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An. Reg. 34. A lone. fiftie pounds and vpward in the subsidie bookes. The lord priuie scale, the bishop of Winchester, sir Iohn Baker, and sir Thomas Wriothesleie were commissioners about this lone in London, where they so handled the matter, that of some head citizens they obteined a thousand markes in prest to the kings vse. They that laid forth anie summe in this wise, had priuie scales for the repaiment thereof within two yeares next insuing. Diuerse of the Irish nobilitie came this yeare into England, and made their Submission of the Irish nobilitie. submission to the king as in the Irish chronicle it is more particularlie touched. Also wars fell out betwixt England and Scotland, the causes whereof (as appeereth by a declaration set forth by the king of England at this present) in effect were these. First there were diuerse of the English rebels, such as had moued the commotion in The causes of the wars betwixt England & Scotland. the north and Lincolneshire, that fled into Scotland, and were there mainteined: and although request had béene made that they might be deliuered, yet it would not be granted.

Moreouer, where the king of Scots had promised to repaire vnto Yorke the last yeare, and there to méet his vncle the king of England, wherevpon the king of England to his great charges had made preparation for their meeting there; the same was not onelie disappointed, but also at the kings bein at Yorke, in lieu thereof an inuasion was made by the Scots, as it were in contempt and despite of the king of England, who notwithstanding imputing the default of méeting to the aduise of his nephues councell, and the inuasion to the lewdnesse of his subiects, was contented to giue courteous audience vnto such ambassadors as the same king of Scots sent into England, which came to the king at Christmas last, and with manie swéet and pleasant words excused that which was doone amisse, & sought to persuade kindnesse and perfect amitie in time to come. And for the better accomplishment thereof, they offered to send commissioners to the borders, there to determine the debate betwixt them of the confines, if it would please the king likewise to send commissioners for his part, which to doo he gratiouslie condescended, desirous to make triall of his nephue in some correspondence of deeds, to the faire and pleasant messages in words which he had receiued from him.

Herevpon commissioners were sent from either king, the which met and talked. But where the Englishmen chalenged a peece of ground, vndoubtedlie vsurped by the Scots, being for the same shewed such euidence as more substantiall, or more autentike The wilfull obstinatnesse of the Scotish cōmissioners. can not be brought forth for anie ground within the realme; the same was neuerthelesse by the Scots denied and reiected, onelie for that it was made (as they alleged) by Englishmen, and yet was it so ancient, as it could not be counterfeited now, and the value of the ground so little, and of so small weight, as no man would attempt to falsifie a writing for such a matter. But yet this deniall notwithstanding, the English commissioners departed from the Scotish commissioners as fréends, taking order, as hath béene accustomed, for good rule vpon the borders in the meane time to be obserued.

After their departure, the lord Maxwell warden of the west marches in Scotland, made proclamation in deed for good rule to be kept: but neuerthelesse added therwith, that the borderers of Scotland shuld withdraw their goods from the borders of England, and incontinentlie after the Scotish borderers, on the fourth of Iulie entered into England suddenlie, & spoiled the kings subiects, contrarie to the league, and euen after the plaine maner of warre. Wherevpon the king of England greatlie maruelling, was driuen to furnish his borders with a garrison for defense of the same, as mistrusting a further mischiefe intended by the enimie, whose treacherie & loose dealing became a whetstone to the kings wrath, and set him in a heat of indignation, as the poet saith:

Iam Scotus Henrici iustam irritauerat iram

Then was Iames Leirmouch master of the Scotish kings houshold sent into England Iames Leimouth. with letters deuised in the best maner, offering a good redresse of all attempts: and yet neuerthelesse at the entrie of the said Leirmouth into England, a great number of Scots then not looked for, made a rode into England, to the great annoiance of the English borders, which dealing, though it much mooued the king of England to take displeasure against the Scots, yet he gaue gentle audience to Leirmouth at his comming vnto him, and by his faire words and promises was partlie pacified. But in the meane time, the déeds of the Scotish borderers were as extreame as might be. And in a rode made by sir Robert Bowes for reueuge thereof, the same sir Robert, and manie other with him, were taken prisoners, and could not be deliuered, nor admitted to paie their fine and ransome, as hath beene euer accustomed betwixt them on the borders.

