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An. Reg. 16. Sir Edward Darlingrug lord warden of London. Darlingrug remooued, & sir Baldwine Radington made, lord warden of London. day the king entered into the 16 yeare of his reigne: by reason it was thought that the said sir Edward Darlingrug was ouerfauourable to the citizens, he continued in his office but till the first of Iulie, and being then discharged, one sir Baldwine Radington, a right circumspect and discréet knight, was put in that roome, who knew how both to content the kings mind, and to comfort the citizens, and put them in hope of the kings fauour in time to be obteined, to the reliefe of their sorow and heauinesse.

At length, the king, through sute and instant labour made by certeine noble men, speciallie the duke of Glocester, began somewhat to relent and pacifie himselfe, as touching his rigorous displeasure against the Londoners, calling to mind the great honour he had diuerse waies receiued at their hands, with the great gifts which they had likewise bestowed vpon him, wherevpon he purposed to deale the more mildlie with them, and so sent for diuerse of the chiefe citizens to come vnto Windesor, where he then kept his court, there to shew foorth the priuileges, liberties, and lawes of their citie, as well the new as old, that with the aduise of his councell, he might determine which should remaine in The liberties of London in part confirmed in part condemned. force, and which should be abolished. Herevpon, when the said priuileges, and liberties were laid foorth, to the view of such persons as had to consider of them, some were ratified, some permitted by tolleration, and some vtterlie condemned and abrogated.

Neither might they recouer at that present, either the person or dignitie of their maior, nor obteine the kings entire fauour, till they had satisfied the king of the damages and iniuries by them doone, either to him or his people. And where he had beene at great charges, in preparing forces to chastise them, as he was determined, if they had not submitted themselues vnto him, they were sure that their pursses must answer all that he had laid foorth about that matter. They therfore with humble submission, in recompense & satisfaction of their trespasses, offered to giue him ten thousand pounds, but they were for this time sent home, and appointed to returne againe at a certeine day, not vnderstanding what they must pay, till the king with the aduise of his councell had taken further order for them. At length, through such dailie sute as was made for the quieting of the kings hot displeasure towards the Londoners, he was contented to pardon all offenses past. But first, the citizens were told, that the king meant to come from his manor of Shene, to the citie of London, and then vndoubtedlie, vpon knowledge had of their good meanings, hereafter to beare themselues like louing subiects, they should obteine his fauour.

The citizens aduertised hereof, did not onelie prepare themselues to meet him and to A swéet sacrifice. present him with gifts in most liberall manner; but also to adorne, decke, and trim their citie with sumptuous pageants, rich hangings, and other gorgeous furniture, in all points like as is vsed at anie coronation. At the day appointed, there met him (beside other) foure hundred of the citizens on horsebacke, clad in one liuerie, presenting themselues in He was met with procession of the bishop & clergie at S. Georges church in Southwarke. Gifts presented to the K. by the Londoners to pacifie his displcasure conceiued against them. K. Richard roiallie receiued into London. that order, vpon the heath on this side Shene, and in most humble wise, crauing pardon for their offenses past, besought him to take his waie to his palace of Westminster, thorough the citie of London. This sute made by the recorder, in name of all the citizens, he gratiouslie granted, and so held on his iournie, till he came to London bridge, where vnto him was presented a passing faire stéed, white, saddled, bridled, and trapped in rich cloth of gold, parted with red and white. And likewise to the quéene was giuen a milke white palfrie, saddled, brideled, and trapped in the same sort, as the other was. These presents were thankefullie accepted, and so both the king and the queene passing forward, entered the citie, prepared and hanged with rich clothes (as before you haue heard) the citizens standing on ech side the stréets in their liueries, crieng; King Richard, king Richard.

