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An. Reg. 25. 1241. In the 25 yeare of his reigne, king Henrie kept his Christmasse at Westminster, at which time the legat was sent for to returne vnto Rome, and after he had beene honorablie feasted of the king, on the 4 daie of Christmasse he departed from London towards the sea side, after he had remained here aboue three yeares. Peter of Sauoie that was uncle to the quéene came into England, and was honorablie receiued and interteined Boniface de Sauoie elected archb. of Canturburie. of king Henrie, who had giuen to him the earledome of Richmont. His sonne Boniface was this yeare also elected archbishop of Canturburie, a tall gentleman and of a goodlie personage, but neither so learned nor otherwise meet for that roome. But such was the Matth. Paris. kings pleasure, who in fauour of the quéene, to whom he was coosen germane sought to aduance him, and getting the popes fauour in that behalfe, procured the monks & bishops to grant their consents, although much against their minds, if they might haue had their owne wils.

The earle of Cornewall returning out of the holie land in safetie, after he had settled things there, by concluding an abstinence of warre betwixt the Saracens and christians about the octaues of S. Iohn Baptist, he arriued in Sicill, and hearing there in what place the emperour as then soiourned, he repaired vnto him, of whom and of his sister the empresse he was most ioifullie receiued. Within a few daies after, he went to the court of The earle of Cornewall an intercessor for a peace to be had betwixt the pope and the emperour. Rome, to trie if he might driue some agreement betwixt the emperour and the pope, but finding the pope too hard, and nothing conformable, except he might haue had all his owne will (which was, that the emperour should haue submitted himselfe to the popes pleasure, and stand vnto what soeuer order the church should appoint) he returned backe to the emperour without concluding any thing with the pope, declaring vnto him as he had found. After this he remained two moneths with the emperour, & then taking his leaue was honoured with great gifts at his departure, and so returning towards England, He returneth into England. at length arriued at the towne of Douer on the morrow after the feast of the Epiphanie in the yeare following.

About the same time that the earle of Cornewall was in his returne foorth of the holie land, new wars suddenlie arose in Wales, which happened well for king Henrie. There were diuerse of the Welshmen that could not well like of the gouernement of Dauid, and therefore sore lamenting the captiuitie of his brother Griffin, whom before (as ye haue heard) he had by a traine taken and kept still as prisoner, began to make warre vpon the said Dauid, and those that tooke his part, the which on the other side sought to oppresse their aduersaries, so that there insued much bloudshed and slaughter betwéene the parties. Warres betwéene the Welshmen. The wife also of the said Griffin, and such other noble men as were become enimies vnto Dauid, sent and writ vnto king Henrie, requiring his aid, that Griffin might be deliuered out of his brothers hands, promising him great helpe and furtherance, with large conditions of submission, and assurance furthermore to be at his commandement, and to receiue him for their true and souereigne lord.

King Henrie vnderstanding all their dooings and intents, thought that this contention betwéene King Henrie goeth into Wales with an armie. the two brethren for the title of Wales would serue verie well for his purpose, and therefore he hasted foorth with a spéedie armie of men in that countrie, purposing to reduce the same vnder his obeisance. Herewith Senena or Guenhera, the wife of Griffin (and other of the Welsh Nobilitie, that tooke part with hir) concluded a league with king Henrie, vpon certeine conditions as the same are conteined in an instrument or charter, the tenour whereof beginneth as followeth.

Conuenit inter dominum Henricum tertium regem Anglorum illustrem ex vna parte, & Senenam vxorem Griffini, filij Leolini, quondàm principis Northwalliæ, quem Dauid frater eius tenet carceri mancipatum, cum Owino filio suonomine eiusdem Griff. ex altera, &c.

Articles of agreement betweene Henrie the third of that name, king of England of the one partie, and Senena the wife of Griffin, the sonne of Leolin, sometimes prince of Northwales, whom Dauid his brother deteineth in prison, with Owen his sonne, in the name of the said Griffin of the other partie.

