temp. iv. 1. 204. “The gó | od góds | will móck | me prés | entlý.” A. and C. iii. 4. 15. “He stráight | declín | ed, dró | op'd, tóok | it déeply.” W. T. ii. 3. 14. “Tó it, | boy! Már | cus, ló | ose whén | I bíd.” T. A. iv. 3. 58. “Hours, mín | utes, nó | on, míd | night, ánd | all eýes.” W. T. i. 2. 290. “But ró | om, fái | ry, hére | comes O'b | erón.” M. N. D. ii. 1. 58.Bóot | less hóme | and wéath | er-béat | en báck.” 1 Hen. IV. iii. 1. 67. “Pull óff | my bó | ot: hárd | er, hárd | er, só.” Lear, iv. 6. 177. “But mó | ody | and dú | ll mél | anchóly.” C. of E. v. 1. 79. Some may prefer to read "dull" as a monosyllable; but I can find no instance of "meláncholý" to justify such a scansion.

In “Lear. To thís | detést | ed gró | om.
Gon. A't | your chóice, sir,” Lear, ii. 4. 220. either "groom" or "your" should be dissyllabized. “I' do | wánder | évery | whére
Swífter | thán the | móon's | sphére.” M. N. D. ii. 1. 7.

Ou. “Which élse | would frée | have wró | ught. A'll | is wéll.” Macbeth, ii. 1. 19.

In “Should drínk | his blóod-- | móunts | up tó | the áir.” MARLOW, Edw. II. Collier (Hist. of British Stage, vol. iii.) thinks "mounts" the emphatic word to be dwelt on for the length of a dissyllable.

Ow. "Own" is perhaps emphasized by repetition (or "Are" is a dissyllable, as "fare," "ere," "where," 480) in “Hel. Mine ówn | and nót | mine ó | wn.
Dem. A're | you súre?” M. N. D. iv. 1. 189.

Oy. The last syllable of "destroy" seems prolonged in “To fríght | them ére | destró | y. Bút | come ín.” Coriol. iv. 5. 149.

U. It may be that "fume" is emphasized in “She's tíck | led nów. | Her fú | me néeds | no spúrs.” 2 Hen. VI. i. 3. 153. (Unless "needs" is prolonged either by reason of the double vowel or because "needs" is to be pronounced "needeth.") “Trúe | nobíl | ity ís | exémpt | from féar.” 2 Hen. VI. iv. 1. 129.

Titania speaks in verse throughout, and therefore either "and" must be accented and "hoard" prolonged, or we must scan as follows: “The squír | rel's hóard, | and fétch | thee néw | 'núts.” M. N. D. iv. 1. 40.Cord. That wánts | the méans | to léad it. |
Mess. Néws, | mádam.” Lear, iv. 4. 20.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Monosyllables, containing a vowel followed by r

Monosyllables containing a vowel followed by "r" are often prolonged.

A.Thyr. Héar it | apár | t.
Cleo. Nóne | but fríends: | say bóldly.” A. and C. iii. 13. 47. “Hó | ly séems | the quárrel
Upón | his grá | ce's pá | rt; bláck | and féarful
O'n the | oppó | ser.” A. W. iii. 1. 5. “Well fítt(ed) | in á | rts, gló | rióus | in árms.” L. L. L. ii. 1. 45. “Stríkes his | breast há | rd, ánd | anón | he cásts.” Hen. VIII. iii. 2. 117. “But cóuld | be wílling | to má | rch ón | to Cálais.” Hen. V. iii. 6. 150.Hárk | ye, lórds, | ye sée | I have gíven | her phýsic.” T. A. iv. 2. 162. “Lóok how | he mákes | to Cæ's | ar, már | k hím.” J. C. iii. 2. 18.

Ei. “I dréamt | last níght | óf the | three wé | ird sísters.” Macbeth, ii. 1. 20 (Folio, "weyard"). “A'nd be | times I' | will tó | the wé | ird sísters.” Ib. iii. 4. 133, iv. 1. 136.

Or "will" is perhaps emphasized and the prefix in "betimes" ignored. In either case "weird" is a dissyllable. “The wé | ird sís | ters hánd | in hánd.” Macbeth, i. 3. 32.

I. “A thí | rd thínks | withóut | expénse | at áll.” 1 Hen. VI. i. 1. 76. “Of Líon | el dúke | of Clárence, | the thí | rd són.” Ib. ii. 5. 75. “To kíng | Edwárd | the thí | rd, whére | as hé.” Ib. 76.

O.Bru. Spread fúr | thér (478).
Men. One wó | rd móre, | one wórd.” Coriol. iii. 1. 311. “Máke the | prize líght. | One wór | d móre, | I chárge
thee.” Temp. i. 2. 452.Ham. One wór | d móre, | good lády. |
Queen. Whát shall | I dó?” Hamlet, iii. 4. 180. “Do móre | than thís | in spó | rt; fá | ther, fáther!” Lear, ii. 1. 37.Wórse | and wórse! | She wíll | not cóme! | O, víle!” T. of Sh. v. 2. 93. “Nót in | the wó | rst ránk | of mán | hood, sáy't.” Macbeth, iii. 1. 103. “Why só, | brave ló | rds, whén | we joín | in léague.” T. A. iv. 2. 136. “My ló | rd, wíll | it pléase | you páss | alóng.” Rich. III. iii. 1. 110. “Of góod | old A' | brahám. | Lórds | appéllants.” Rich. II. iv. 1. 104.

("A'ppellants" is not Shakespearian.) “But téll | me, ís | young Geór | ge Stán | ley líving?” Ib. v. 5. 9. or, possibly,

But téll me, | Is yóung | George Stán | ley líving?

Ou. “Henry doth claim the crown from John of Gaunt,
The fóu | rth són: | York cláims | it fróm | the thírd.” 2 Hen. VI. ii. 2. 55.

So, perhaps, “And lóng | live Hén | ry fóu | rth óf | that náme.” Rich. II. iv. 1. 112. ("Four" was often spelt "fower." "Henry" is not pronounced "Hén(e)rý" in Richard II.

"Heart," not "you," ought to be emphatic in “Nót by | the mát | ter whích | your héar | t prómpts you.” Coriol. iii. 2. 54.

Probably we ought to arrange the difficult line, Macbeth, iv. 1. 105, thus:

A'nd an | etérn | al cú | rse fáll | on yóu. Let me knów. Why sínks, &c.?
<


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Monosyllables, other instances of prolongation

Monosyllables are rarely prolonged except as in the above instances. In some cases, however, as in "bath," "dance," a vowel varies very much in its pronunciation, and is often pronounced (though the incorrectness of the pronunciation would now be generally recognized) in such a way as to give a quasi-dissyllabic sound. “Yóu and | your crá | fts, yóu | have cráft | ed fáir.” Coriol. iv. 6. 118. “I'f that | yóu will | Fránce | wín,
Thén with | Scótland | fírst be | gín.” Hen. V. i. 2. 167.

In a few other cases monosyllables are, perhaps, prolonged: “You sháll | read ús | the wí | ll. Cæ's | ar's will!” J. C. iii. 2. 153.Cas. Cícer | o ón | e?
Mes. Cíc | eró | is déad.” Ib. iv. 3. 179. “I' will | éver | bé your | héad,
Só be | góne; | yóu are | spéd.” M. of V. ii. 9. 72. “Then sháll | the réalm | of A'lb | ión
Cóme | to gréat | confús | ión.” Lear, iii. 2. 92. “For óur | best áct. | I'f we | shall stá | nd still.” Hen. VIII. i. 2. 85. (Can "all" have dropped out after "shall?") “The thánk | ings óf | a kí | ng. I | am, sír.” Cymb. v. 5. 407. “Hére she | cómes, | cúrst and | sád:
Cúpid | ís a | knávish | lád.” M. N. D. iii. 2. 439.

"Well" (481) is prolonged as an exclamation, and perhaps there is a prolongation of the same sound in “Mélt | ed ás | the snów | séems to | me nów.” M. N. D. iv. 1. 163. So, in “The gó | ds, nót | the patríc | ians, máke | it, ánd,” Coriol. i. 1. 75. "gods" is probably prolonged by emphasis, and the second "the" is not accented. So "most" in “With Tí | tus Lárcius, | a mó | st vál | iant Róman.” Coriol. i. 2. 14. "Larcius" has probably but one accent. However, "a" appears sometimes to have the accent.

So, perhaps, “Ang. Where práy | ers cró | ss.
Isab. A't | what hóur | to-mórrow?” M. for M. ii. 2. 159.

"Drachm" (Folio "Drachme") is a dissyllable in “A't a | crack'd drách | m! Cúsh | ions, léad | en spóons.” Coriol. i. 5. 6.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. E final pronounced

E mute pronounced. This is a trace of the Early English pronunciation.

Es, s. “Your gráce | misták | es: ón | ly tó | be bríef.” Rich. II. iii. 3. 9. “Who's thére, | that knóck | (e)s só | impér | iouslý?” 1 Hen. VI. i. 3. 5. “Well, lét | them rést: | come híth | er, Cát | esbý.” Rich. III. iii. 1. 157. “Here cómes | his sérv | ant. Hów | now, Cát | esbý?” Ib. 7. 58. “Till áll | thy bónes | with ách | es máke | thee róar.” Temp. i. 2. 370. “A'ches | contráct, | and stárve | your súp | ple jóints.” T. of A. i. 1. 257, v. 1. 202. But this word seems to have been pronounced, when a noun, "aatch." At least it is made by Spenser, Sh. Cal. Aug. 4, to rhyme with "matche." “Send Có | levíle | with hís | conféd | erátes.” 2 Hen. IV. iv. 3. 79.

So “Wórces | ter, gét | thee góne! | For I' | do sée.” 1 Hen. IV. i. 3. 15, iii. 1. 5, v. 5. 14 (Fol. omits "thee"). “We háve; | whereupón (497) | the éarl | of Wórc | estér.” Rich. II. ii. 2. 58.

So “Glóucestér,” 1 Hen. VI. i. 3. 4, 6, 62, and “O lóv | ing úncle (465), | kind dúke | of Glóu | cestér.” 1 Hen. VI. iii. 1. 142. “This is the flower that smiles on every one
To shów | his téeth | as whíte | as whá | le's bóne.” L. L. L. v. 2. 332. So, in a rhyming passage, “Whose shád | ow thé | dismíss | ed báche | lor lóves
Béing | lass-lórn; | thy póle | -clipt vín | e-yárd
And thý | sea-márge, | stérile | and róck | y-hárd.” Temp. iv. 1. 69. “She név | er hád | so swéet | a cháng | elíng.” M. N. D. ii. 1. 23. Perhaps “Fran. They ván | ish'd stráng | ely.
Seb. No mát | ter, sínce.” Temp. iii. 3. 40. But see 506. Possibly "cradles" may approximate to a trisyllable, "crad(e)les" (so "jugg(e)ler," &c. 477), in “Does thóughts | unvéil | in théir | dumb crá | dlés.Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 200.

The e is probably not of French but of Latin origin in "statue:" “She dréamt | to-níght | she sáw | my stát | ué.J. C. ii. 2. 76. “E'ven at | the báse | of Póm | pey's stát | ué.(Folio) Ib. iii. 2. 192. Globe "statua."

So in the plural: “But líke | dumb stát | ués | of bréath | ing stónes.” Rich. III. iii. 7. 25. Globe, "statuas." “No marble statua nor high
Aspiring pyramid be raised.” HABINGTON (Walker).


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. E of French origin, pronounced

The "e" in commandment, entertainment, &c., which originally preceded the final syllable, is sometimes retained, and, even where not retained, sometimes pronounced. “Be vál | ued 'gáinst | your wífe's | commánd | (e)mént.” M. of V. iv. 1. 451. “From hím | I háve | expréss | commánd | (e)mént.” 1 Hen. VI. i. 3. 20. The e is inserted in “If to women he be bent
They have at commandement.” P. P. 418. “Good sír, | you'll gíve | them én | tertáin | (e)mént.” B. J. Fox, iii. 2.