At the standard in Cheape, was a right sumptuous stage ordeined, on which were set diuerse personages, and an angell that put a rich crowne of gold, garnished with stone and pearle vpon the kings head, as he passed by, and likewise an other on the queenes head. This doone, the king rode to Paules, and there offered, and so tooke his horsse againe, and rode to Westminster, where the maior and his companie taking their leaue, More gifts by the Lōdoners to the king. returned to London. On the morrow, the maior and his brethren went againe to Westminster, and there presented the king with two basens gilt, & in them two thousand nobles of gold, beséeching him to be good and gratious lord to the citie; he receiued their present Tho. Walsin. The liberties of London ratified by king Richard. in courteous manner, and gaue them manie comfortable words. The third daie after, they receiued a new confirmation of all their old liberties (at the least such as might be an aid to the citie, and no detriment to forreners) wherefore, by counsell of their freends, they ordeined a table for an altar of siluer and gilt, ingrauen with imagerie, and inameled in most curious wise, conteining the storie of saint Edward, it was valued to be worth a thousand marks. This was presented to the king, the which he shortlie after offered to the shrine of saint Edward within the abbeie. The Londoners beléeued, that by these gifts they had beene quite rid of all danger; but yet they were compelled to giue the king after this, ten thousand pounds, which was collected of the commons in the citie, not without great offense and grudging in their minds.

Abr. Fl. out of Henrie Knighton canon of Leceister abbeie. ¶ You haue heard hitherto, what means was made by the maior, aldermen, and whole bodie of the commonaltie of London to procure the kings maiesties (in whose disfauour, they were deeplie drowned) gratious reconciliation. Wherein though there hath beene large matter deliuered; yet to set foorth the dignitie thereof the fuller, take heere by the waie the report of Henrie Knighton. In the yeare (saith he) 1392, the king called a great councell on the morrow after Trinitie sundaie at Stamford, about certeine affaires concerning the Frenchmen, in which councell he assembled togither all the old soldiers of his relme, that by the aduise of the elder sort he might sée what were best for him to doo in the premisses. The king also held a great councell at Notingham, on the feast of S. Iohn the Baptist, whereat he caused the maior of London with the foure and twentie aldermen, the two shiriffes, and foure and twentie of the best commoners of the citie in the second degrée to be conuented before him. Héere he charged them that they had forfeited a certeine bond of 9000 pounds to the king, besides the losse of their liberties and priuileges. Which obligation or bond they had made in former time to the king, their deserts requiring the same. Now the king, after rehearsall made of their new offenses & faults, discharged the maior, the two shiriffes, and the rest of his officers of their offices, and sent the maior and the two shiriffes to certeine places of custodie as his prisoners, defeating the citie of London of the honour of all their priuileges; in so much that a citizen or fréeman should haue no more prerogatiue than a forrener or stranger. He appointed also the lord Edward Balerige to be gouernor therof, to kéepe and see kept the kings lawes and his liege people within London in due order, vntill such time as the king had otherwise prouided for them. And he set them a day to answer the king and his councell to certeine interrogatories on the feast of S Marie Magdalen then next insuing, at Windsore. In the meane while, at the mediation of certeine freends and welwillers, the kings indignation was somewhat mitigated and asswaged towards them; in somuch that at length he released the maior and the shiriffes, and sent them home to their houses; setting ouer them notwithstanding a new kéeper or gouernour of the citie, and reseruing in his hand all the priuileges of the citie. In the meane time, on the sundaie next after the feast of the Assumption of the blessed virgin Marie; all the wealthiest and worthiest commoners of the citie came to the king, and submitted themselues and all their goods to his grace, and then did he first receiue and take them into his fauour. On the wednesdaie insuing, the king was purposed to come into London, and the citizens in multitudes innumerable met him on horssebacke; & they that had no horsses went out on foot to welcome him thither; women also and infants shewed themselues vnto him; likewise the bishop of London, with all the clergie, no order, degree, condition, estate, or sex of ecclesiasticall dignitie being excused, went out in procession to meet the king and the quéene with great reioising. It was reported how in that procession there were aboue fiue hundred boies in surplisses. Moreouer, the citizens of London trimmed the outsides of their houses and chambers in euerie stréet through which the king and the queene were to passe, from S. Georges to Westminster. As for the houses of the welthier sort, they were brauelie garnished with cloth of gold, siluer, tissue, veluet, & other sumptuous stuffe whatsoeuer by any possible means could be gotten. In Cheapside there was a conduit, out of the which two spouts ran with read wine & white, and vpon the conduit stood a little boie apparelled in white like an angell, hauing a golden cup in his hand, who presented wine to the king and queene to drinke as they passed by. In the meane time they offered to the king a golden crowne of great value, and another golden crowne to the quéene; and a while after passing forwards, they presented to the king a golden tablet of the Trinitie, to the value of eight hundred pounds: and to the queene another golden tablet of S. Anne, whome she had in speciall deuotion and reuerence, bicause hir owne name was Anne. Such, and so great, and so wonderfull honors did they to the king, as the like in former times was neuer doone to anie king of this realme: and so going forward, they brought the king and the quéene to Westminster hall. The king sitting in his seat roiall, & all the people standing before him; one in the kings behalfe as his speaker, gaue the people thanks for the great honour and princelie presents which they had bestowed vpon the king; and being bidden to fall euerie man to his businesse and affaires, it was told them that in the next parlement they should haue their finall answer.