  • IN primis, the said Senena vndertaketh, that the said Griffin hir husband will giue vnto the king six hundred markes, vpon condition that the king doo cause the said Griffin and Owen his sonne to be deliuered from the prison wherein they are kept, and will stand to the iudgement of the kings court, whether by law he ought to be imprisoned or no.
  • 2 Itemthe said Griffin and his heires will stand to the iudgement of the kings court, for and concerning that portion of the inheritance of the said Leolin his father, which of right ought to apperteine vnto him.
  • 3 Item the said Senena vndertaketh for the said Griffin and his heires, that the said Griffin and his heires shall yéeld and paie yearelie to the king for the same lands, the summe of thrée hundred markes. Whereof the first third part to be paid in monie, the second in kine, and the third in horsses, by the estimation of indifferent men, and the same to be paid yearlie at Michaelmas and Easter by euen portions, by the hands of the shiriffe of the countie of Salop for the time being.
  • 4 Item the said Senena vndertaketh further for the said Griffin and his heires, that they and euerie of them shall obserue the peace against the said Dauid, and suffer him quietlie to inioy such portion of his fathers inheritance as to him shall be found to be due.
  • 5 Item the said Senena dooth further vndertake for the said Griffin hir husband and his heires, that in case anie Welshman hereafter shall happen to rebell against the king, they at their owne costs and charges shall compell the said offender to make satisfaction to the king for his disobedience.
  • 6 Item for the performance of the premisses, the said Senena will deliuer vnto the lord the king, Dauid and Roderike hir sonnes for pledges, with prouiso that if the said Griffin and Owen or either of them shall happen to die before their deliuerie out of the said prison, it shall be lawfull for the said Senena to haue one of hir sonnes released, the other remaining with the king for pledge.
  • 7 Item the said Senena hath sworne vpon the holie Euangelist, that the said Griffin hir husband and his heires, and euerie of them shall accomplish and performe all the premisses on their behalfe, and further vndertaketh that the said Griffin hir husband, vpon his deliuerie out of prison, shall take the same oth.
  • 8 Item the said Senena in the name of the said Griffin hir husband, submitteth hir selfe concerning the obseruation of the premisses vnto the iurisdiction of the reuerend fathers the bishops of Hereford and Lichfield, so that the said bishops or either of them at the kings request shall compell the said Griffin and his heires to obserue all and singular the premisses on their behalfe, by sentence of excommunication vpon their persons, and interdiction vpon their lands.
  • 9 Lastlie, the said Senena dooth vndertake and promise (Bona fide) to see and procure the full performance of all the premisses, and that the said Griffin hir husband and his heires shall allow and performe the same, and thereof shall deliuer his instrument in writing to the king in forme aforesaid. To this charter both parties put their seales, Griffin and Senena to that part which remained with the king, and the K. to that part which remained with Senena.

Finallie, for the performance of the articles in this instrument or writing conteined, the said ladie in name of hir husband procured diuerse Noble men to become suerties or pledges, that is to saie, Ralfe de Mortimer, Walter de Clifford, Roger de Monthualt seneshall of Chester, Mailgun ap Mailgun, Meredoc ap Robert, Griffin ap Maddoc of Bromefield, Houwell and Meredoc brethren, Griffin ap Wenuwen: which persons undertooke for the said ladie, that the couenants on hir part should be performed, and thervpon they also bound themselues by their writings obligatorie vnto the said king, in forme following.

Omnibus hoc scriptum visuris Rogerus de monte alto senescallus Cestriæ salutem. Sciatis quòd ego me constitui plegium. &c.
TO all and singular, to whome this writing shall come, Roger de monte alto the steward of Chester sendeth greeting. Know yee that I haue constituted my selfe pledge for Senena the wife of Griffin the sonne of Leolin, sometimes prince of Northwales, and haue vndertaken for hir to our souereigne lord Henrie king of England, that the said Senena shall accomplish and performe all and singular those couenants and articles, agreed vpon betweene our said souereigne lord and the said Senena, for and concerning the deliuerance of the said Griffin hir husband and Owen his sonne out of the prison of Dauid his brother, and the portion of inheritance due vnto the said Griffin, which the said Dauid keepeth from him by force. In witnesse whereof to this present writing I haue put my seale. Dated at Salop, the mondaie before the feast of the Ascension of the blessed virgin Marie, in the 15 yeare of his reigne.

But now to our purpose. When Dauid vnderstood of the kings approach with so puissant an armie, he was brought into great perplexitie, and the more in déed, not onelie bicause there chanced the same yeare for the space of foure moneths togither a great drouth, so that the marishes and bogges were dried vp and made passable for the kings Dauid driuen to his wits end. people, but also for that manie of the Welsh Nobilitie, as cheefelie Griffin Maddoc and others, sought his destruction in fauour of his brother Griffin (whose deliuerance they earnestlie wished) and for that he stood excommunicate by the pope. All which things well considered, caused him to doubt of a further mischéefe to hang ouer his head: wherevpon he sent to the king, signifieng that he would deliuer his brother Griffin freelie into his hands, but letting him withall to wit by manie good reasons, that if he did set him at libertie, he should minister manie new occasions of continuall warres.