Perhaps an e is to be sounded between d and v in “A'nton | y Wóod | (e)vílle, | her bróth | er thére.” Rich. III. i. 1. 67.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. E final in French names pronounced

E final in French names is often retained in sound as well as spelling: “The mél | anchól | y Jáq | ues gríeves | at thát.” A. Y. L. ii. 1. 26. “O mý | Paróll | es, théy | have márr | ied mé.” A. W. ii. 3. 289. “His gráce | is át | Marséill | es, tó | which pláce.” Ib. iv. 3. 9; T. of Sh. ii. 1. 377. “Dáughter | to Chár | lemáin, | who wás | the són.” Hen. V. i. 2. 75. “Guiénne, | Champág | ne, Rhé | ims, O'r | leáns.” 1 Hen. VI. i. 1. 60.
This prínce | Montáig | ne, íf | he bé | no móre.
“He cán | not sáy | but thát | Montáig | ne yét.” DANIEL (on Florio). “Now E'sp | eránc | e, Pér | cy, ánd | set ón.” 1 Hen. IV. v. 2. 97. “Cáll'd the | brave lórd | Pónton | de Sáu | traillés.1 Hen. VI. i. 4. 28. “Díeu de | battái | lles! Whére | have théy | this méttle?” Hen. V. iii. 5. 15. So in "Vive:" “'Víve | le roí,' | as I' | have bánk'd | their tówns.” K. J. v. 2. 104.

Thus, perhaps, we may explain the apparent trisyllabic "marshal" by a reference to "mareschal:" “Great már | (e)shál | to Hén | (e)rý (477) | the Síxth.” 1 Hen. VI. iv. 7. 70. “With wíng | ed háste | tó the | lord már | (e)shál.” 1 Hen. IV. iv. 4. 2.

On the other hand, the influence of the r (see 463) seems to make "marshall" a quasi-monosyllable in “Lord márshal, | commánd | our óff | icérs | at árms.” Rich. II. i. 1. 204.

The i in the French "capitaine" is invisibly active in “A wíse | stout cáp | (itáin, | and sóon | persuáded.” 3 Hen. VI. iv. 7. 30; Macbeth, i. 2. 34.


ACCENT.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Words in which the accent is nearer the end than with us

Words in which the accent is nearer the end than with us.

Many words, such as "edict," "outrage," "contract," &c., are accented in a varying manner. The key to this inconsistency is, perhaps, to be found in Ben Jonson's remark that all dissyllabic nouns, if they be simple, are accented on the first. Hence "edict" and "outrage" would generally be accented on the first, but, when they were regarded as derived from verbs, they would be accented on the second. And so, perhaps, when "exile" is regarded as a person, and therefore a "simple" noun, the accent is on the first; but when as "the state of being exiled," it is on the last. But naturally, where the difference is so slight, much variety may be expected. Ben Jonson adds that "all verbs coming from the Latin, either of the supine or otherwise, hold the accent as it is found in the first person present of those Latin verbs; as from célebro, célebrate." Without entering into the details of this rule, it seems probable that "edíct," "precépt," betray Latin influence. The same fluctuation between the English and French accent is found in CHAUCER (Prof. Child, quoted by Ellis, E. E. Pronunc. i. 369), who uses "batáille," C. T. 990, and "bátail," ib. 2099: "Fortúne," ib. 917, and "fórtune," ib. 927; "daungér," and "dáunger."

Abjéct (Latin).-- “Wé are | the quéen's | abjécts, | and múst | obéy.” Rich. III. i. 1. 106. But if the monosyllable "queen" be emphasized, we may scan

Wé are | the qué | en's ábjects, | and múst | obéy.

Accéss (Latin).--W. T. v. 1. 87.

Aspéct (Latin).--A. and C. i. 5. 33; T. N. i. 4. 28.

Charácters.-- “I sáy | withóut | charác | ters fáme | lives lóng.” Rich. III. iii. 1. 81; Hamlet, i. 3. 59.

Comméndable. “Thanks fáith, | for sílence | is ónly | comménd | ablé
In a néat's | tongue dríed | and a máid | not vénd | iblé.” M. of V. i. 1. 111.

This shows how we must scan “'Tis swéet and (497) | comménd | able ín | your ná | ture,
Hámlet.” Hamlet, i. 2. 87. But, on the other hand, “And pówer, | untó | itsélf | most cóm | mendáble.Coriol. iv. 7. 51.

Commérce (Latin).--So arrange “Péaceful | commérce | from dí | vidá- | ble shóres.” Tr. and Cr. i. 3. 105.

Confíscate (Latin).--C. of E. i. 1. 21; but "cónfiscáte," ib. i. 2. 2.

Consórt (Latin).-- “What sáy'st | thou? Wílt | thou bé | of óur |
consórt?T. G. of V. iv. 1. 64.Edmund. Yes, madam,
He wás | of thát | consórt.
Reg. No már | vel, thén.” Lear, ii. 1. 99.

Contráry (Latin).-- “Our wílls | and fátes | do só | contrá | ry rún.” Hamlet, iii. 2. 221.

Contráct (Latin). “Márk our | contráct. | Márk your | divórce, | young sír.” W. T. iv. 4. 428; A. W. ii. 3. 185; 1 Hen. VI. iii. 1. 143, v. 4. 156; Rich. III. iii. 7. 5, 6; Temp. ii. 1. 151.

Compáct (Latin, noun).--Rich. III. ii. 2. 133; J. C. ii. 2. 215.

Différent (Latin).-- “And múch | différ | ent fróm | the mán | he
wás.” C. of E. v. 1. 46. Here, however, by emphasizing the monosyllable "much," the word "different" may be pronounced in the usual way.

Edíct (Latin).--2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 258, and “It stánds | as án | edíct | in dés | tiný.” M. N. D. i. 1. 151.

Effígies (Latin unaltered). “And ás | mine éye | doth hís | effí | gies wítness.” A. Y. L. ii. 7. 193.

Envý (verb; noun, énvy). “I's it | for hím | you dó | envý | me só?” T. of Sh. ii. 1. 18.

Execútors.--Hen. V. i. 2. 203 is not an instance, for it means "executioners." In its legal sense, Ib. iv. 2. 51, it is accented as with us.

Exíle (Latin).--R. and J. v. 3. 211 (frequent).

Instínct (noun, Latin). “Háth, by | instínct, | knówledge | from óth | ers' éyes.” 2 Hen. IV. i. 1. 86. “Bý a | divíne | instínct | men's mínds | mistrúst.” Rich. III. ii. 3. 42; Coriol. v. 3. 35.

Intó.--See 457 a.

Miséry.--Some commentators lay the accent on the penultimate in “Of súch | misér | y dóth | she cút | me óff,” M. of V. iv. 1. 272. but much more probably "a" has dropped out after "such." The passage “And búss | thee ás | thy wífe. | Míser | y's lóve,” K. J. iii. 4. 35. proves nothing. The pause-accent is sufficient to justify "mísery."

Nothíng.--See Somethíng, below.

Obdúrate (Latin).--3 Hen. VI. i. 4. 142; M. of V. iv. 1. 8; T. A. ii. 3. 160; R. of L. 429. “A'rt thou | obdú | rate, flín | ty, hárd | as stéel?” V. and A. 198.

Oppórtune (Latin).-- “And móst | oppórt | une tó | our néed |
I háve.” W. T. iv. 4. 511. “The móst | oppórt | une pláce, | the stróng'st | suggéstion.” Temp. iv. 1. 26.

Outráge.--1 Hen. VI. iv. 1. 126.

Perémptory (perhaps). “Yea, mís | tress, áre | you só | perémp | tóry?” P. of T. ii. 5. 73. This accentuation is not found elsewhere in Shakespeare: but the author of Pericles of Tyre may have used it. It is possible, however, to scan

Yea, mís | t(e)réss (477), | are you | so pé | rempt(o)rý?

Porténts.-- “Thése are | porténts: | but yét | I hópe, | I hópe.” Othello, v. 2. 45.

So 1 Hen. IV. ii. 3. 65; Tr. and Cr. i. 3. 96.

Hence "fear" is not a dissyllable in “A pród | igý | of féar, | ánd a | portént.1 Hen. IV. v. 1. 20.

If "and" is correct, we must probably scan as follows: “And thése | doth she applý | for wárn | ings ánd | porténts.J. C. ii. 2. 80.

Precépts (Latin).--Hen. V. iii. 3. 26; but "précepts," Hamlet, ii. 2. 142.

Prescíence retains the accent of science, indicating that the word was not familiar enough as yet to be regarded as other than a compound: “Forestáll | prescí | ence ánd | estéem | no áct.” Tr. and Cr. i. 3. 199.

Recórd (noun, Latin).--Rich. III. iii. 1. 72, iv. 4. 28; T. N. v. 1. 253.

Sepúlchre (Latin).-- “Bánish'd | this fráil | sepúl | chre óf | our
flésh.” Rich. II. i. 3. 194. “Or, át | the léast, | in hérs | sepúl | chre thíne.” T. G. of V. iv. 2. 118. “May líke | wise bé | sepúl | chred ín | thy sháde.” R. of L. 805; and, perhaps, Lear, ii. 4. 134.

Siníster (Latin).-- “'Tis nó | sinís | ter nór | no áwk | ward cláim.” Hen. V. ii. 4. 85. So, but comically, in “And thís | the crán | ny ís, | ríght and | siníster,
Through whích | the féar | ful lóv | ers áre | to whísper.” M. N. D. v. 1. 164.

Sojóurn'd (perhaps) in “My héart | to hér | but ás | guest-wíse | sojóurn'd.Ib. iii. 2. 171. But(?) emphasize "her," and scan

My héart | to hér | ' bút | as gúest- | wise sójourn'd.

Somethíng (sometimes perhaps). “My ínward | sóul
At nó | thing trémb | les: át | somethíng | it gríeves.” Rich. II. ii. 2. 12.

Compare perhaps “And I' | nothíng | to báck | my súit | at áll.” Rich. III. i. 1. 236. But, if "I" be emphasized, "nothing" may be pronounced as usual. “I féar | nothíng | what máy | be sáid | agáinst me.” Hen. VIII. i. 2. 212. But "fear" may be a dissyllable, 480.

Sweethéart.--Hen. VIII. i. 4. 94: heart being regarded as a noun instead of the suffix -ard.

Triúmphing (Latin) sometimes. “As 't wére | triúmph | ing át | mine én | emíes.” Rich. III. iii. 4. 91.

Untó.--See 457 a.

Welcóme.-- “Nor fríends, | nor fóes, | to mé | welcóme | you áre.” Rich. II. ii. 3. 170.

This particular passage may be explained by a pause, but "welcóme" is common in other authors.

Wherefóre (in some cases), though it can often be taken as "thérefore," and explained by a preceding pause. “O'ft have | you (óft | en háve | you thánks | therefóre).” Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 20. “And wé | must yéarn | therefóre.Hen. V. ii. 3. 6. “Hate mé! | Wherefóre? | O mé! | what néws, | my lóve.” M. N. D. iii. 2. 272. Perhaps “Fór the | sound mán. | Déath on | my státe, | wherefóre?Lear, ii. 4. 113. But better

Death on my state! (512) Whérefore | should hé | sit hére? | This áct | persuádes me.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Iséd final in polysyllables

Ised, when ending polysyllables, generally has now a certain emphasis. This is necessary, owing to the present broad pronunciation of i. Such polysyllables generally have now two accents, the principal accent coming first. But in Shakespeare's time it would seem that the i approximated in some of these words to the French i, and, the -ed being pronounced, the i in -ised was unemphatic. Hence the Elizabethan accent of some of these words differs from the modern accent.

Advértised.-- “As I' | by fríends | am wéll | advért | iséd.Rich. III. iv. 4. 501. “Whereín | he míght | the kíng | his lórd | advértise.Hen. VIII. ii. 4. 178. “I wás | advért | ised théir | great gén | eral slépt.” Tr. and Cr. ii. 2. 111.

So M. for M. i. 1. 42.

Chástised.-- “And whén | this árm | of míne | hath chás | tiséd.Rich. III. iv. 4. 331. “This cáuse | of Róme, | and chás | tiséd | with arms.” T. A. i. 1. 32.

This explains:

Canónized.-- “Canón | izéd, | and wór | shipp'd ás | a sáint.” K. J. iii. 1. 177. “Whý thy | canón | iz'd bónes, | héarsed | in déath.” Hamlet, i. 4. 47. “Are brá | zen ím | age(s) [471] óf | canón | iz'd sáints.” 2 Hen. VI. i. 3. 63.

