The dukes of Mercia rebell against Oswie, recouer their owne bounds, and create Wulfhere Their king; Cenwald king of the Westsaxons fighteth with the Britaines and preuaileth, he is vanquished by Wulfhere; Adelwold king of Sussex hath the Ile of Wight giuen him, and why; succession of Edelher, Edelwald, and Aldulfe in the kingldome of Eastangles; Colman a Scot first made bishop of Northumberland, controuersie about the obseruation of Easter, about bald crownes or shauing the haire, superstition punished by God, Ceadda bishop of Yorke, his course of life and diligence in his office commended; Egbert king of Kent, the see of Canturburie void, the preferment thereto refused, Theodore a moonke supplieth the roome at the popes appointment, all the English clergie obey him as their head, his visitation and reformation, singing vsed in churches, Theodore and Adrian woorthilie praised, English men happie, glasiers first brought into this Iland.
The Xxxiij. Chapter.
Beda. lib. 3. cap. 24.
AFTER three yeeres were complet, next ensuing the death of king Penda, the dukes of the countrie of Mercia, Immin, Eaba, and Eadbert rebelled against king Oswie, aduancing one Wulfhere a yoong gentleman the sonne of Peda, and brother to Peada, whom they had kept in secret to be their king, and expelling the lieutenants of king Oswie, they recouered both their owne confines and libertie withall, and so liuing in fréedome with their owne naturall king the foresaid Vulfhere, they also continued with glad hearts in seruice of the celestiall king our God and Sauior.
VULFHERE. Beda. lib. 3. cap. 24.
THIS Vulfhere gouerned the Mercies seuentéene yeares, the which Mercies (during the reigne of the said Vulfhere) had foure bishops successiuelie gouerning the church of that prouince one after another, as the aboue mentioned Trumhere, Iaroman, Ceadda, and Winfrid, as hereafter shall more at large appeare.
Henr. Hunt. Matt. West.
About the beginning of king Vultheres reigne, that is to say, inthe seuenteenth yeare of the reigne of Chenwald king of the Westsaxons, the same Chenwald fought with the Britains at Pennum, where the Britains being assembled in great number, proudlie incountred with the Englishmen, and at "the first put them to the woorst, but when the Englishmen would in no wise
The Britains put to flight by Chenwald.
giue ouer, but did sticke to their tackle, at length the Britains were put to flight, so that the posteritie of Brute receiued that day an incurable wound. But within thrée yeares after, that is, in the ninetéenth yeare of the reigne of the said Chenwald, he had not the like lucke in
Chenwald vanquished by Vulfhere.
battell against the foresaid Vulfhere king of Mercia, as he had before against the Britains, for the said Vulfhere vanquishing him in the field, passed through this countrie with a great armie
Adelwold of Sussex.
vnto the Ile of Wight, which he conquered, and deliuered it vnto Adelwold king of Sussex, as a gift at that time, when he receiued him at the fontstone after he had conuerted him to the faith. He gaue vnto Adelwold that Ile, to the end he should cause the people there to receiue the faith and religion of Christ. Now after that Edelhere king of Eastangles was slaine, as before is mentioned, his brother Edelwald succéeded him in that kingdome, reigning as king thereof by the space of nine yeares. Then after Edelwald succéeded Aldulfe the son of Edelhere in gouernment of that kingdome, and reigned 25 yeares.
Beda. lib. 3. cap. 24. Colman ordeined bishop.
After Finan bishop of the Northumbers that held his see at Lindesferne, as Aidan did before him, one Colman was ordeined bishop, a Scot borne, and an earnest obseruer of the customes vsed amongest them of his nation, so that when the controuersie began to be reuiued
Beda. lib. 3. cap. 25.
for the holding of the feast of Easter, he would by no meanes yéeld to them that would haue perswaded him to haue followed the rite of the Romane church. There was a great disputation kept about this matter, and other things, as shauing or cutting of heares, and such like in the monasterie of Whitbie, at the which king Oswie and his sonne Alcfrid were present, where Colman for his part alledged the custome of Iohn the euangelist, and of Anatholius; and the contrarie side brought in proofe of their opinion, the custome of Peter and Paule. At length, when bishop Colman perceiued that his doctrine was not so much regarded, as he thought of reason it ought to haue béene, he returned into Scotland with those,
Controuersie about shauing of crownes.
which taking part with him, refused to obserue the feast of Easter according to the custome of the church of Rome, nor would haue their crownes shauen, about which point no small
reasoning had béene kept. This disputation was holden in the yeare of our Lord 664, and
in the yeare of the reigne of king Oswie 22, and 30 yeare after the Scotishmen began first to beare the office of bishops within Northumberland, which was (as W. Harison saith) 624. For Aidan gouerned 17 yeares, Finan 10 yeares, & Colman 3 yeares. After that Colman was returned into his countrie, one Tuda that had béene brought vp amongest the Southerne
Tuda ordeined bishop.