At the same time, the duke of Glocester, hauing receiued monie to leauie an armie, The duke of Glocester made duke of Ireland. which he should haue conueied ouer into Ireland, of which countrie, a good while before that present, the king had made him duke, was now readie to set forward, when suddenlie through the malice of some priuie detractours about the king, he was contermanded, and His iournie into Ireland vnluckilie staied. so his iournie was staied, to the great hinderance and preiudice of both the countries of England and Ireland: for euen vpon the fame that was bruted of his comming into Ireland, in manner all the Irish lords determined to submit themselues vnto him, so greatlie was his name both loued, reuerenced, and feared, euen among those wild and sauage people. This yeare Robert Véere, late earle of Oxenford, and duke of Ireland, departed Véere, late duke of Ireland, dieth at Louaine. this life at Louaine in Brabant, in great anguish of mind, & miserable necessitie: which yoong gentleman (doubtlesse) was apt to all commendable exercises and parts fit for a noble man, if in his youth he had béene well trained and brought vp in necessarie discipline.

This yeare after Christmasse, a parlement was called at Winchester, in which onelie a 1393. grant was made by the cleargie, of halfe a tenth, for the expenses of the duke of Lancaster & Glocester, that were appointed to go ouer into France, to treat of peace, betwixt the Tho. Walsi. A parlement at Winchester. two kingdomes. The courts of the kings bench and chancerie, which had béene remooued from Westminster to Yorke, either in disfauour onelie of the Londoners, or in fauour of The chancerie and kings bench kept at Yorke and frōthence remooued to Londō. the citizens of Yorke, for that the archbishop of that citie, being lord chancellor, wished to aduance (so farre as in him laie) the commoditie and wealth thereof, were neuerthelesse about this season brought backe againe to Westminster, after they had remained a small time at Yorke, to the displeasure of manie. ¶ This yeare, the lord Auberie de Veere, vncle to the late duke of Ireland, was made earle of Oxenford. ¶ The two and twentith of Februarie, Iohn Eures, constable of Douer castell, & lord steward of the kings house Eures. departed this life, in whose roome the lord Thomas Persie that before was vicechamberlaine was created lord steward; and the lord Thomas Beaumont was made constable of Douer, and lord warden of the cinque ports: and the lord William Scroope was made vicechamberlaine, who about the same time, bought of the lord William Montacute The Ile of Man. the Ile of Man, with the regalitie therof, for it is a kingdome; as Thomas Walsingham affirlmeth.