Authórized.-- “Authór | iz'd bý | her grán | dam. Sháme | itsélf.” Macbeth, iii. 4. 66.Authór | izíng | thy trés | pass wíth | compáre.” Sonn. 35. “His rúde | ness só | with hís | authór | iz'd yóuth.” L. C. 104.

So once:

Solémnised.-- “Of Já | ques Fál | conbrídge | solém | niséd.L. L. L. ii. 1. 42.

But in M. of V. "sólemnised."


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Words in which the accent is nearer the beginning than with us

Words in which the accent was nearer the beginning than with us. Ben Jonson (p. 777) says all nouns, both dissyllabic (if they be "simple") and trisyllabic, are accented on the first syllable. Perhaps this accounts for the accent on cónfessor, &c. The accent on the first syllable was the proper noun accent; the accent on the second (which in the particular instance of conféssor ultimately prevailed) was derived from the verb.

Archbishop.-- “The már | shal ánd | the árch | bishóp | are stróng.” 2 Hen. IV. ii. 3. 42, 65.

Cément (noun). “Your tém | ples búrn | ed ín | their cé | ment ánd.” Coriol. iv. 6. 85.

So the verb, A. and C. ii. 1. 48; iii. 2. 29.

Cómpell'd (when used as an adjective). “This cóm | pell'd fór | tune, háve | your móuth | fill'd úp.” Hen. VIII. ii. 3. 87. “I tálk | not of | your sóul: | our cóm | pell'd síns.” M. for M. ii. 4. 57.

Cómplete.-- “A máid | of gráce | and cóm | plete máj | estý.” L. L. L. i. 1. 137.

So Hamlet, i. 4. 52; Hen. VIII. i. 2. 118; Rich. III. iii. 1. 189.

Cónceal'd.-- “My cón | ceal'd lá | dy tó | her cán | cell'd lóve.” R. and J. iii. 3. 98.

Cónduct.--The verb follows the noun "safe-cónduct" in “Safe-cón | ductíng | the réb | els fróm | their shíps.” Rich. III. iv. 4. 483.

But the noun is condúct in T. A. iv. 3. 65.

Cónfessor.--Hen. VIII. i. 2. 149; R. and J. ii. 6. 21, iii. 3. 49. “O'ne of | our có (sic) | vent ánd | his cón | fessór.M. for M. iv. 3. 133.

Cóngeal'd.-- “O'pen | their cón | geal'd móuths | and bléed |
afrésh.” Rich. III. i. 2. 56.

Cónjure (in the sense of "entreat").--T. G. of V. ii. 7. 2; frequent.

Cónsign'd.-- “With dís | tinct bréath, | and cón | sign'd kíss | es
tó them.” Tr. and Cr. iv. 4. 47.

See "dístinct" below.

Córrosive.-- “Cáre is | no cúre, | but rá | ther cór | rosíve.1 Hen. VI. iii. 3. 3; 2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 403.

Délectable.-- “Máking | the hárd | way sóft | and dé | lectáble.Rich. II. ii. 3. 7.

Détestable.-- “And I' | will kíss | thy dé | testá | ble bónes.” K. J. iii. 4. 29; T. of A. iv. 1. 33.

Dístinct.-- “To offénd | and júdge | are dís | tinct óff | icés.” M. of V. ii. 9. 61.

See "cónsign'd" above.

Fórlorn.-- “Now fór | the hón | our óf | the fór | lorn Frénch.” 1 Hen. VI. i. 2. 19.

Húmane.-- “It ís | the húm | ane wáy, | the óth | er cóurse.” Coriol. iii. 1. 327.

Máintain.-- “That hére | you máin | tain sév | eral fác | tións.” 1 Hen. VI. i. 1. 71.

Máture.--So apparently in “Of múrder | ous léchers: | ánd in | the má | ture tíme.” Lear, iv. 6. 228. This is like "náture," but I know no other instance of "máture."

Méthinks (sometimes). “So yóur | sweet húe | which mé | thinks stíll | doth stánd.” Sonn. 104.

I cannot find a conclusive instance in Shakespeare, but this word is often (Walker) thus accented in Elizabethan writers.

Mútiners.--Coriol. i. 1. 492. See Píoners below.

Mýself (perhaps, but by no means certainly, in) “I mý | self fíght | not ónce | in fór | ty yéar.” 1 Hen. VI. i. 3. 91. But certainly hímself, mýself, &c. are often found in Elizabethan authors, especially in Spenser: “Mourns inwardly and makes to hímself mone.” SPENS. F. Q. ii. 1. 42. The reason for this is that self, being an adjective and not a noun, is not entitled to, and had not yet invariably received, the emphasis which it has acquired in modern times.

And so, perhaps: “And bánd | ing thém | selves ín | contrá (490) | ry párts.” 1 Hen. VI. iii. 1. 81.

Nórthampton.-- “Last níght | I héar | they láy | at Nórth- |
amptón.Rich. III. ii. 4. 1.

O'bscure (adj.; as a verb, obscúre). “To ríb | her cére | cloth ín | the ób | scure gráve.” M. of V. ii. 7. 51. “His méans | of déath, | his ób | scure fú | nerál.” Hamlet, iv. 5. 213.

O'bservant.-- “Than twén | ty síll | y dúck | ing ób | servánts.Lear, ii. 2. 109.

Perséver-- “Ay, dó, | persév | er, count | erféit | sad lóoks.” M. N. D. iii. 2. 236; A. W. iii. 7. 31; K. J. ii. 1. 421; Hamlet, i. 2. 92.

This is the Latin accent in accordance with Ben Jonson's rule. “Bóunty, | persév | (erance, mér | cy, lów | linéss.” Macbeth, iv. 3. 93.

Pérspective.--A. W. v. 3. 48; Rich. II. ii. 2. 18.

The double accent seems to have been disliked by the Elizabethans. They wrote and pronounced "muleters" for "muleteers," "enginer" (Hamlet, iii. 4. 206) for "engineer," "pioners" for "pioneers." This explains:

Píoners.-- “A wórth | y píoner. | Once móre | remóve, | good
fríends.” Hamlet, i. 5. 162.

Plébeians (almost always). “The pléb | eiáns | have gót | your fél | low-tríbune.” Coriol. v. 4. 39; i. 9. 7, &c. This explains “Lét them | have cúsh | ions bý you. | You're pléb | eiáns.Ib. iii. 1. 101. Exceptions: Hen. V. v. Chorus, 27; T. A. i. 1. 231.

So "Epicúrean" in Elizabethan authors and A. and C. ii. 1. 24. The Elizabethans generally did not accent the e in such words.

Púrsuit.-- “In púr | suit óf | the thíng | she wóuld | have stáy.” Sonn. 143. “We trí | fle tíme. | I prí | thee púr | sue séntence.” M. of V. iv. 1. 298.

Púrveyor.-- “To bé | his púr | veyór: | but hé | rides wéll.” Macbeth, i. 6. 22.

Quíntessence.-- “Téaching | áll that | réad to | knów
The quínt | essénce | of év | ery spríte.” A. Y. L. iii. 2. 147.

Récordér(?).-- “To bé | spoke tó | but by | the ré | cordér.Rich. III. iii. 7. 30. So also Walker, who quotes from DONNE'S Satires, v. 248, Ed. 1633:

Recorder to Destiny on earth, and she.
But this line might be scanned otherwise.

Rélapse.-- “Kílling | in ré | lapse óf | mortál | itý.” Hen. V. iv. 3. 107.

Rhéumatic.-- “O'erwórn, | despís | ed, rhéu | matíc, | and óld.” V. and A. 135; M. N. D. ii. 1. 105.

So “These prág | matíc | young mén | at théir | own wéapons.” B. J.

Sécure.-- “Upón | my sé | cure hóur | thy ún | cle stóle.” Hamlet, i. 5. 61; Othello, iv. 1. 72.

Séquester'd.-- “Whý are | you sé | questér'd | from áll | your tráin?” T. A. ii. 3. 75.

Súccessor (rare). “For béing | not própp'd | by án | cestrý | whose gráce
Chalks súcc | essórs | their wáy, | nor cáll'd | upón, &c.” Hen. VIII. i. 1. 60.

Súccessive (rare).-- “Are nów | to háve | no súcc | essíve | degrées.” M. for M. ii. 2. 98.

Tówards (sometimes). “And sháll | contín | ue our grác | es tó | wards hím.” Macbeth, i. 6. 30. “I gó, | and tó | wards thrée | or fóur | o'clóck.” Rich. III. iii. 5. 101. Compare “Should, líke | a swáll | ow préy | ing tó | wards stórms.” B. J. Poetast. iv. 7. “O' the plágue, | he's sáfe | from thínk | ing tó | ward Lóndon.” B. J. Alchemist, i. 1. So, perhaps, “I ám | infórmed | that hé | comes tó | wards Lóndon.” 3 Hen. VI. iv. 4. 26. “And tó | ward Lón | don théy | do bénd | their cóurse.” Rich. III. iv. 5. 14.

U'tensils (perhaps). “He has brave útensils; for so he calls them.” Temp. iii. 2. 104.

Wíthout.--See 457 a.

The English tendency, as opposed to the Latin, is illustrated by the accentuation of the first syllable of "ígnominy," and its consequent contraction into "ígnomy" (1 Hen. IV. v. 4. 100, &c.).


VERSES.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Alexandrines, very rare

A proper Alexandrine with six accents, such as-- “And nów | by wínds | and wáves | my lífe | less límbs | are
tóssed,” DRYDEN. is seldom found in Shakespeare.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Apparent Alexandrines, two final extra syllables

Apparent Alexandrines. The following are Alexandrines only in appearance. The last foot contains, instead of one extra syllable, two extra syllables, one of which is slurred (see 467-9):-- “The núm | bers óf | our hóst | and máke | discóvery (discov'ry).” Macbeth, v. 4. 6. “He thínks | me nów | incáp | ablé; | conféderates.Tempest, i. 2. 111. “In vír | tue thán | in vén | geance: théy | being pénitent.Ib. v. 1. 28. “And móre | divérs | itý | of sóunds | all hórrible.Ib. 235. “In bítt | ernéss. | The cómm | on éx | ecútioner.A. Y. L. iii. 5. 3. “I sée | no móre | in yóu | than ín | the órdinary.Ib. 42. “Were rích | and hón | ouráble; | besídes | the géntlemen.T. G. of V. iii. 1. 64. “Which sínce | have steád | ed múch; | so, óf | his géntleness.Temp. i. 2. 165; Rich. III. v. 3. 245; Hen. V. ii. 2. 71.

For the contraction of "gentleman" to "gentl'man," or even "genman," see 461. “Are yóu | not gríeved | that A'r | thur ís | his prísoner
(468)?” K. J. iii. 4. 123. “And I' | must frée | ly háve | the hálf | of ánything.M. of V. iii. 2. 251. “To másk | thy mónst | rous vísage. | Seek nóne | conspíracy.J. C. ii. 1. 81. “Had hé | been vánq | u(i)sher, ás, | bý the | same cóvenant.Hamlet, i. 1. 93. “My lórd, | I cáme | to sée | your fá | ther's fúneral.Ib. i. 2. 176. “Untáint | ed, ún | exám | in'd, frée, | at líberty.Rich. III. iii. 6. 9. “And só | doth míne. | I múse | why shé's | at líberty.Ib. i. 3. 305. So, perhaps, “From tóo | much lí | bertý, | my Lú | cio, líberty.M. for M. 2. 129. “A'bso | lute Mí | lan. Mé, | poor mán, | my líbrary.Tempest, i. 2. 109. “Shall sée | advánt | ageá | ble fór | our dígnity.Hen. V. v. 2. 88. unless "advántage | able fór |."