Scots, and ordeined bishop by them, succéeded in his roome, hauing his crowne shauen, and obseruing the feast of Easter according to the custome of the prouince and rite of the Romane church. ¶ The same yeare, there chanced a great eclipse of the sunne, the third of
Maie about 10 of the clocke in the day. A great dearth and mortalitie insued, both in all
An eclipse. Punishment of God for yelding to superstition.
the parties of this our Britaine, and likewise in Ireland. Amongest other, the foresaid bishop Tuda died, and was buried in the abbeie of Pegnalech. After this Tuda, succéeded in gouernement of the church of Lindesferne, otherwise called Holie Iland, one Wilfrid, which
was sent by king Alcfrid into France, to be ordeined there.
About the same time king Oswie, the father of king Alcfrid, mooued with the good example of his sonne, sent Ceadda, the brother of Ced sometime bishop of the Eastsaxons into
Kent, to be ordeined bishop of Yorke, but at his comming into Kent he found that Deus dedit the archbishop of Canturburie was dead, and none other as yet ordeined in his place, so that Ceadda repaired into the prouince of the Westsaxons, where he was ordeined by bishop
Ceadda ordeined archbishop of Yorke.
Wini, who tooke two other bishops of the British nation vnto him to be his associats, which vsed to obserue the feast of Easter contrarie to the custome of the Romane church. But there was no other shift, sith none other bishop was then canonicallie ordeined in the prouince of the Westsaxons in those daies, this Wini onlie excepted, and therefore was he constreined to take such as he might get and prouide.
After that Ceadda was thus ordeined, he began forthwith to follow the true rules of the church, liued right chastlie, shewed himselfe humble and continent, applied his studie to reading, and trauelled abroad on foot and not on horssebacke through the countries, townes, and villages, to preach the word of God. He was the disciple of Aidan, and coueted by his example, and also by the example of Ced, to instruct his hearers with the like dooings & maners as he had knowen them to doo. Wilfrid also being consecrated bishop, and returned into England, indeuored to plant the orders of the Romane church in the churches of England, whereby it came to passe, that the Scots which inhabited amongst the Englishmen, were constreined either to follow the same, or else to returne into their owne countrie.
IN this meane time, king Ercombert being departed this life, after he had gouerned the
EGBERT king of Kent.
Kentishmen by the space of twentie yeares, his sonne Egbert succéeded him in the kingdome, and reigned nine yeares. There is little remembrance of his dooings, which in that short time were not much notable, except ye will ascribe the comming into this land of the archbishop Theodorus, and the abbat Adrian vnto his glorie, which chanced in his time. For in the yeare of the great eclipse and sore mortalitie that insued, it chanced that both king Ercombert, & the archbishop Deus dedit departed this life, so that the see of Canturburie was void a certeine time, in so much that king Egbert, who succéeded his father Ercombert, togither
Beda lib. 3. cap. 9. Wighart.
with king Oswie, did send one Wighart a priest of good reputation for his excellent knowledge ledge in the scriptures, vnto Rome, with great gifts and rich vessels of gold and siluer, to be presented vnto the pope, requiring him that he would ordeine the foresaid Wighart archbishop of Canturburie, to haue rule of the English church. But this Wighart comming vnto Rome, and declaring his message vnto Vitalianus then gouerning the church of Rome, immediatlie after he died of the pestilence (that then reigned in that citie) with all those that came with him.
Beda. lib. 4. cap. 1. Adrian.
