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Personifications cannot be expanded.--The process of expansion into simile can be performed in the case of a Personal Metaphor, because there is implied a comparison between a Person and an impersonal object. But the process cannot be performed where (as in Personifications) the impersonal object has no material existence, but is the mere creation of the fancy, and presents no point of comparison. "A frowning mountain" can be expanded, because there is implied a comparison between a mountain and a person, a gloom and a frown. But "frowning Wrath" cannot be expanded, because there is no comparison.

It is the essence of a metaphor that it should be literally false, as in "a frowning mountain." It is the essence of a personification that, though founded on imagination, it is conceived to be literally true, as in "pale fear," "dark dishonour." A painter would represent "death" as "pale," and "dishonour" as "dark," though he would not represent a "mountain" with a "frown," or a "ship" like a "plough."

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