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Apparent Alexandrines, two syllables in the middle of a verse

Sometimes the two syllables are inserted at the end of the third or fourth foot-- “The flúx | of cómpany. | Anón | a cáre | less hérd.” A. Y. L. ii. 1. 52. “To cáll | for récompense; | appéar | it tó | your mínd.” Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 3. “Is nót | so éstima | ble, pró | fitá | ble néither.” M. of V. i. 3. 167. “O'erbéars | your ófficers; | the ráb | ble cáll | him lórd.” Hamlet, iv. 5. 102. “To mé | invéterate, | héarkens | my bróth | er's súit.” Temp. i. 2. 122. “With áll | prerógative. | Hénce his | ambít | ion grówing.” Ib. i. 2. 105. “In báse | applíances) (471). | This óut | ward sáint | ed
députy (468).” M. for M. iii. 1. 89. “Than wé | bring mén | to cómfort them ('em). | The fáult's |
your ówn.” Tempest, ii. 1. 134-5.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Apparent Alexandrines, explained by contractions

In other cases the appearance of an Alexandrine arises from the non-observance of contractions-- “I dáre | abíde | no lónger (454). | Whíther (466) should |
I flý?” Macbeth, iv. 2. 73. “She lé | vell'd át | our púr | poses) (471), ánd, | béing (470)
roýal.” A. and C. v. 2. 339. “All mórt | al cónse | quences) (471) háve | pronóunced | me
thús.” Macbeth, v. 3. 5. “As mís | ers dó | by béggars (454); | neither (466) gáve |
to mé.” Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 142.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Apparent Alexandrines, unemphatic syllables dropped

Apparent Alexandrines. The following can be explained by the omission of unemphatic syllables:-- “Hor. Háil to | your lórdship. |
Ham. I am (I'm) glád | to sée | you wéll.” Hamlet, i. 2. 160. “Whereóf | he is the (he's th') héad; | then íf | he sáys | he
lóves you.” Ib. i. 3. 24. “Thou art swórn | as déeply | to (t') efféct | what wé |
inténd.” Rich. III. iii. 1. 158. “I had thóught, | my lórd, | to have léarn'd | his héalth |
of yóu.” Rich. II. ii. 3. 24. “That tráce him | in his (in's) líne. | No bóast | ing líke
| a fóol.” Macbeth, iv. 1. 153. “In séeming | to augmént | it wástes | it. Bé | advís'd.” Hen. VIII. i. 1. 145. “When mír(a) | cles háve | by the gréat | est béen | deníed.” A. W. ii. 1. 144. “Persuádes | me it is (t's) óth | erwíse; | howe'ér | it bé.” Rich. III. ii. 2. 29. “A wórth | y óff (icer | i' the wár, | but ín | solént.” Coriol. iv. 6. 30. “I prómise | you I' am ('m) | afráid | to héar | you téll it.” Ib. i. 4. 65. “Come, sís | ter, cóusin | I would ('ld) sáy, | pray pár | don
mé.” Rich. II. ii. 2. 105. “That máde | them dó it ('t). | They are ('re) wíse | and
hón | (ou)ráble.” J. C. iii. 2. 218. “With áll | preróg(a)tive; | hénce his | ambít | ion grówing.” Tempest, i. 2. 105. “Mine éyes | even sóc | iablé | to the shów | of thíne.” Ib. v. 1. 63. “As gréat | to mé | as láte; | and suppórt | ablé.” Temp. v. 1. 146. unless "supportable" can be accented on the first.

Ostentation" is perhaps for "ostention" (Walker), and "the" is "th'," in “The ostentation of our love which, left unshown.” A. and C. iii. 6. 52.

"Is" ought probably to be omitted in “With gól | den chéru | bims (is) frétted; | her án | diróns.” Cymb. ii. 4. 88. “So sáucy | with the hánd | of shé | here--whát's | her
náme?” A. and C. iii. 13. 98. “Come Lám | mas éve | at níght | shall she bé | fourtéen.” R. and J. i. 3. 17. “Of óffic(467) | er, (465) and óff | ice sét | all héarts | in the
(i' th') státe.” Tempest, i. 2. 84. “Uncóup | le (465) in the (i' th') wést | ern váll | ey, lét | them
gó.” M. N. D. iv. 1. 112. “Cóme to | one márk; | as mány | ways méet in | one
tówn.” Hen. V. i. 2. 208. “Verbátim | to rehéarse | the méth | od óf | my pén.” 1 Hen. VI. iii. 1. 13.

The following is intended to be somewhat irregular: “Now bý | mine hón | our, bý | my lífe, | by my tróth.” Rich. II. v. 2. 78.

We must probably scan as an ordinary line, “That séeming | to be móst | which wé | indéed | least áre,” T. of Sh. v. 2. 175. since it rhymes with an ordinary line,

Our stréngth | as weak, | our wéak | ness pást | compáre.

The following can be explained by the quasi-omission of unemphatic syllables: “Awáy! | though párt | ing bé | a dréad | ful córr(o)sive.” 2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 403.

"Córrosive," as in 1 Hen. VI. iii. 3. 3, is accented on the first, and here pronounced "corsive." “Bút with | a knáve | of cómm | on híre, | a gónd(o)lier.” Othello, i. 1. 126.

"Our" is not a dissyllable, but "ag'd" is a monosyllable in “But lóve, | dear lóve, | and óur | ag'd fá | ther's ríght.” Lear, iv. 4. 28.

So perhaps “An ág'd | intér | pretér | though yóung | in yéars.” T. of A. v. 3. 6.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Apparent Alexandrines, doubtful

Alexandrines doubtful. There are several apparent Alexandrines, in which a shortening of a preposition would reduce the line to an ordinary line. "Upon," for instance, might lose its prefix, like "'gainst" for "against." “To lóok | upon my sóme | time más | ter's róy | al fáce.” Rich. II. ii. 5. 75. “Forbíds | to dwéll up | on; yét | remém | ber thís.” Rich. III. v. 3. 239.Upon óur | house('s) (471) thátch, | whíles a | more fróst | y
péople.” Hen. V. iii. 5. 24.Upon the sís | terhóod, | the vó | tarists óf | St. Cláre.” M. for M. i. 4. 5.Brut. "Is líke | to láy upon us (on's). |
Cass. I'm glád | that mý | weak wórds.” J. C. i. 2. 176. “Is góne | to práy | the hó | ly kíng | upon his (on's) áid.” Macbeth, iii. 6. 30.

So "to" (or "in," 457a) in "into" may be dropped in “Fall ínto | the cóm | pass óf | a præ<*> | muníre.” Hen. VIII. iii. 2. 340. “The wátches | on únto | mine éyes | the óut | ward wátch.” Rich. II. v. 4. 52. (?) “Ráther | a dítch | in E'gypt
Be géntle | grave únto | me. Ráther | on Ní | lus' múd.” A. and C. v. 2. 58.

"Gentle" is a quasi-monosyllable, see 465; "rather," see 466.

So Walker reads "to" for "unto" in “Unto a póor, | but wórth | y gént | lemán. | She's
wédded,” Cymb. i. 1. 7. and observes, "Unto and into have elsewhere, I think, taken the place of to."

Perhaps the second line of the rhyming couplet is purposely lengthened in “I' am | for the áir; | this níght | I'll spénd
Un'to | a dís | mal ánd | a fát | al énd.” Macb. iii. v. 21.

In “Better to leave undone, than by our deed
Acquire too high a fame when him we serve's away,” A. and C. iii. 1. 15. we might arrange

Better léave | undóne, | than bý | our déed | acqúire.
Or the latter line might be (but there is not pause enough to make it probable) a trimeter couplet. (See 501.) “At Má | rián | a's hóuse | to-níght. | Her cáuse | and yóurs,” M. for M. iv. 3. 145. must be an Alexandrine, unless in the middle of the line "Mariana" can be shortened like "Marian," as "Helena" becomes "Helen" (M. N. D. i. 1. 208). Compare “For Már | iana's sáke: | but ás | he adjúdg'd | your bróther.” M. for M. v. 1. 408.

The following seem pure Alexandrines, or nearly so, if the text be correct:-- “How dáres (499) | thy hársh | rude tóngue | sound thís |
unpléas | ing néws.” Rich. II. iii. 4. 74. “Suspíc | ion, áll | our líves, | shall bé | stuck fúll | of éyes.” 1 Hen. IV. v. 2. 8. “A chér | ry líp, | a bón | ny éye, | a páss | ing pléas | ing
tóngue.” Rich. III. i. 1. 94. “Tó the | young Ró | man bóy | she hath sóld | me ánd |
I fáll.” A. and C. iv. 12. 48. “And thése | does shé | applý | for wárn | ings ánd | porténts.” J. C. iii. 1. 23. This is the Shakespearian accent of "portent" (490), but perhaps "and" should be omitted. “Oút of | a gréat | deal óf | old ír | on I' | chose fórth.” 1 Hen. VI. i. 2. 101.

It is needless to say that Shakespeare did not write this line, whether it be read thus or

Oút of | a great déal | of óld | iron I' | chose fórth.

In “'Tis hé | that sént | us híth | er nów | to slaugh | ter thée,” Rich III. i. 4. 250. "hither" (466) may be a monosyllable, and then we can read

'Tis hé | that sént us | .

The latter line in the following couplet seems to be an Alexandrine: “Of whát | it ís | not: thén, | thrice-grác | ious quéen,
Móre than | your lórd's | depárt | ure wéep | not: móre's
| not séen.” Rich. II. ii. 2. 25, v. 4. 110.

Sometimes apparent Alexandrines will be reduced to ordinary lines, if exclamations such as "O," "Well," &c. be considered (512) as detached syllables. “Vol. That théy | combíne | not thére. |
Cor. (Tush, tush!
Men. A góod demánd.” Coriol. iii. 2. 45.Coriol. The óne | by the óther. |
Com. (Well,) | O'n to | the márk | et pláce.” Ib. iii. 1. 112.Sic. 'Tis hé, | 'tis hé: | (O,) he's grówn | most kínd | of
láte.” Ib. iv. 6. 11. “Upón | the Brít | ish párty. | (O,) untíme | ly déath.” Lear, iv. 6. 25.

In the last two examples "O" might coalesce with the following vowel. But see also 503 and 512.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Apparent Alexandrines, the detached foot

Apparent Alexandrines are sometimes regular verses of five accents preceded or followed by a foot, more or less isolated, containing one accent. “(Shall I) With bated breath and whispering humbleness
Say thís. || Fair sír, | you spít | on mé | on Wéd | nesday
lást.” M. of V. i. 3. 126.Háve I || No fríend | will ríd | me óf | this lív | ing féar?” Rich. II. v. 4. 2.

The "No" is emphatic, and there is a slight pause after "I." “Whíp him, || Were't twén | ty óf | the gréat | est tríb | utáries.” A. and C. iii. 13. 96.Come, cóme, || No móre | of thís | unpróf | itá | ble chát.” 1 Hen. IV. iii. 1. 63. “There cannot be those numberless offences
'Gáinst me, || that I' | cannót | take péace | with: nó |
black énvy.” Hen. VIII. ii. 1. 85. “A's you | are cért | ainlý | a gén | tlemán, || theretb,
Clerk-líke | expéri | énced.” W. T. i. 2. 391.Besídes, || I líke | you nót. | I'f you | will knów | my hóuse.” A. Y. L. iii. 5. 74. “Whích to | dený | concérns | móre than | aváils,
For ás || thy brát | hath béen | cast óut | líke to | itsélf.” W. T. iii. 2. 87. “Só it | should nów,
Wére there | necéss | itý | in yóur | requést, || althóugh
'Twere néed | ful I' | deníed it.” Ib. i. 2. 22. “Máking | práctis'd | smíles
A's in | a lóok | ing gláss, | and thén | to sígh, || as 'twére
The mórt | o' the déer.” W. T. i. 2. 117.

The context might perhaps justify a pause after "well" in “Flor. To háve | them ré | compénsed | as thóught | on.
Cam. Wéll, || my lórd.W. T. iv. 4. 532. But better "To have them (t' have 'em) ré | compénsed." “His traín | ing súch
That hé | may fúrn | ish ánd | instrúct | great téachers,
And név | er séek | for áid | óut of | himsélf.
|| Yet see, &c.” Hen. VIII. i. 2. 114. “Whát, girl! | though gréy
Do sóme | thing míng | le wíth | our yóung | er brówn,
|| yet há' we
A bráin, &c.” A. and C. iv. 8. 21. “A cértain númber,
Though thánks | to áll, | múst I | seléct | from áll. || The
rést
Shall béar, | &c.” Coriol. i. 6. 81; i. 7. 2. “And the buildings of my fancy.
Only--
There's one thing wanting which I doubt not but.” Ib. ii. 1. 216.

Collier transposes "only" and "but" to the respectively following lines. The line

So to esteem of us and on our knees we beg,
ought probably to be arranged thus: “Só to | estéem | of ús, | and ón | our knées
We bég | as ré | compénse | of óur | dear sérvices (471).” W. T. ii. 3. 150. So “Whom I' | with thís | obé | dient stéel, | three ínches (471)
of it.” Temp. ii. 1. 283; i.e. "three ínch of't."