Moreouer, this couenant Dauid required at the kings hands, that the king should reserue him so to his peace vnder the bond of fidelitie and hostages, that he should not disherit him: which when as the king courteouslie granted, Dauid sent vnto him his brother Griffin, to dispose of him as he should thinke requisite. The king receiuing him, sent him to London, vnder the conduct of sir Iohn de Lexinton, togither with other mo (whome he had receiued as hostages both of Dauid and others the Nobles of Wales) appointing Dauid deliuereth his brother to the K. them to be kept in safetie within the tower there. There was also a charter or déed made by the same Dauid vnto king Henrie, conteining the articles, couenants, and grants made betwixt the said prince and the foresaid Dauid, as followeth.

The charter of the articles of Dauids submission to the king.

Omnibus Christi fidelibus, ad quos præsentes literæ peruenerint, Dauid filius Leolini salutem. Sciatis quòd concessi domino meo Henrico regi Angliæ illustri, &c.
  • 1 TO all christian people, to whom these present letters shall come, Dauid the sonne of Leolin sendeth greeting. Know ye that I haue granted and promised to deliuer vnto the lord Henrie the noble king of England, Griffin my brother with his sonne and heire whom I keepe in prison, and all other prisoners, who by occasion of the said Griffin lie in durance.
  • 2 Item I shall stand to the iudgement of the kings court, aswell in that case, whether the said Griffin ought to be deteined prisoner or no, as also for and concerning the part of the inheritance of the said Leolin my father, claimed by the said Griffin according to the customes of Wales: so that the peace be mainteined betweene me and the said Griffin.
  • 3 Item I and the said Griffin, and either of vs shall hold our portions of land, of our said souereigne the king in Capite, acknowledging him chiefe lord therof.
  • 4 Item I shall restore vnto Roger de monte alto steward of Chester, his land of Montalt or Mould, with the appurtenances.
  • 5 Item I shall likewise restore to all other barons, all such lands, lordships and castels, as were taken from them since the beginning of the warres betwéene the lord Iohn king of England, and the said Leolin prince of Wales my father, sauing the right of all couenants and grants by writing, to be reserued vnto the iudgment and determination of the kings courts.
  • 6 Item I shall giue and restore vnto our souereigne lord the king all his charges in this present voiage laid out.
  • 7 Item I shall make satisfaction for all damages & iniuries doone by me, or anie of my subiects vnto the king or his, according to the consideration of the kings court, and shall deliuer such as shalbe malefactours in that behalfe.
  • 8 Item I shall restore vnto the said lord the king all the homages, which the late king Iohn his father had, & which the said lord the king of right ought to haue, especiallie of all the noble men of Wales: and if the king shall set at libertie anie of his captiues, the possessions of that man shall remaine to the king.
  • 9 Item the land of Elsmer with the appurtenances shall remaine to the lord the king and his heires for euer.
  • 10 Item I shall not receiue or suffer to be receiued within my countrie of Wales, any of the subiects of England, outlawed or banished by the said lord the king, or his barons of Mercia.
  • 11 Item for confirmation and performance of all and singular the premisses on my behalfe, I shall prouide by bonds and pledges, and by all other waies and means as the said lord the king shall award, and will accomplish the commandement of the said king, and will obeie his lawes.
In witnesse whereof to this present writing I haue put my scale: dated at Alnet by the riuer of Elwey, in the feast of the decollation of S. Iohn Baptist, in the fiue and twentith yéere of the reigne of the said king.

For the obseruation of these 11 articles, the said prince Dauid and Edniuet Vachan were sworne. Also the said prince Dauid submitted himselfe to the iurisdiction of the archbishop of Canturburie, and of the bishops of London, Hereford, and Couentrie, for the time being. That all, or one of them, whom the king shall appoint, may excommunicate him, and interdict his land vpon breach of anie of the said articles. And therevpon he procured the bishops of S. Bangor, and S. Asaph to make their charters to the lord the king, whereby they granted to execute and denounce all sentences, aswell of excommunication as of interdiction sent from the foresaid archbishop, bishops, or anie of them.

