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Of questions.

Questions of two sort.
EVery question or demaund in things, is of two sortes. Either it is an infinite question, & without end, or els it is definite, and comprehended within some ende.

Questions infinite.
Those questions are called infinite, which generally are propounded, without the comprehension of tyme, place, and persone, or any such like: that is to say, when no certaine thing is named, but onely words are generally spoken. As thus, whether it be best to marrie, or to liue single. Which is better, a courtiers life, or a Scholers life.

Questions definite.
Those questions are called definite, which set forth a matter, with the appointment and naming of place, time, and person. As thus. Whether now it be best here in Englande, for a Priest to Marrie, or to liue single. Whether it were meete 2 The arte of Rhetorique. for the kings Maiestie that nowe is, to marrie with a stranger, or to marrie with one of his owne Subiects. Now the definite
Questions definite, belong properly to an Orator.
question (as the which concerneth some one person) is most agreeing to the purpose of an Orator, considering particuler matters in the law, are euer debated betwixt certaine persons, the one affirming for his parte, and the other denying as fast againe for his parte.

Thinges generally spoken without all circumstaunces, are more proper vnto the Logician, who talketh of thinges vniuersally,

Questions infinite, proper vnto Logicians.
without respect of person, time, or place. And yet notwithstanding, Tullie doth say, that whosoeuer will talke of particuler matter must remember, that within the same also is comprehended a generall. As for example. If I shall aske this question, whether it bee lawfull for William Conquerour to inuade England, and win it by force of Armour, I must also consider this, whether it bee lawfull for any man to vsurpe power, or it bee not lawful. That if the greater cannot be borne withall, the lesse can not bee neither. And in this respect, a generall question agreeth well to an Orators profession, and ought well to bee knowne for the better furtheraunce of his matter, notwithstanding the particuler question is euer called in controuersie, and the generall only thereupon considered, to comprehend and compasse the same, as the which is more generall.

The ende of Rhetorique.

Three thinges are required of an Orator.
Orators bound to performe three thinges.
  1. To teach.
  2. To delight.
  3. And to perswade.

FIrst therefore, an Orator must labour to tell his tale, that the hearers may well knowe what he meaneth, and vnderstand him wholy, the which he shall with ease vse, if he

Plaine words proper vnto an Orator.
vtter his minde in plaine words, such as are vsually receiued, and tell it orderly, without going about the bush. That if he doe not this, he shall neuer doe the other. For what man can be delited, or yet be perswaded with the only hearing of those thinges, which he knoweth not what they meane. The tongue is ordeined to expresse the minde, that one may vnderstand an others meaning: now what auaileth to speake, when none can tell what the speaker meaneth? Therefore The arte of Rhetorique. 3 Phauorinus the Philosopher (as Gellius telleth the tale) did hit a yong man ouer the Thumbes very handsomely, for vsing ouer old, and ouer straunge wordes. Sirha (quoth he) when our olde great auncesters and Graundsires were aliue, they spake plainly in their mothers tongue, and vsed olde language, such
A Philosophers wittie saying to a yong man that sought to speake dark language.
as was spoken then at the building of Roome. But you talke me such a Latine, as though you spake with them euen now, that were two or three thousand yeres agoe, and onely because you would haue no man to vnderstand what you say. Now, were it not better for thee a thousande fold, (thou foolish fellowe) in seeking to haue thy desire, to holde thy peace, and speake nothing at all? For then by that meanes, fewe should knowe what were thy meaning. But thou saiest, the olde antiquitie doth like thee best, because it is good, sober, and modest. Ah, liue man, as they did before thee, and speake thy mind now as men doe at this day. And remember that which C├Žsar saieth, beware as long as thou liuest of straunge wordes, as thou wouldest take heede and eschue great Rockes in the Sea.

The next part that he hath to play, is to chere his geastes, and to make them take pleasure, with hearing of thinges

Orators must vse delitefull wordes and sayinges.
wittely deuised, and pleasauntly set foorth. Therefore euery Orator should earnestly labour to file his tongue, that his words may slide with ease, and that in his deliueraunce he may have such grace, as the sound of a Lute, or any such Instrument doth giue. Then his sentences must be wel framed, and his words aptly vsed, through the whole discourse of his Oration.

Thirdly, such quicknesse of witte must bee shewed, and such pleasaunt sawes so well applied, that the eares may finde much delite, whereof I will speake largely, when I shall intreate of mouing laughter. And assuredly nothing is more needfull, then to quicken these heauie loden wittes of ours,

Preachers not so diligently heard as common Players.
and much to cherish these our lompish and vnweldie Natures, for except men finde delite, they will not long abide: delite them, and winne them: wearie them, and you lose them for euer. And that is the reason, that men commonly tarie the ende of a merie Play, and cannot abide the halfe hearing of a sower checking Sermon. Therefore euen these auncient Preachers, must now and then play the fooles in the pulpit, to 4 The arte of Rhetorique serue the tickle eares of their fleting audience, or els they are like sometimes to preach to the bare walles, for though their spirite bee apt, and our will prone, yet our flesh is so heauie, and humours so ouerwhelme vs, that we cannot without
Preachers must sometimes be mery when they speake to the people. Deliting needful. Scurrilitie odious. Affections must be moued.
refreshing, long abide to heare any one thing. Thus we see, that to delite is needfull, without the which weightie matters will not be heard at all, and therefore him cunne I thanke, that both can and will ever, mingle sweete among the sower, be he Preacher, Lawyer, yea, or Cooke either hardly, when hee dresseth a good dish of meate: now I need not to tell that scurrilitie, or ale-house iesting, would bee thought odious, or grosse mirth would be deemed madnesse: considering that euen the meane witted do knowe that alreadie, and as for other that haue no wit, they will neuer learne it, therfore God speede them. Now when these two are done, hee must perswade, and moue the affections of his hearers in such wise, that they shalbe forced to yeeld vnto his saying, whereof (because the matter is large, and may more aptly be declared, when I shall speake of Amplification) I will surcease to speake any thing thereof at this tyme.

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