So transpose "'tis," i. e. "it is," to the preceding line in “York. I féar, | I féar,-- |
Duch. Whát should | you féar? | It ís
('Tis) Nothing bút | some bónd | that hé | is ént | er'd
ínto.” Rich. II. v. 2. 65.

"I do" must be omitted (456) before "beseech you" in “(I do) beséech | you, pár | don mé, | I máy | not shów it.” Ib. 70.

So Cymb. i. 6. 48.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Trimeter couplet in dialogue

Trimeter Couplet. Apparent Alexandrines are often couplets of two verses of three accents each. They are often thus printed as two separate short verses in the Folio. But the degree of separateness between the two verses varies greatly. Thus perhaps-- “Whére it | may sée | itsélf; || thís is | not stránge | at áll.” Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 111. “That hás | he knóws | not whát. || Náture, | what thíngs |
there áre.” Ib. iii. 3. 127. And certainly in the following:-- “Anne. I wóuld | I knéw | thy héart. || Glou. 'Tis fíg | ured ín |
my tóngue.
Anne. I féar | me bóth | are fálse. || Glou. Then név | er mán |
was trúe.
Anne. Well, wéll, | put úp | your swórd. || Glou. Say thén |
my péace | is máde.” Rich. III. i. 2. 193.Jul. I wóuld | I knéw | his mínd. || Luc. Perúse | this pá | per,
mádam.
Jul. 'To Jú | lia.' Sáy, | from whóm? || Luc. Thát the |
conténts | will shéw.
Jul. Say, sáy, | who gáve | it thée?” T. G. of V. i. 2. 33-7.Luc. Go tó; | 'tis wéll; | awáy! || Isab. Heaven kéep | your
hón | our sáfe.” M. for M. ii. 2. 156.Isab. Sháll I | atténd | your lórdship? || A. At án | y tíme |
'fore nóon.” Ib. 160-9; ii. 4. 104, 141.Ros. The hóur | that fóols | should ásk. || B. Now fáir | befáll |
your másk.
Ros. Fair fáll | the fáce | it cóvers. || B. And sénd | you má | ny
lóvers.” L. L. L. ii. 1. 123.Ang. Why dóst | thou ásk | agáin? || Prov. Lést I | might
bé | too rásh.
Prov. Repént | ed ó'er | his dóom. || Ang. Go tó, | let thát |
be míne!
Ang. And yóu | shall wéll | be spáred. || Prov. I cráve | your
hón | our's párdon.” M. for M. ii. 2. 9-12; Othello, iii. 3. 28-31; Temp. iii. 1. 31, 59.

Shakespeare seems to have used this metre mostly for rapid dialogue and retort. But in the ghost scene in Hamlet:Ghost. To whát | I sháll | unfóld. ||
Ham. Speak; I' | am bóund | to héar.” Hamlet, i. 5. 6.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Trimeter couplet in other cases

The trimeter couplet, beside being frequent in dialogue, is often used by one and the same speaker, but most frequently in comic, and the lighter kind of serious, poetry. It is appropriate for Thisbe: “Most rád | iant Pý | ramús, || most líl | y-whíte | of húe.” M. N. D. iii. 1. 94, 97. And for Pistol, when he rants: “An óath | of míck | le míght; || and fú | ry sháll | abáte.” Hen. V. ii. 1. 70, 44; ii. 3. 4, 64; v. 1. 93. “He ís | not vé | ry táll: || yet fór | his yéars | he's táll.” A. Y. L. iii. 5. 118. “And 'I'll | be swórn | 'tis trúe: || trávell | ers né'er | did
líe.” Temp. iii. 2. 26. “Coy lóoks | with héart- | sore síghs; || one fád | ing mó-
| ment's mírth.” T. G. of V. i. 1. 30. “He wóuld | have gív'n | it yóu,|| but I' | being ín | the wáy
Did ín | your náme | recéive it: || párdon | the fáult, | I
práy.” Ib. 39, 40. “A frée- | stone cól | our'd hánd; || I vér | ilý | did thínk.” A. Y. L. iv. 3. 25. “Then lét's | make háste | awáy, || and lóok | untó | the
máin.” 2 Hen. VI. i. 1. 208. “Am I' | not wítch'd | like hér? || Or thóu | not fálse |
like hím?” Ib. iii. 2. 119. “Why ríng | not óut | the bélls || alóud | throughóut | the
tówn?” 1 Hen. VI. i. 6. 12. “As Æ'th | ióp | ian's tóoth, || ór the | fann'd snów | that's
bólted.” W. T. iv. 4. 375. “This páus | inglý | ensúed. || Néither | the kíng | nor's
héirs.” Hen. VIII. i. 2. 168. “The mónk | might bé | decéiv'd; || and thát | 'twas
dáng(e) | rous fór him.” Ib. 179. “Anón | expéct | him hére; || but íf | she bé | obdúrate
(490).” Rich. III. iii. 1. 39.

This metre is often used by the Elizabethan writers in the translation of quotations, inscriptions, &c. It is used for the inscriptions the caskets: “Who chóos | eth mé | shall gáin || what mán | y mén |
desíre.
Who chóos | eth mé | must gíve || and ház | ard áll | he
háth.” M. of V. ii. 7. 5, 9.

In the pause between a comparison and the fact such a couplet may be expected. “A's | Æné | as díd
The óld | Anchí | ses béar, || so fróm | the wáves | of Tíber
Did I' | the tír | ed Cæ'sar.” J. C. i. 2. 114. “To háve | what wé | would háve, || we spéak | not whát | we
méan.” M. for M. ii. 4. 118.

Sometimes the first trimeter has an extra syllable, which takes the place of the first syllable of the second trimeter. “Shall thére | by bé | the swéeter. || Reá | son thús | with
lífe.” M. for M. iii. 1. 5. “Envél | ope yóu, | good Próvost! || Whó | call'd hére | of
láte?” Ib. iv. 2. 78. “Mátters | of néed | ful válue. || Wé | shall wríte | to yóu.” Ib. i. 1. 56.

Sometimes the first trimeter, like the ordinary five-accent verse, has an extra syllable. In the following examples the two verses are clearly distinct. They might almost be regarded as separate lines of three accents rather than as a couplet: “Hypér | ion tó | a sátyr. | So lóv | ing tó | my móther.” Hamlet, i. 2. 140. “For énd | ing thée | no sóoner. || Thou hást | nor yóuth |
nor áge.” M. for M. iii. 1. 32. “That I' | am tóuch'd | with mádness. || Make nót | impóss
| iblé.” Ib. v. 1. 51. (But? 494.) “Ariel. And dó | my spírit | ing gently. ||
Prosp. Do só, | and áfter | two dáys.” Tempest, i. 2. 298. “Belów | their cób | bled shóes. ||
Théy say | there's gráin | enough.” Coriol. i. 1. 200.


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Trimeter couplet the comic

The comic trimeter. In the rhyming parts of the Comedy of Errors and Love's Labour Lost, there is often great irregularity in the trimeter couplet. Many of the feet are trisyllabic, and one-half of the verse differs from the other. Often the first half is trochaic and the second iambic. “Ant. E. Whérefore? | fór my | dínner: || I háve | not dín'd
| to-dáy.” C. of E. iii. 1. 40.Ant. E. Dó you | héar, you | mínion? || You'll lét | us ín, |
I hópe.” Ib. 54.

In the following, the former half is iambic and the latter anapœstic: “Thou wóuldst | have cháng'd | thy fáce || for a náme, | or
thy náme | for an áss.C. of E. iii. 1. 47.

And conversely: “It would máke | a man mád | as a búck || to bé | so bóught |
and sóld.” Ib. 72.

There are often only five accents. “Bal. Gŏod méat, sĭir, | ĭs cómmŏn | that é | very chúrl |
affórds.
Ant. E. And wélcŏme | mŏre cómmŏn; | for thát | is nóthĭng
| but wórds.” Ib. iii. 1. 24, 25.

Sometimes it is hard to tell whether the verse is trisyllabic with four accents, or dissyllabic with five. “Have át | you wíth | a próverb-- | Shall I' | set ín | my stáff?” Ib. 51. may be scanned with six accents, but the line to which it rhymes seems to have four: “And só | tell your máster. | O Lórd, | I must láugh,” Ib. 50. and the following line also: “Have at yóu | with anóther; | that's whén | can you téll,” Ib. 52. and it is therefore possible that we ought to accent thus:

Have at yoú | with a próverb-- | Shall I sét | in my stáff?


LENGTHENING OF WORDS. Trimeter couplet apparent

Apparent trimeter couplets. Some apparent trimeter couplets are really ordinary dramatic lines.

For example, in the last line but two of 501 (M. for M. v. i. 51), "impóssible" may easily be one foot with two superfluous syllables. It is often a matter of taste which way to scan a line, but it must be borne in mind, that the trimeter couplet is rarely used to express intense emotion. Hence in an impassioned address like that of Henry V. at Harfleur, we should probably read “Defý us | to our wórst: | for ás | I ám | a sóldier,” Hen. V. iii. 3. 5. or, better (479), "for as 'I'm | a sól | diér."

So “And wél | come, Sómerset; | I hóld | it ców | ardíce.” 2 Hen. VI. iv. 2. 7. Or, less probably, "Sómersét" may have two accents and "cówardice" (470) one. “As chíl | dren fróm | a béar, | the Vóls | ces shúnning him.” Coriol. i. 3. 34. “So tédiously | awáy. | The póor | condém | ned E'nglish.” Hen. V. iv. Prol. 221; but ib. 28 is a trimeter couplet. “And húgg'd me | in his árm | and kínd | ly kíss'd | my
chéek.” Rich. III. ii. 2. 24. “Than thát | míx'd in | his chéek. | 'Twas júst | the díff(e)rence.” A. Y. L. iii. 5. 122. “He is ('s) my bróth | er tóo. | But fítt | er tíme | for thát.” M. for M. v. 1. 498. “And nót | the pún(i)sh | ment; thérefore, | indéed | my
fáther.” M. for M. i. 3. 39.

The following are doubtful, but probably ordinary lines: “I knów him | as mysélf, | fór from | our ín | fancý.T. G. of V. ii. 3. 62. Or "ínfancy" may have only one accent (467). “Máy a | free fáce, | put ón, | deríve | a líberty.W. T. i. 2. 112. "Either" may be a monosyllable (see 466) in “Your sénse | pursúes | not míne: | either yóu | are ígnorant.M. for M. ii. 4. 74. “For ín | equál(i)ty: | but lét | your réa | son sérve.” Ib. v. 1. 65.

In “Alexas did revolt; and went to Jewry on
Affairs of Antony,” A. and C. iv. 6. 12. "on" may be transposed to the second line; or, considering the licence attending the use of names and the constant dropping of prefixes, we might perhaps read "Aléxas | did (re)vólt | ."

In “Cálls her | a nón | paréil; | I né | ver sáw | a wóman,” Temp. iii. 2. 108. though it is against Shakespearian usage to pronounce "non-pareil" a dissyllable, as in Dorsetshire, "a núnprel apple," yet Caliban here may be allowed to use this form. I believe "nonp'rel type" is still a common expression.

Sometimes an exclamation, as "O," gives the appearance of a trimeter couplet: “Fór the | best hópe | I háve. | (O,) do not wísh | one
móre.” Hen. V. iv. 3. 33.

See also 498 ad fin.


Verses with four accents assigned to witches, fairies, &c.  

The verse with four accents is rarely used by Shakespeare, except when witches or other extraordinary beings are introduced as speaking. Then he often uses a verse of four accents with rhyme. “Dóuble, | dóuble, | tóil and | trouble,
Fíre | búrn and | cáuldron | búbble.” Macbeth, iv. 1. 20.

The iambic metre in such lines is often interchanged with the trochaic:

Iambic7 “He whó | the swórd | of héav'n | will béar
Should bé | as hó | ly ás | sevére:
Páttern | ín him | sélf to | knów,
Gráce to | stánd and | vírtue | gó.” M. for M. iii. 2. 274-8.
Trochaic

(The last line means "he ought to have grace for the purpose of standing upright, and virtue [for the purpose of] walking in the straight path." "Go" is often used for "walk." "To" is omitted before "go.")