And where at the same time, an assurance was made on both sides for a season, at King Henrie forced to take armes against the Scots. the sute of the said Leirmouth, the Scots ceased not to make sundrie inuasions into England, in such wise, as the king no longer trusting to their faire words, but weieng their déeds, put an armie in a readinesse for defense of his subiects, as the due meane to atteine such a peace, as for the safetie of his people and dominions, be thought it stood with his honour to procure. After which preparation made, and knowledge thereof had, the king of Scots made new sute to haue the matter taken vp by treatie. Wherevpon the king caused the armie to staie about Yorke, and appointed the duke of Norffolke his lieutenant generall, the lord priuie seale, the bishop of Durham, & sir Anthonie Browne master of his horsses, to treat & conclude with the ambassadors of Scotland some friendlie peace, vpon reasonable and indifferent conditions, as should be thought requisit, for the auoiding of warres, then by sundrie inuasions of the Scots made open and manifest. But after they had viewed ech others commissions, and began to propone articles, the Scotish commissioners to protract time, at the first The double dealing of the Scots in the negotiation about an agréement. seemed to like such articles as the English commissioners had proponed, and made semblance as if there were no doubt but that in case their king & ours might méet, all matters shuld be quietlie compounded and ended; and so taking it as for a thing sure and certeine, they onlie desired six daies to obteine answer from their master, and our armie for that time to staie: wherevnto the English commissioners accorded.

After those six daies was sent a commission out of Scotland, to conclude a méeting preciselie, at such a place as they knew well could not in the winter season be obserued nor kept. Wherewith when the English commissioners seemed nothing content, the Scotish commissioners shewed forth instructions, wherein libertie was giuen to them to exceed their commission in the appointing of a place, & to consent to anie other by the English commissioners thought méet and conuenient. But when the English commissioners refused to deale with men wanting sufficient commission to warrant their dooings, the Scotish commissioners required other six daies respit, to send for a larger commission, which being granted, at the end of those six daies, they brought forth a commission made in good forme, and without exception or restraint of place: but therewith they shewed instructions conteining a like restraint, as in the former commission was expressed. And thus driuing forth the matter by trifling, vpon purpose onelie to win time, they hoped thereby through the winter comming on, that the English armie should not be able much to annoie their countrie for thatyeare. And so their talke brake vp without any conclusion of agréement at all; and forthwith was the armie set forward, a good part whereof had lien all this time of the treatie in Yorke, and in the countries thereabouts.

When the whole power was assembled, the duke of Norffolke then lieutenant generall, The English armie entreth into Scotland. accompanied with the earles of Shrewsburie, Derbie, Cumberland, Surreie, Hertford, Angus, Rutland, and the lords of the north parts, and sir Anthonie Browne master of the horsses, sir Iohn Gage controller of the kings house, and others, hauing with them twentie thousand men well and warlike appointed, entred Scotland the one and twentith of October, and tarried there eight daies, without hauing anie battell offered vnto them, in which space they burnt these townes and villages, Paxton, Ramrige, Stine, Gradin, Shilles, lang Ednem, Newton, Skitshell, Newthorne, Smellem spittle, the two Merdens, Siedericke, and the two Broxlawes, Floris, and the Faire croft, Ednem spittle, Roxborough, Kelseie and the abbeie, long Spronstow, Riden, and Hadenston. For they had determined with fire and sword to take vtter reuenge, crieng out, as the poet saith;

Vindice ferro opus esse, opus esse & vindice flamma,
Acclamant omnes.