The said Dauid also sent priuilie to the king, to desire him that he would suffer him being his nephue, and the lawfull heire of Leolin his father, to inioy the principalitie of Wales rather than Griffin, which was but a bastard, and no kin vnto the king. Giuing him withall to vnderstand, that in case he did set Griffin at libertie, he should be sure to haue the war renewed. Whervpon the king knowing these things to be true, and vnderstanding also that Griffin was a valiant stout man, and had manie fréends and fauorours of his cause, inclined rather to assent vnto Dauids request than otherwise to be in danger of further troubles, & therfore willinglie granted the same.

Shortlie after Dauid did send his brother Griffin vnto the king, and other pledges for himselfe, for performance of the said articles, whom the king sent foorthwith to the towre of London, there to be safelie kept, allowing to Griffin a noble a daie for his finding. And within few dais after Michaelmas, prince Dauid comming to the kings court did his Matth. Paris. page, 765. homage, and swore fealtie, who for so dooing, and in that he was the kings nephue, was sent home againe in peace. When Griffin saw how all things went, and that he was not like to be set at libertie, he began to deuise waies and meanes to escape out of prison.

Wherefore deceiuing the watch one night, he made a long line of hangings, couerings, Matth. Paris. page, 765. and shéets, and hauing gotten out at a window, let downe himselfe by the same from the top of the towre: but by reason that he was a mightie personage and full of flesh, the line brake with the weight of his bodie, and so falling downe headlong of a great height, his necke and head was driuen into his bodie with the fall: whose miserable carcasse being found the morow after, was a pitifull sight to the beholders. The king being certified thereof, commanded Griffins sonne to be better looked vnto, and punished the officers for their negligence.

About the same time there chanced a controuersie to rise betwixt the king and the bishop of Lincolne, for the bestowing of the benefice of Thame, the which Iohn Mansell Iohn Mansell. the kings chapleine had gotten in possession by the kings fauour through prouision granted of the pope, where the bishop alleging priuileges to the contrarie, had granted it to an other. At length the king hauing his fathers trouble before his eies, and doubting the bishops words, threatning some euill mishap to follow, if he should stand long in the matter against the said bishop, gaue ouer his tenour: and therewithall prouided Iohn Mansell of a farre more rich benefice, that is to saie, of the personage of Maidstone, whereinto the bishop spéedilie inuested him.

This yeare manie noble men ended their liues, as well such as were gone with the earles Death of noble men. of Cornewall and Leicester into the holie land, and others remaining still at home. Amongst which number were these: William Fortz earle of Albemarle, Walter Lacie, Lacie left no issue male behind him, so that his daughters inherited his lands. one of the chiefest nobles in all Ireland, Stephan de Segraue, Gilbert de Basset and his sonne and heire named also Gilbert. Moreouer, Iohn Biset high iustice of the forrests, and Peter de Mallow, Hugh Wake, Robert Marmion, Peter de Bruis, Guischarde Laider, Eustace Stoutuill, Eudo Hamon surnamed Peccham, Baldwin de Betun, Iohn Fitz Iohn steward in household to earle Richard, Iohn de Beaulieu, Gerard de Furniuall. There died also the ladie Elianor the countesse of Britaine, wife vnto Geffrey, that was sometime earle of Britaine (which countesse had béene long kept prisoner at Bristow) with diuerse other.

Moreouer, there died this yeare Roger bishop of London, and Hugh bishop of Chester. Also Gilbert Marshall earle of Penbroke in a torneie which he had attempted at Hereford against the kings licence, was by an vnrulie horsse cast, and so hurt, that immediatlie he died thereof. Neither was this yeare onelie mournefull to England for the losse of such high estates, but also in other places manie notable personages departed out of this transitorie life. As two popes, Gregorie the ninth and his successour Celestine the fourth, besides cardinals: amongst the which, Robert Somercote an English man was Cardinall Somercote an Englishman. An eclipse. The death of the empresse Isabell. one. ¶ About the later end of this 25 yeare, the sixt daie of October, there appeared a right sore eclipse of the sunne, verie strange to the beholders. ¶ In the 26 yeare died the empresse Isabell, wife vnto Frederike the emperour.

In this yeare also began the wars againe betwixt king Henrie and Lewes the king of France for the quarell of Hugh earle of March, who refused to doo homage vnto Alfonse

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