Sometimes in the same couplet we find one line iambic and the other trochaic: “And hére | the mái | den sléep | ing sóund
O'n the | dánk and | dírty | gróund.” M. N. D. ii. 2. 74-5.

It would be, perhaps, more correct to say that both lines are trochaic, but in one there is an extra syllable at the beginning, as well as at the end. So apparently “Thís is | hé my | máster | sáid,
(De)spísed | thé A | thénian | máid.” M. N. D. 72-3: but the prefix "de-" might (460) be dropped.

So “(De)spísed | ín na | tív | i | tý
Shall úp | ón their | chíldren | bé.” Ib. v. i. 420.

There is difficulty in scanning “Prétty | sóul, she | dúrst not | líe
Near this lack-love, this kill-courtesy.” Ib. 76-7.

It is of course possible that "kill-curt'sy" may have the accent on the first: but thus we shall have to accent the first "this" and "love" with undue emphasis. It is also more in Shakespeare's manner to give "courtesy" its three syllables at the end of a line. I therefore scan

(Near this) láck-love, | thís kill | cóurte | sý.

Perhaps, however, as in Macbeth, iii. 5. 34, 35, and? 21, a verse of five accents is purposely introduced.


Verses with four accents otherwise rare  

Lines with four accents are, unless there is a pause in the middle of the line, very rare. The following, however, seem to have no more than four accents: “Let's éach | one sénd | únto | his wífe.” T. of Sh. v. 2. 66. “No wórse | than I' | upon sóme | agreément.” Ib. iv. 4. 33. “He sháll | you fínd | réady | and wílling.” Ib. 34. “The mátch | is máde, | and áll | is dóne.” Ib. 46. “Go fóol, | and whóm | thou kéep'st | commánd.” Ib. ii. 1. 259.

The frequent recurrence of these lines in the Taming of the Shrew will not escape notice. “And pút | yoursélf | únder | his shrówd. (? corrupt.)” A. and C. iii. 13. 71. “A lád | of lífe, | an ímp | of fáme.” Hen. V. iv. 1. 45 (Pistol). “We knew not
The dóc | trine óf | ill-dóing, | nor dréam'd
That any did.” W. T. i. 2. 70. “Go téll | your cóusin | and bríng | me wórd.” 1 Hen. IV. v. 1. 109. “For áught | I knów, | my lórd, | they dó.” Rich. II. v. 1. 53.

But perhaps the lines may be arranged:

Aum. For áught | I knów, My lórd, | they dó. | York. You wíll | be thére, | I knów. Aum. If Gód | prevént | (it) nót, | I púrpose | só.

"With" may be, perhaps (457), transposed to the former of the following verses, thus: “With ád | orá | tions, fér | tile té | ars, (480) with
Gróans (484) | that thún | der lóve, | with síghs | of fíre.” T. N. i. 5. 274.

But the enumerative character of the verse (509) may justify it as it stands.

It is difficult to scan “Lock'd in her monument. She had a prophesying fear,” A. and C. iv. 14. 120. without making the latter portion a verse of four accents.

(Perhaps

"Lóck'd in | her món(u) | ment. Shé'd | a próphe | sying féar," making "sying" a monosyllable like "being," "doing." See 470.) “Should fróm | yond clóud | spéak di | vine thíngs.” Coriol. iv. 5. 110. But I should prefer

If Jupiter Shóuld, from | yond clóud, | spéak di | vine thíngs | and sáy ''Tis trúe,'-- | (507) I'd nót | belíeve | them móre Than thée, | all-nó | ble Március.
Shakespeare would have written "things divine," not "divine things" at the end of a verse. (See 419, at end.) “Is nót | much míss'd | bút with | his fríends.” Coriol. iv. 6. 13. “Befóre | the kíngs | and quéens | of Fránce.” 1 Hen. VI. i. 6. 27. “And éven | these thrée | days háve | I wátch'd.” Ib. i. 4. 16. “Here throúgh | this gáte | I cóunt | each óne.” Ib. 60. “Think nót | the kíng | did bán | ish thée,” Rich. II. i. 3. 279. is not found in the Folio, which also varies, ib. i. 3. 323; iii. 7. 70. Perhaps “They thús | diréct | ed, wé | will fóllow
I'n the | main báttle | whose púissance | on éi | ther
síde.” Rich. III. v. 3. 298. (But the second line is harsh, and perhaps part of it ought to be combined with the first in some way. "Puissance" is a dissyllable generally in Shakespeare, except at the end of the line. I know no instance in Shakespeare where, as in Chaucer, "battle" is accented on the last. Remembering that ed is often not pronounced after t and d, we might scan the first line thus, with three accents:
They thús | diréct(ed), | we'll fóllow.)

If "ed" is not pronounced (472) in "divided," that may explain “The archdéa | con háth | divíded it.” 1 Hen. IV. iii. 1. 72.

The following may seem a verse of four accents: “Whereas the contrary bringeth bliss.” 1 Hen. VI. v. 5. 64. But "contráry" is found in Hamlet, iii. 2. 221. And as "country" (see 477) is three syllables, so, perhaps, "contrary" is four:

Whereás | the cónt | (e)rár | y bring | eth blíss.
A verse of four accents is exceedingly discordant in the formal and artificial speech of Suffolk, in which this line occurs.

Somewhat similarly, Shakespeare has "cursoráry" for "cursory:" “I have but with a cursorary eye.” Hen. V. v. 2. 77.

In “Anthony Woodville, her brother there,” Rich. III. i. 1. 67. "Woodville" is probably to be pronounced a trisyllable, a semivowel inserting itself between the d and v--"Wood-e-ville." The e final (see 488) would not be sounded before "her."

"Valiant" is a trisyllable in “Young, vál | iánt, | wíse, and | no dóubt | right róyal.” Rich. III. i. 2. 245.


Verses with four accents where there is a break in the line  

Lines with four accents, where there is an interruption in the line, are not uncommon. It is obvious that a syllable or foot may be supplied by a gesture, as beckoning, a movement of the head to listen, or of the hand to demand attention, as in “He's tá'en. | [Shóut.] | And hárk, | they shóut | for jóy.” J. C. v. 3. 32. “Knéel thou | down, Phílip. | (Dubs hím knight.) | But
ríse | more gréat.” K. J. i. 1. 161. “Márry | to----(Enter O'thello.) | Come, cáp | tain, wíll |
you gó?” Othello, i. 2. 53.

Here, however, as in “A wíse | stout cáp | (i)táin, | and sóon | persuáded.” 3 Hen. VI. iv. 7. 32. “Our cáp | (i)táins, | Macbéth | and Bán | quo? Yés.” Macbeth, i. 2. 34. we may scan

Márry | to----Cóme, | cáp(i) | tain, wíll | you gó,
but very harshly and improbably. “Cass. Flátter | ers!" (Turns tó Brutus.) | Now, Brú | tus,
thánk | yoursélf.” J. C. v. 1. 45.

An interruption may supply the place of the accent: “And fálls | on th' óth | er----(Enter Lády Macbeth.) |
How nów, | what néws?” Macbeth, i. 7. 28.

The interval between two speakers sometimes justifies the omission of an accent, even in a rhyming passage of regular lines: “Fairy. Aré not | you hé? | ' Puck. | Thou spéak'st | aríght,
I ám | that mér | ry wán | derer óf | the níght.” M. N. D. ii. 1. 42.Mal. As thóu | didst léave | it. 'Serg. | Dóubtful | it stóod.” Macbeth, i. 2. 7.Cass. Messá | la! 'Mess. | What sáys | my gén | erál?” J. C. v. 1. 70.Dun. Who cómes | here? 'Mal. | The wórth | y tháne | of
Róss.” Macbeth i. 2. 45.Sic. Withóut | assístance. | | Men. I thínk | not só.” Coriol. iv. 6. 33.

The break caused by the arrival of a new-comer often gives rise to a verse with four accents. “Than yóur | good wórds. | ' | But whó | comes hére?” Rich. II. ii. 3. 20. “Stánds for | my bóunty. | ' | But whó | comes hére?” Ib. 67. “Agáinst | their wíll. | ' | But whó | comes | hére?” Ib. iii. 3. 19.

So, perhaps, arrange “High be our thoughts!
I know my uncle York hath power enough
To sérve | our túrn. | ' | But whó | comes hére?” Ib. iii. 2. 90.

It is possible that in some of these lines "comes" should be pronounced "cometh." "Words," "turn," and "will" might be prolonged by 485, 486.


Verses with four accents change of thought  

Lines with four accents where there is a change of thought are not uncommon. In some cases the line is divided into two of two accents each, or into one line of three accents, and another of one.

(1) Change of thought from the present to the future: “Háply | you sháll | not sée | me móre; | or íf,
A máng | led shádow. | ' | Perchánce | to-mórrow
You'll serve | anóther | máster.” A. and C. iv. 1. 28. “I'll sénd | her stráight | awáy. | ' | To-mórrow
I'll' to | the wárs: | shé to | her síng | le sórrow.” A. W. ii. 3. 313. “Fresh kíngs | are cóme | to Tróy. | ' | To-mórrow
We múst | with áll | our máin | of pówer | stand fást.” Tr. and Cr. ii. 2. 272.

(2) From a statement to an appeal, or vice versâ: “You háve | not sóught it. | ' | How cómes | it thén?” 1 Hen. IV. v. 1. 27. Unless "comes" is "cometh." See 506 at end. “Lórd of | his réason. | ' | Whát though | you fléd?” A. and C. iii. 13. 4. (I do not remember an instance of "ré | asón." See, however, 479.)

Perhaps “Come híth | er, cóunt. | ' | Do you (d' you) knów |
these wómen?” A. W. v. 3. 165. But possibly:

Come híth | er, cóu | nt (486). Dó | you knów | these women?
But stáy. | Here cómes (Fol.) | the gár | denérs.” Rich. II. iii. 4. 24. ("gárdeners" may have but one accent.) “Néver | belíeve | me.' | Bóth are | my kínsmen.” Ib. ii. 2. 111.

The pause may account for “As hé | would dráw it. | ' | Long stáy'd | he só.” Hamlet, ii. 1. 91. (As ed is pronounced after i and u, so it might be after y in "stáyed," but the effect would be painful.)

Which hás | no néed | of yóu. Begóne,
is the best way of arranging A. and C. iii. 11. 10. “And léave | eightéen. | ' | Alás, poor | príncess.” A. and C. ii. 1. 61. “A prínc | e's cóurage. | ' | Awáy, | I príthee.” Cymb. iii. 4. 187.Lét us | withdráw. | ' | 'Twill bé | a stórm.” Lear, ii. 4. 290.

(3) Hence after vocatives: “Títus, | ' | I (am)'m cóme | to tálk | with thée.” T. A. v. 2. 16.Géntle | men, ' | impórt | une mé | no fúrther.” T. of Sh. i. 1. 48.Géntle | men, ' | that I' | may sóon | make góod.” Ib. 74.Géntle | men, ' | contént | ye, 'I'm | resólved.” Ib. 90.Géntle | men, ' | wíll you | go mús | ter mén?” Rich. II. ii. 2. 108.Géntle | men, ' | go mús | ter úp | your mén.” Rich. II. ii. 2. 118 “Good Már | garét. | Rún | thee tó | the párlour.” M. Ado, iii. 1. 1.

Either a pause may explain “But téll | me, ' | is yóung | Géorge Stán | ley líving?” Rich. III. v. 5. 9. or "George" (485) may be a quasi-dissyllable.


Verses with four accents change of construction  

A foot or syllable can be omitted where there is any marked pause, whether arising from (1) emotion, (2) antithesis, or (3) parenthesis, or (4) merely from the introduction of a relative clause, or even a new statement.

(1) “Wére't | my fítness
To lét | these hánds | obéy | my blóod, | --' |
They're ápt | enóugh | to dís | locáte | and téar
Thy flésh | and bónes.” Lear, iv. 2. 64. “O' | dislóy | al thíng
That shóuld'st | repáir | my yóuth, | --' | thou héap'st
A yéar's | age ón | me.” Cymb. i. 1. 132.

There is an intended solemnity in the utterances of the ghosts in “Let fáll | thy lánce. | ' | Despáir | and díe.” Rich. III. v. 3. 143. and “Thínk on | lord Hástings. | ' | Despáir | and díe.” Ib. 148.

(2) “Scarce án | y jóy
Did év | er só | long líve. | | No sórrow
But kíll'd | itsélf | much sóon | er.” W. T. v. 3. 53.