The dukes of Lancaster & Glocester sent to Frāce to treat of a peace. The dukes of Lancaster and Glocester went ouer vnto Calis, and downe to Bullongne came the dukes of Berrie and Burgognie. These noblemen were sufficientlie furnished with authoritie, to conclude a perfect peace, both by sea and land, betweene the two realmes of France and England, and all their alies. The place appointed for them to treat in, was at Balingham, where tents and pauilions were pight vp, for the ease of both parties. They met there twise or thrise a wéeke, in a faire tent prepared for the purpose, about nine of the clocke in the forenoone. This was about the beginning of Maie. When The French comissioners would haue Calis raced to the ground. they entered first into communication, and had séene each others authoritie, one of the first demands that the Frenchmen made, was to haue Calis raced, in such wise, as there should neuer be anie habitation there after that time. The dukes of Lancaster and Glocester answered herevnto, how they had no authoritie to conclude so farre, but that England should hold Calis still, as in demesne, and true inheritance; and therefore, if they purposed to enter any further in the treatie of peace, they should ceasse from that demand and speake no more thereof. When the dukes of Berrie and Burgognie heard their two cousins of England answer so roundlie, they spake no more of that matter.

The demand of the English cōmissioners. Then the dukes of Lancaster and Glocester demanded to haue restitution of all such lands as had béene deliuered, either to king Richard, or to king Edward the third, or to anie their deputies or commissioners, and also to haue fullie paid the summe of florens that was left vnpaid, at the time when the warre reuiued betwixt England and France: and this the English lawiers prooued to stand with equitie and reason. But neuerthelesse, the lords and chancellor of France argued to the contrarie, and so agrée they could not, insomuch as the Frenchmen required, that if the Englishmen meant to haue anie conclusion Order taken that the demands on either side should be set downe in writing, the better to be considered of. of peace, they should draw to some neerer points. At length, the foure dukes tooke order, that all their demands on either side should be set downe in writing, and deliuered to either partie interchangeablie, that they might be regarded at length, and such as should be found vnreasonable, to be raced or reformed. After they had communed togither diuerse times, and remained there fiftéene daies, they appointed to aduertise the two kings of their whole dooings, and after nine daies space to meet againe. The French dukes rode to Abbeuile, where the French king then laie: and the English dukes returning to Calis, wrote to the king of England, of all the whole matter. The duke of Glocester was harder to deale with in each behalfe, concerning the conclusion of peace, than was the duke of Lancaster, for he rather desired to haue had warre than any peace, except such a one as should be greatlie to the aduantage and honour of the realme of England: and therefore the commons of England vnderstanding his disposition, agreed that he The English gentlemen mainteined by the French warres. should be sent, rather than anie other. For where in times past the Englishmen had greatlie gained by the warres of France, as well the commons, as the knights and esquires, who had by the same mainteined their estate, they could not giue their willing consents, to haue anie peace at all with the Frenchmen, in hope by reason of the wars, to profit themselues, as in times past they had doone. The French king & nobles of France were greatlie inclined to peace, and so likewise was the king of England, & the duke of Lancaster. The subtiltie of the French men. But the Frenchmen were so subtill, and vsed so manie darke and coloured words, that the Englishmen had much a doo to vnderstand them: which offended much the duke of The commissioners meet againe. Glocester. But neuerthelesse, at the daie prefixed, these foure dukes met againe at Balingham, and with the French lords came the king of Armenie, newlie returned into France foorth of Grecia, for into his owne countrie he durst not come, the Turkeshauing conquered it, the strong towne of Conich, which the Genowaies held, excepted.

The king of Armenie would gladlie that peace might haue béene established betwixt The king of Armenie. France and England, in hope to procure the sooner some aid of the kings to recouer his kingdome. But to conclude after that the dukes, and other with them associat as assistants, had diligentlie perused and examined the articles of their treatie, they would not Obscure and doubtfull words to be opened. A truce for foure yeares betweene England and France. passe nor seale to anie, till all darke and obscure words were cléerelie declared, opened, and made perfect, so that no generall peace might be concluded. Notwithstanding, as Froissard saith, a truce for foure yeares space, vpon certeine articles was agreed to be kept as well by sea as by land. It was thought, that when they were at point to haue growne to agreement concerning manie articles, if the French king had not newlie fallen into his former disease of frensie, there had better effect followed of this treatie; but by occasion of his sicknesse, each man departed, before that anie principall articles could be fullie ordered and make perfect. The same time, sir Thomas Persie the yoonger was made lord warden ot Burdeaux and Aquitaine.

In September, much hurt was doone, thorough excéeding great thunder, lightening,


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