The pope then taking aduice whome he might ordeine vnto the see of Canturburie, being thus destitute of an archbishop, appointed a moonke named Adrian to take that office vpon him, but Adrian excused himselfe as not sufficient for such a roome, and required the pope to appoint one Andrew a moonke also, wherevnto the pope consented. But when Andrew was preuented by death, eftsoones Adrian should haue béene made archbishop, but that he named one Theodore an other moonke that abode as then in Rome, but was borne in the citie of Tharsus in Cilicia, verie well learned both in the Gréeke and Latine, and being of reuerend yeares, as of 76. This Theodore by the presentment of Adrian, was appointed to be ordeined archbishop of Canturburie, with condition, that Adrian should neuerthelesse attend vpon him into England, both for that he had béene twise before this time in France, and so knew the coasts; and againe, for that he might assist him in all things, and looke well to the matter, that Theodore should not bring into the church of England anie rite or custome of the Gréekes, contrarie to the vse of the Romane church. Theodore being first ordeined subdeacon, tarried foure moneths till his heare was growen, that he might haue his crowne
Theodore ordeined archbishop of Canturburie.
shauen after the maner of Peter. For he was rounded or shauen after the maner of the East church, which was as they persuaded themselues, according to the vse of saint Paule the apostle. And so at length was this Theodore ordeined archbishop of Canturburie by pope
Vitalianus in the yeare of our Lord 668, the sixt kalends of June, and with Adrian sent into Britaine.
These with their retinue came to France, and being come thither, shortlie after king Egbert had knowledge thereof: wherevpon with all conuenient spéed lie sent ouer one of his nobles named Redfrid to bring the archbishop into England, and so he did: but Adrian was staied for a time, because he was suspected to haue had some commission from the emperour to haue practised with the Englishmen, for the disquieting of the realme of France. Howbeit, after it was perceiued that this suspicion was grounded on no truth, he was also suffered to follow the archbishop, and so comming vnto Canturburie, he was made abbat of the monasterie of saint Augustines. The archbishop Theodore came thus vnto. his church of Canturburie in the second yeare after his consecration, about the second kalends of June, being sundaie. He gouerned the same church also 21 yeares and 16 daies, and was the first archbishop to whome all the churches of England did acknowledge their obeisance.
Being accompanied with the foresaid Adrian, he visited all the parts of this land, ordeined bishops and ministers in churches where he thought conuenient, and reformed the same churches as séemed to him néedfull, as well in other things which he misliked, as also in
Ran. Cest. Matth. West.
causing them to obserue the feast of Easter, according to the right and vsage of the church of
Rome. Ceadda that was bishop of Yorke, because he was not lawfullie ordeined, as he himselfe confessed, was remoued from the sée of Yorke, and Wilfrid was therevnto restored, so that Ceadda (though he were not disgraded of his degrée of bishop) liued yet a priuat kind of life, till he was admitted bishop of Mercia, as after shall be shewed. Also whereas before
Smnging in churches brought in vse.
time there was in maner no singing in the English churches, except it were in Kent, now they began in euerie church to vse singing of diuine seruice after the rite of the church of Rome. The archbishop Theodore finding the church of Rochester void by the death of the
Putta bishop of Rochester.
last bishop named Damian, ordeined one Putta a simple man in worldlie matters, but well instructed in ecclesiasticall discipline, and namelie well séene in song and musicke to be vsed in the church after the maner as he had learned of pope Grogories disciples.
The worthie praise of Theodore and Adrian.
To be bréefe, the archbishop Theodore, and the abbat Adrian deserued great commendation in this, that whereas they were notablie well learned themselues in the Greeke and the Latine toongs, and also, had good knowledge as well in the liberall arts, as in the scripture,
Englishmen happie and why.
they tooke great paines to traine vp scholers in knowledge of the same, so that the Englishmen men had not seene more happie times than in those daies, hauing as then kings of great puissance, so as strangers stood in feare of them; and againe, those that coueted learning, had instructors at hand to teach them, by reason whereof diuers being giuen to studie, prooued
excellent both in knowledge of the Gréeke and Latine. There came in companie of the said archbishop from Rome, an English man named Benedict Biscop, which had taken vpon him
Benedict or Benet surnamed Biscop.
the habit of a moonke in Italie, and now returning into his countrie, builded two abbeis, the one named Wiremouth, because it was placed at the mouth of the riuer of Wire, and the other Girwie, distant from Wiremouth about fiue miles, and from the towne of Newcastle foure miles, situated neere to the mouth of Tine. Wiremouth was built in the yeare 670,
and Girwie in the yeare 673. There were a 600 moonks found in those two houses, and
Glasiers first brought into England. Ran. Cest.
gouerned vnder one abbat. The said Benedict was the first that brought glasiers, painters, and other such curious craftsmen into England. He went fiue times to Rome, and came againe.