(3) “He quít | his fórt | unes hére
(Which yóu | knew gréat) | ' | ánd to | the házard.” Ib. iii. 2. 169.

(4) “Mark whát | I sáy, | ' | which yóu | shall fínd.” M. for M. iv. 3. 130. Perhaps “Is my kíns | man, ' | whóm | the kíng | hath wróng'd,” Rich. II. ii. 2. 114. in a very irregular passage, part of which is nearly prose. “I'nto | his títle | which | the | we fínd.” 1 Hen. IV. iv. 3. 104. “That shé | did gíve me, | ' | whose pó | sy wás.” M. of V. v. 1. 148. “Cáll our | cares féars, | ' | which wíll | in tíme.” Coriol. iii. 1. 137. “'Tis súre | enóugh | --án you | knew hów.” T. A. iv. 1. 95.

A pause may, perhaps, be expected before an oath, as in “As yoú | shall gíve | th' advíce. | Bý | the fíre
That quíck | ens E' | gypt's slíme.” A. and C. i. 3. 68. (But "vice" or "by" may be prolonged.) “That mý | most jéal | ous ánd | too dóubt | ful héart
May líve | at péace. | ' | He sháll | concéal it.” T. N. iv. 3. 28; Macbeth, i. 5. 6. “To wátch, | poor pérdu!
With thís | thin hélm. | ' | Mine éne | my's dóg,
Thóugh he | had bít | me, shóuld | have stood | that níght
Agáinst | my fíre.” Lear, iv. 7. 36. “Last níght | 'twas ón | mine árm. | ' | I kíss'd it.” Cymb. ii. 3. 151. (Certainly not "I kíss | ed ít.") “Would thén | be nóthing. | ' | Trúths would | be táles.” A. and C. ii. 2. 137. “Póint to | rich énds. | ' | Thís my | mean tásk.” Temp. iii. 1. 4. “Must gíve | us páuse (484). | ' | Thére's the | respéct.” Hamlet, iii. 1. 68.


Verses with four accents a number of clauses  

Lines with four accents are found where a number of short clauses or epithets are connected together in one line, and must be pronounced slowly: “Earth gapes, hell burns, fiends roar, saints pray.” Rich. III. iv. 4. 75. “Witty, courteous, liberal, full of spirit.” 3 Hen. VI. i. 2. 43.

The last line is very difficult. "And," or a pause equal to "and," after "witty," would remove the difficulty.

It is remarkable that Shakespeare ventures to introduce such a line even in a rhyming passage: “Youth, beauty, wisdom, courage, all
That happiness and prime can happy call.” M. for M. ii. 1. 184. “Ho! héarts, | tongues, fígures, | scribes, bárds, | poéts |
cannót
Think, spéak, | cast, wríte, | sing núm | ber, ho!
His love to Antony.” A. and C. iii. 2. 17. “Is goads, thorns, nettles, tails of wasps.” W. T. i. 2. 329. (Here, however, "goads" and "thorns" may be prolonged. See 484, 485.) “With thát | harsh, nó | ble, sím | ple-- | nóthing.” Cymb. iii. 4. 135.

The following occurs amid regular verse: “These drums! these trumpets! flutes! what.” A. and C. ii. 7. 138. “When you do dance, I wish you
A wave of the sea, that you might ever do
Nóthing | but thát; | move stíll, | still só.” W. T. iv. 4. 142.

Here still, which means "always," is remarkably emphatic, and may, perhaps, be pronounced as a quasi-dissyllable. So "til" is a monosyllabic foot in CHAUCER, C. T. 1137.


Verses with four accents apparent  

Apparent lines of four accents can sometimes be explained by giving the full pronunciation to contractions, such as s for eth, 'd for ed, 'll for will, 've for have, 't for it, &c.; or they are lines of three accents with a detached foot. “Silv. Whát's (is) | your wíll? |
Prot. That I' | may cóm | pass yóurs.” T. G. of V. iv. 2. 92. “And wére | the kíng | on't (of ít), | what wóuld | I dó?” Temp. ii. 1. 145. “In whát | you pléase. | 'I'll (will) | do whát | I cán.” Ib. iv. 4. 47. “You've ádd | ed wó | rth (485) ún | to ít | and lústre.” T. of A. i. 2. 154. “Dríve him | to Rö | me; 't (it) | is tíme | we twáin.” A. and C. i. 4. 73. “Whence cóm | est thóu? | What wóuld | est thóu? | Thy
náme?” Coriol. iv. 5. 58. But the pauses between the abrupt questions may be a sufficient explanation. “And ne'er (név | er) á | true óne. | In súch | a níght.” M. of V. v. 1. 148.

The first "a" may be emphatic, meaning "one." Else 508. “Our thíghs | páck'd (ed) | with wáx, | our móuths | with
hóney.” 2 Hen. IV. iv. 5. 77. “So múch | as lán | k'd (ed) nót. | 'Tis pít | y óf him.” A. and C. i. 4. 71. "'s" = "his" in “Vincént | ió | 's (his) són | brought úp | in Flórence.” T. of Sh. i. 1. 14.

In “Sal. My lord, I long to hear it at full,” 2 Hen. VI. ii. 2. 6. "hear" is a dissyllable (485), or "the" omitted after "at." Compare "atte" in E. E. for "at the."

I feel confident that "but would" must be supplied in “And what poor duty cannot do, noble respect
Takes it in might, not merit,” M. N. D. v. 1. 91. and we must read:

And what poor duty cannot do, but would, Noble respect takes not in might but merit.8
“And, ere our coming, see thou shake the bags
Of hoarding abbots; imprisoned angels
Set at liberty. The fat ribs of peace
Must by the hungry now be fed upon,” K. J. iii. 3. 8. ought probably to be arranged:
Of hoarding abbots; Imprisoned angels set at liberty. The fat ribs of peace Must, &c.
Or (Walker) invert "imprisoned angels" and "set at liberty."

Arrange thus: “Your Coriolanus
Is nót | much míss'd,
Bút with | his fríends. | The cóm | monwéalth | doth stánd,
And só | would dó, | were hé | more áng | ry át it.” Coriol. iv. 6. 13.

Similarly “Most cért | ain. Síst | er, wélcome.
Práy you | (see 512)
Be év | er knówn | to pát | ience, mý | dear'st síster.” A. and C. iii. 6. 97.

So arrange “That won you without blows.
Despising (499),
For you, the city, thus I turn my back.” Coriol. iii. 3. 133.Cel. Look, whó | comes hére? |
Silv. My érr | and ís | to yóu:
Fair yóuth (512), |
My gént | le Phœ' | be bíd | me gíve | you thís.” A. Y. L. iv. 3. 6.Got 'twéen | asléep | and wáke.
Wéll, then (512),
Legít(i) | mate E'd | gar, I' | must háve | your lánd.” Lear, i. 2. 15.As péarls | from día | monds drópp'd.
In brief (511).” Lear, iv. 3. 24. Hen. V. ii. Prologue, 32, is corrupt. “I live with bread like you:
Feel want, taste grief, need friends: subjected thus,
How can you say to me I am a king?” Rich. II. iii. 2. 175.


Short lines, why introduced  

Single lines with two or three accents are frequently interspersed amid the ordinary verses of five accents. They are, naturally, most frequent at the beginning and end of a speech.

These lines are often found in passages of soliloquy where passion is at its height. Thus in the madness of Lear, iv. 6. 112-29, there are eight lines of three accents, and one of two; and the passage terminates in prose. And so perhaps we should arrange “Would use his heav'n for thunder; nothing but thunder!
Merciful heaven (512),
Thou rather with thy sharp and sulphurous bolt
Split'st the unwedgeable and gnarled oak
Than the soft myrtle.
But man, proud man,
Drest in a little brief authority, &c.” M. for M. ii. 2. 110-19. So in the impassioned speech of Silvius: “If thou remember'st not the slightest folly
That ever love did make thee run into,
Thou hast not loved,A. Y. L. ii. 5. 36. which is repeated in 1. 39 and 42.

The highest passion of all expresses itself in prose, as in the earful frenzy of Othello, iv. 1. 34-44, and Lear, iv. 6. 130.

Rarely we have a short line to introduce the subject. “York. Then thus:
Edward the third, my lords, had seven sons.” 2 Hen. VI. ii. 2. 9, 10. “Into his ruin'd ears, and thus deliver:
'Henry Bolingbroke,
On both his knees,' &c.” Rich. II. iii. 3. 32.Ross. (So) That now
Sweno, the Norways' king, craves composition.” Macbeth, i. 2. 59.For Cloten:
There wants no diligence in seeking him.” Cymb. iv. 3. 19.

Sometimes the verse (which is often written as prose in the Folio) closely resembles prose. It is probable that the letter J. C. ii. 3. 1-10 is verse, the last two words, "thy lover, Artemidorus," being irregular. So A. Y. L. iii. 2. 268-74.

The irregular lines uttered by Cassius, when he is cautiously revealing the conspiracy to Casca, looking about to see that he is not overheard, and also pausing to watch the effect of his words on Casca, are very natural. “Unto some monstrous state.
Now could I, Casca, name to thee a man
Most like this dreadful night,
That thunders, lightens, opens graves, and roars.” J. C. i. 3. 71-74.

It will also not escape notice that "now could I, Casca," and "that thunders, lightens," are amphibious sections. See 513.

The following pause may be explained by the indignation of Macduff, which Malcolm observes and digresses to appease: “Why in that rawness left you wife and child
Without leave-taking?
I pray you (512)
Let not my jealousies be your dishonours.” Macbeth, iv. 3. 28.

A pause is extremely natural before Lear's semi-confession of infirmity of mind: “A'nd, to | deal pláinly,
I féar | I ám | not ín | my pérf | ect mínd.” Lear, iv. 7. 62.

A stage direction will sometimes explain the introduction of a short line. The action takes up the space of words, and necessitates a broken line, thus: “Macb. This is a sorry sight. [Looking on his hands.]
Lady M. A foolish thought, to say a sorry sight.” Macbeth, ii. 2. 21.

Macbeth may be supposed to draw his dagger after the short line: “As thís | which nów | I dráw.” Macbeth, ii. 1. 41.

So after Lady Macbeth has openly proposed the murder of Duncan in the words-- “Oh, never
Shall sun that morrow see,Macbeth, i. 5. 62. she pauses to watch the effect of her words till she continues:

Your face, my thane, is as a book where men, &c.

The irregular lines in the excited narrative of the battle-- “Like valour's minion, carv'd out his passage
Till he faced the slave,Macbeth, i. 2. 20 (so ib. 51). are perhaps explained by the haste and excitement of the speaker. This is illustrated by “Except they meant to bathe in reeking wounds,
Or memorize another Golgotha,
I cannot tell.
But I am faint, my wounds cry out for help.Macbeth, i. 2. 41.

In “As cannons overcharged with double cracks; || so they ||
Doubly redoubled strokes upon the foe,” Ib. i. 2. 37. there may be an instance of a short line. But more probably we must scan "As cánnons | o'erchárged | ."

Such a short line as “Only to herald thee into his sight,
Not pay thee,Macbeth, i. 3. 103. is very doubtful. Read (though somewhat harshly):

On'ly | to hér(a)ld (463) | thee ín | to's síght, | not páy thee.

So “Lét's (us) | awáy; | our téars | are nót | yet bréw'd,” Macbeth, ii. 3. 129, 130. and the following lines must be arranged so as to make 1. 132 an interjectional line.

There is a pause after "but let" in “But let--
The fráme | of thíngs | disjóint, | bóth the | worlds súffer.” Macbeth, iii. 2. 16; iv. 3. 97. and in the solemn narrative preparatory to the entrance of the Ghost: “Last night of all,
When yond same star that's westward from the pole.” Hamlet, i. 1. 35.

So “And are upon the Mediterranean flote
Bound sadly home for Naples,
Supposing that they saw the king's ship wreck'd.” Temp. i. 2. 235.

So M. N. D. iii. 2. 49. “Lastly,
If I do fail in fortune of my choice
Immediately to leave you and be gone.” M. of V. ii. 9. 14.Yet I,
A dull and muddy-mettled rascal, peak.” Hamlet, ii. 2. 593. “I, his sole son, do this same villain send
To heaven.Ib. iii. 3. 78. In “Dost thou hear?” Temp. i. 2. 106. "thou" is unemphatic, and scarcely pronounced. Or else these words must be combined with the previous, thus:

Hénce his | ambít | ion grów | --ing--Dóst | thou héar?