Now while the duke was at Farnton, the fourth daie after his comming into Scotland, there came to speake with him halfe a mile from the campe, the bishop of Orkeneie, and Iames Leirmouth sent from the king of Scots to intreat of peace, but they agréed not Finallie, after the Englishmen had lien so long within Scotland as they might recouer vittels, at length for necessitie they returned to Berwike. In all which iourneie The earle of Southamptons standard. the standard of the earle Southampton, late lord priuie seale (which died at Newcastell before their entring into Scotland) was borne in the fore-ward, because he was appointed capteine of the same.

The king of Scots, hearing that the English armie was returned, raised a power of fiftéene thousand men forth of all parts of his realme, vnder the guiding of the lord Maxwell (or rather of Oliuer Sincler, as the Scots affirme) boasting to tarrie as An armie of Scots inuade England. long in England, as the duke of Norffolke had tarried in Scotland. And so on fridaie being saint Katharins euen, they passed ouer the water of Eske, and burnt certeine houses of the Greues on the vere border. Thomas bastard Dacres, with Iacke of Musgraue sent word to sir Thomas Wharton lord Warden for the king vpon the west marches, to come forward to succour them. But in the meane while the Scots entring verie fierclie, the aforesaid two valiant capteins, bastard Dacres and Musgraue, manfullie set vpon the Scots with one hundred light horsses, and left a stale on the The error of the Scots. side of a hill, wherewith the Scots were woonderfullie dismaied, thinking that either the duke of Norffolke with his whole armie had béene come to those west marches, or that some other great power had beene comming against them, when they saw onelie sir Thomas Wharton with three hundred men marching forward toward them. But so The Scots fle. it fortuned at that time vndoubtedlie as God would haue it, that the Scots fled at the first brunt, whome the Englishmen followed, and tooke prisoners at their pleasure; for there was small resistance, or none at all shewed by the Scots.

Scotish lords taken at Solem Mosse. Aongst others that were taken, we find these men of name, the earle of Cassill and Glencarne, the lord Maxwell admerall of Scotland, and warden of the west marches, the lord Fleming, the lord Sumerwell, the lord Oliphant, the lord Greie, sir Oliuer Sincler the kings minion, Iohn Rosse lord of Gragie, Robert Erskin, son to the lord Erskin, Carre lard of Gredon, the lord Maxwelles two brethren, Iohn Lesleie bastard son to the earle of Rothus, George Hume lard of Hemitton, Iohn Mateland lard of Wike castell, Iames Pringell, Iames Sincler brother to Oliuer Sincler, Iohn Carmell capteine of Craiforth, Patrike Hebborne esquire, Iohn Seton esquire son in law to the lord Erskin, William Seton esquire, Iohn Steward cousin to the king, Iohn Morrowe esquire, Henrie Droumont esquire, Iames Mitton esquire, Iohn Cormurth esquire capteine of Gainsforth, Iames Mitton esquire, and other esquiers and gentlemen (beside the earles and lords before mentioned) to the number of two hundred and aboue, and more than eight The number of prisoners and artilleric taken. hundred other persons of meaner calling; so that some one Englishman, yea some women had thrée or foure prisoners. They tooke also foure and twentie peeces of ordinance, foure carts laden with speares, and ten pauilions, with other things of price; so that this might well be said to be the handie worke of God, and the verse of the psalme verified:

Contemplans dixi, Hæc est mutatio dextræ
Numinis excelsi mortalia cuncta gubernans.

The king of Scots tooke such griefe and inward thought for his ouerthrow, and also The death of the king of Scotland. for the murther of an English herald that was slaine at Dunbar, by one Léech an Englishman (the which for the rebellion in Lincolnshire was fled into Scotland) that be fell into a hot ague, and thereof died, although manie reported that he was at the bickering, and receiued there his deaths wound, and fled therewith into Scotland. But of his death, and of the birth of his daughter ye may see more in the historie of Scotland.

Of these prisoners before named, one and twentie of them were brought to London, Foure and twentie hath Hall. Scots prisoners brought to London. and on the ninetéenth of December entredinto the citie by Bishops gate, and so were conueied to the tower, where they remained for the space of two daies: and vpon saint Thomas daie the apostle, being the one and twentith of December, they were conueied to Westminster, sir Iohn Gage constable of the tower riding before them, and the lieutenant of the same tower riding behind them. They rode two and two togither, and eight of them being earls and lords, had new gowns of blacke damaske furred with blacke conie, cotes of blacke veluet, and doublets of sattin, with shirts and other apparell bought new for them at the kings charges.

Thus being solemnelie conueied through the streets of London vnto Westminster, The Scots prisoners before the councel in the Star chamber. they came before the councell sitting in the Starchamber, and there the lord chancellor declared to them their vntruth, vnkindnesse, and false dissimulation, declaring further how the king had cause of war against them, both for denieng of their homages, and also for their traitorous inuasions made into his realme without defiance, and for keeping his subiects prisoners without redemption, contrarie to the ancient laws of the marches; for which dooings, God (as they might perceiue) had scourged them. Howbeit the K. more regarding his honor than his princelie power, was content to shew them kindnesse for vnkindnesse, and right for wrong. And although he might kéepe them in streict prison by iust law of armes, yet he was content that they should haue libertie to be with the nobles of his realme in their houses, and so according to their estates, they were appointed to dukes, earles, bishops, knights, and gentlemen, whichso interteined them, that they confessed themselues neuer to be better vsed, nor to haue had greater cheere in all their life times.

The earle of Cassils was appointed to be with the archbishop of Canturburie, the earle of Glencarne with the duke of Norffolke, the lord Fleming with the lord priuie seale, the lord Maxwell with sir Anthonie Browne, the lord Sumerwell with the lord chancellor, the lord Oliphant with sir Thomas Lée, Oliuer Sincler with the duke of Suffolke, Robert Erskin with the bishop of Westminster, the lord Monteth with sir Antonie Wingfield, the lord Monketh with sir Rafe Sadler, George Hume with the earle of Hertford, the lord of Gragie with sir Thomas Cheineie, the lard of Gredon with maister Gostwike, Henrie Maxwell with sir Richard Long, Thomas Craiford with sir Arthur Darcie, Patrike Hebborne with sir Thomas Wriothesleie, Iames Pringell with sir Richard Rich, Iohn Matland with sir Edward North, the lord Greie, Iames Sincler, and Iohn Lisleie, were appointed to men of such credit, as were thought méet to answer for their safe kéeping.

The two and twentith of December, tidings came of the king of Scots death, and vpon S. Iohns daie in Christmas weeke the foresaid lords of Scotland were brought to the court, which was then at Greenwich, where they had great cheare, and went before the king to the chappell, and were lodged within the court. Herevpon ye must consider, that whereas the king of Scots had left no issue behind him in life but onelie one daughter, the king and his councell perceiuing a meane now offered, whereby without warre the two realmes might be vnited, these Scotish lords hauing first made the motion themselues, for a mariage to be had betwixt prince Edward and their yoong queene, the king required their helpe vnto the furtherance of that matter, which A motion of a mariage betwéene prince Edward and the yong Scotish quéene. might be a great benefit to themselues & their countrie. This they promised faithfullie to doo, and aswell by themselues as by their friends, to bring the same to effect, so much as the king could require. Wherevpon the king was not onelie contented to release them home, but also highlie rewarded them with rich and costlie gifts of sundrie sorts, in most bountifull wise, as Anglorum prælia noteth verie well, saieng:

Præterea ex auro captiuos torquibus ornat,
Et sumptum, vestes, argentum donat & aurum.

The thirtith of December they departed from the court, and the morrow after, eight of them dined with sir Iohn Cotes then lord maior of London, and the rest with the shiriffes, and had verie great cheare. On Newyeares daie they departed The Scots depart into their owne countrie. 1543 from London homewards towards Scotland, and rode to Enfield to sée the prince, and there dined that day, greatlie reioising, as by their words and countenance it seemed, to behold so proper and towardlie an impe. From thence they kept on their iournie till they came to the north parts, where they found the duke of Suffolke the kings lieutenant there, and with him remained till such pledges were come forth of Scotland, as it was couenanted they should leaue behind them.

The duke then after he had receiued the hostages, permitted them to depart, and so they returned into Scotland, where they were gladlie welcomed by their kinsmen and friends. With them went also the earle of Angus, who had béene banished The munificence of king Henrie to the earle of Angus. Scotland, and hauing remained here in England a long time, receiued of the kings fée, a thousand marks by yeare; and likewise his brother sir George Dowglas, who had fiue hundred markes yearelie likewise of the kings gift. They were now both restored home into their countrie, and that (as was said) by the kings last will. The said earle of Angus, and diuerse of the lords that had béene prisoners here in England, were made of the priuie councell of the realme by the earle of Arraine, that was chosen gouernour to the yoong quéene, and of the realme, as next heire apparent: notwithstanding that the archbishop of saint Andrews, and cardinall of the sée of Rome, enimie mortall vnto the king of England for the popes cause (and partlie set Archbishop of S. Andrew deadlie enimie to K. Henrie. on by the French king) had forged a will, expressing how the king had made him gouernour (associat with two earles of his affinitie) as well of the queene as realme, contrarie to the lawes of Scotland. Wherevpon the said earle of Arraine, according to his right (as he pretended) with the helpe of his friends, tooke vpon him the authoritie Sir Robert Bowes deliuered. The earle of Arraine. of gouernor, and put the said cardinall in prison, and deliuered sir Robert Bowes, and the other English prisoners, by their bonds, according to the custome of the Bowes, marches.

All this yeare was neither perfect peace nor open warre betwixt England and France, but the merchants ships were taken and robbed on both parts, and at length merchants goods were seized, and the ambassadors of both realms staied. Howbeit, shortlie after the ambassadors were deliuered: but the merchants still were robbed, and no warre proclaimed. In the end of this yeare came from the gouernor of Scotland Ambassadors from Scotland. as ambassadors, sir William Hamilton, and Iames Leirmouth the secretarie of Scotland, whose message was so meanlie liked, that they were faine to send an herald into Scotland for other ambassadors, and so came hither the earle of Glencarne, and sir George Dowglas: but whatsoeuer their answer was, sir George returned in post, and within twentie daies came backe againe with an answer that was well liked of. But shortlie after they brake promise, and went from that which they had couenanted, greatlie to their reproch.

Wood was sold verie deare in the winter season of this yeere, and likewise vittels A dearth. both flesh and fish grew to an high price towards the spring, by reason (as was thought) of the vntemperate wet summer last past, causing great death among cattell. A quarter of mutton was sold for two shillings, or seuen grotes, a lambe at thrée shillings, or thrée and foure pence, which afore that time was esteemed scarse woorth sixteene pence. Against Easter at a court of aldermen kept in the Guildhall the twentith of A necessarie & wholsome ordnance for moderation in diet. March 1542, it was enacted by the lord maior and his brethren, that the maior and shiriffs should be serued at their tables but with one course at dinner and supper in their houses; the maior to haue but seuen dishes at the most at one messe for his owne table, and the'shiriffs and euerie other alderman but six dishes, vpon paine to forfeit for euerie dish fortie shillings at euerie time when they offended in this ordinance. Also that the sargeants and yeomen of their houses should haue but thrée dishes at dinner or supper, the sword bearers messe onlie excepted, which should be allowed to haue one dish more. It was also enacted, that from the feast of Easter then next insuing, neither the maior nor his brethren should buie anie crane, swan, or bustard, vpon paine to forfeit for euerie foule by them so bought, tweatie shillinga, the offense to be tried by oth, if it should be presented.

In the beginning of this yeare, on Trinitie sundaie, was a new league sworne A league betwixt the king of England and the emperour.

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