Interjectional lines  

Interjectional lines. Some irregularities may be explained by the custom of placing ejaculations, appellations, &c. out of the regular verse (as in Greek φεῦ, &c.). “Yes. |
Has he | affections in him?” M. for M. iii. 1. 107.Alack
I love myself. Wherefore? for any good?” Rich. III. v. 3. 187.What,
Are there no posts despatch'd for (480) Ireland?” Rich. II. ii. 2. 103.

So arrange “North. Why!
I's he | not with | the quéen? |
Percy. Nó, my | good lórd.” Ib. ii. 3. 512.Fie,
There's no such man; it is impossible.” Othello, iv. 2. 134. “And such a one do I profess myself,
For, sir,
It is as sure as you are Roderigo.” Othello, i. 1. 55; Lear, i. 1. 56. Perhaps we ought thus to arrange “O, sir,
Your presence is too bold and péremptory.” 1 Hen. IV. i. 3. 17.

This is Shakespeare's accentuation of "peremptory." “Farewell. [Exit Banquo.]
Let every man be master of his time.” Macbeth, iii. 1. 40.Sir,
I have upon a high and pleasant hill.” T. of A. i. 1. 63.Sirrah,
Get thee to Plashy, to my sister Gloucester.” Rich. II. ii. 2. 90.

So Rich. III. i. 2. 226; i. 4. 218. “Great king,
Few love to hear the sin they love to act.” P. of T. i. 1. 91. “My dismal scene I needs must act alone.
Come, vial.R. and J. iv. 3. 20. “Come, Hastings, help me to my lodging. O!
Poor Clarence.Rich. III. ii. 1. 133.For Hecuba!
What's Héc | ubá | to hím, | or he | to Hécuba (469)?” Hamlet, ii. 2. 584. “If thou hast any sound or use of voice,
Speak to me.Ib. i. 1. 129. So ib. 132, 135: and "O vengeance," ib. 610; "A scullion!" ib. 616.

So we should read “I'll wait upon you instantly. (Exeunt.) [To FLAV.] Come hither.
Pray you,
How goes, &c.” T. of A. ii. 1. 36.

Similarly "Nay, more," C. of E. i. 1. 16; "Stay," T. N. iii. 1. 149; "Who's there?" Hamlet, i. 1. 1; "Begone," J. C. i. 1. 57; "O, Cæsar," J. C. iii. 1. 281; "Let me work," J. C. ii. 1. 209; "Here, cousin," Rich. II. iv. 1. 182; "What's she?" T. N. i. 2. 35; "Draw," Lear, ii. 1. 32; "Think," Coriol. iii. 3. 49.

So arrange “Viol. Hold, || there's hálf | my cóffer. |
Anton. Wíll you | dený | me nów?” T. N. iii. 4. 38.So, || I am sát | isfíed, | gíve me | a bówl | of wíne.” Rich. III. v. 3. 72.Ratcliffe, || abóut | the míd | of níght | cóme to | my tént.” Rich. III. 77, 209.

The excitement of Richard gives rise to several interjectional lines of this kind in this scene.

A short line sometimes introduces a quotation: “If Cæsar hide himself, shall they not whisper,
Lo, Cæsar is afraid?J. C. ii. 2. 101. “Did scowl on gentle Richard. No man cried
'God save him.'” Rich. II. v. 2. 28.

Perhaps we should arrange as follows: “He'll spend that kiss
Which is my heaven to have.
Come [applying the asp to her bosom]
Thou mortal wretch,
With thy sharp teeth this knot intrinsicate
Of life at once untie.” A. and C. v. 2. 306.

This seems better than scanning the words from "which" to "wretch" as one line, either (1) as an ordinary line, with "come, thou mór | tal wretch," or (2) as a trimeter couplet, making "come" a dissyllable.

So it is better to arrange: “Buckingham,
I prithee pardon me
That I have giv'n no answer all this while.” 2 Hen. VI. v. 1. 32.

Merely with a special view to mark a solemn pause Shakespeare writes: “So, as a painted tyrant Pyrrhus stood,
And, like a neutral to his will and matter,
Did nothing.
But, as we often see, &c.” Hamlet, ii. 2. 504.

Such irregularities are very rare.

Sirrah, A word with you. Attend those men our pleasure?
is the right way to arrange Macb. iii. 1. 45, 46. Shakespeare could not possibly (as Globe) make "our pleasure" a detached foot.

The ejaculation seems not a part of the verse in “Hath séiz'd | the wáste | ful kíng. | [O,] what pít | y ís it.” Rich. II. iii. 4. 55. “And hé | himsélf | not présent. | [O,] forefénd | it, Gód!” Rich. II. iv. 1. 129.

See also 498, at end; 503.


The amphibious section  

The Amphibious Section. When a verse consists of two parts uttered by two speakers, the latter part is frequently the former part of the following verse, being, as it were, amphibious--thus: “S. The E'ng | lish fórce, | so pléase you, ||
M. Táke thy | face hénce. || Séyton, | I'm síck | at héart.” Macbeth, v. 3. 19.M. Néws, my | good lórd, | from Róme. ||
Ant. Grátes me: | the súm. ||
Cleo. Nay, héar | them, A'n | toný.” A. and C. i. 1. 19.B. Who's thére? |
M. A fríend. ||
B. Whát, sir, | not yét | at rést? || The kíng's | abéd.” Macbeth, ii. 1. 10.Kent. This óff | ice tó you. ||
Gent. I' will | talk fúr | ther wíth || you. ||
Kent. Nó, | do not.” Lear, iii. 1. 42.Gent. Which twáin | have bróught | her tó.||
Edg. Hail, gént | le sír. |
Gent. Sir, spéed | you, whát's | your wíll?” Lear, iv. 6. 212.Prosp. Agáinst | what shóuld | ensue. ||
Mir. How cáme | we ashóre? ||
Prosp. By Pró | vidénce | divíne.” Temp. i. 2. 158.Claud. And húg | it ín | my árms. ||
Is. Thére spake | my bró | ther, || thére | my fá | ther's gráve.” M. for M. iii. 1. 86.E. How fáres | the prínce? ||
Mess. Well, mád | am, ánd | in héalth. || Duch. Whát is |
thy néws, then?” Rich. III. ii. 4. 40.Brut. That óth | er mén | begín. ||
Cas. Then léave | him óut. || Casca. Indéed | he ís | not fít.” J. C. ii. 1. 153. Probably-- “Macb. And bréak it | to our hópe. || I wíll | not fíght | with thée.||
Macd. Then yíeld | thee, cóward.” Macbeth, v. 8. 22. Compare also Macbeth, i. 4. 43, 44; ii. 3. 75, 101-2; iii. 1. 18 19, 2. 12-13, 4. 12, 15, 20, 151; J. C. ii. 4. 16, 17; Coriol. iii. 2. 6; Othello, iii. 3. 282, &c.

In the following instance the first "still" is emphatic: “Oliv. As hówl | ing áft | er músic.||
Duke. Stíll | so crú || el!
Oliv. Stíll | so cón | stant, lórd.” T. N. v. 1. 113.

Sometimes a section will, on the one side, form part of a regular line, and, on the other, part of a trimeter couplet. “Hor. Of míne | own éyes. || Mar. I's it | not like | the kíng? ||
Hor. As thóu | art tó | thysélf.” Hamlet, i. 1. 58, 59.Ophel. In hón | ourá | ble fáshion. | Pol. Ay, fásh | ion yóu |
may cáll it. || Go to, go to.” Ib. i. 3. 112.Ham. Nó, it | is strúck. || Hor. Indéed, | I héard | it nót; ||
then ít | draws néar | the séason.” Ib. i. 4. 4.

In the last example, "indeed," when combined with what follows, is a detached interjection (512).


A verse continued, spite of interruptions  

Interruptions are sometimes not allowed to interfere with the completeness of the speaker's verse.

This is natural in dialogue, when the interruption comes from a third person: “Polon. Práy you | be róund | with hím. |
(Ham. [Within] Mother, mother, mother!)
Queen. I'll wár | rant yoú.” Hamlet, iii. 4. 5, 6. Or, when a man is bent on continuing what he has to say: “Ham. Rashly--and that should teach us
There's a divinity that shapes our ends,
Rough-hew them how we will--
(Hor. That's certain.)
Ham. Up from my cabin, &c.” Hamlet, v. 2. 11, 12.Shy. This is (461) kínd | I óffer--
(Bass. This were kindness.)
Shy. This kínd | ness wíll | I shów.” M. of V. i. 3. 143.King R. Rátcliffe-- |
(Rat. My lord.)
King R. The sún | will nót | be séen | to-day.” Rich. III. v. 3. 281.Brutus. Awáy, | slight mán. |
(Cassius. Is't possible?)
Brutus. Héar me, | for I' | will speak.” J. C. iv. 3. 37, 38. Or, when a speaker is pouring forth his words, endeavouring to break through the obstacle of unintelligence, as Kent trying to make himself intelligible to the mad Lear:

Kent. Nó, my | good lórd; | I ám | the vér | y mán-- (Lear. I'll see that straight.) Kent. Thát from | your fírst | of díf | ference ánd | decáy Have fóll | ow'd your | sad stéps, | -- (Lear. You're welcome hither.) Kent. Nor nó | man élse.
i.e. "I and no one else." Then, in despair of making himself understood, Kent continues:
All's cheerless, dark, and deadly.

Sometimes the interlocutor's words, or the speaker's continuation, will complete the line: “Cæsar. So múch | as lánk | ed nót. | (Folio has lank'd.
Lep. 'Tis pít | y óf him.
Cæsar. Lét his | shames quíckly.” A. and C. i. 4. 71.

If there are two interlocutors, sometimes either interlocution will complete the line: “Gent. Than ís | his úse. |
Widow. Lord, hów | we lóse | our páins!
Helena. All's wéll | that énds | well yét.” A. W. v. 1. 24, 25.Bru. Good Márc | ius | hóme | again. |
Sic. The vé | ry tríck on't.
Men. Thís is | unlíkely.” Coriol. iv. 6. 71.


Rhyme, when used  

Rhyme. Rhyme was often used as an effective termination at the end of the scene. When the scenery was not changed, or the arrangements were so defective that the change was not easily perceptible, it was, perhaps, additionally desirable to mark that a scene was finished. The rhyme in T. N. ii. 2. 32 is perhaps a token that the scene once concluded with these lines, and that the nine lines that follow are a later addition.

Rhyme was also sometimes used in the same conventional way, to mark an aside, which otherwise the audience might have great difficulty in knowing to be an aside. Thus, in a scene where there are no other rhyming lines, Queen Margaret is evidently intended to utter Rich. III. iv. 4. 16, 17; 20, 21, as asides, though there is no notice of it. One of the lines even rhymes with the line of another speaker: “Q. Eliz. When didst thou sleep, when such a deed was
done?
Q. Marg. When holy Harry died, and my sweet son.” Rich. III. iv. 4. 24, 25.

Queen Margaret does not show herself till line 35, as also in Rich. III. i. 3. till line 157, though in the latter scene the asides do not rhyme.


Prose, when used  

Prose. Prose is not only used in comic scenes; it is adopted for letters (M. of V. iv. 1. 149-66), and on other occasions where it is desirable to lower the dramatic pitch: for instance, in the more colloquial parts of the household scene between Volumnia and Virgilia, Coriol. i. 3, where the scene begins with prose, then passes into verse, and returns finally to prose. It is also used to express frenzy, Othello, iv. 1. 34-44; and madness, Lear, iv. 6. 130; and the higher flights of the imagination, Hamlet, ii. 2. 310-20

1 The words "trochaic" and "iambic" are of course used, when applied to English poetry, to denote accent, not quantity.

2 “Did I impale him with the regal crown?” 3 Hen. VI. iii. 3. 189.

3 Globe, "this is."

4 Compare nourrice, nurse.

5 The same tendency is still more noticeable in E. E. See Essay on the Metres of Chaucer, by the Rev. W. W. Skeat (Aldine Series).

6 It is a matter of taste which yours should receive the emphasis.

7 The words "iambic" and "trochaic" here and elsewhere refer to accent, not quantity.

8 I think I have met with this conjecture in some commentator.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: