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AIDAN.

AFTER that the bodie of this Kinnatill was interred, according to the maner, in Colmekill,
Aidan receiueth his inuesture of the kingdome at the hands of saint Colme. S. Colmes exhortation to the king and the people. Aidan receiued the crowne, sitting vpon the marble stone, after the custome in those daies vsed, by the hands of that holie father saint Colme. Who willing that silence might be kept, laid his right hand vpon the kings head, and in his left hand holding his crosier staffe, made a briefe exhortation, as well to the king as to his people, admonishing them of their duties each towards other, but especiallie he exhorted them vnto peace and concord, and before all things to remember to walke in the waies of the Lord, for in so dooing they might hope for wealth and prosperitie in the state of their commonwealth, with all other good graces, whereas otherwise, if either the people forgot their duties towards God, or that the king regarded not dulie to execute or fulfill his office, in giuing God thanks for his bountious liberalitie and high benefits bestowed vpon him, it should come to passe, that intestine seditions, conspiracies, and other mischiefes should rise among them, to the irrecouerable losse of the realme, by bringing the same into danger to be ouerrun with some forrein power, if they did not repeat in time, and call to God for his fauour, that it might please him to reduce them againe into the right path of his lawes & ordinances, whensoeuer they should so fall from the same. When saint Colme had made an end of these or the like his wholsome aduertisments, all the people reioising thereat, promised with one voice, and The promise of the people. therewith vowed to follow the same, and to be euer readie to obeie the commandement of their prince, and the holie instructions of their bishops and other the ecclesiasticall ministers. The assemblie being once dissolued, the king departed into Galloway, and there The kings iournie into Galloway. deliuered the countrie of certeine British robbers that had inuaded it. After this, studieng to mainteine good orders and quiet rule through his dominions, he appointed an assemblie of the chiefest péeres of his realme, to be holden yéerelie in three seuerall parties thereof, as Aidan appointeth sessions to bée kept yéerlie in thrée parts of his realme. Saint Colme present at assises and sessions. in Galloway, Louchquhaber, and Cathnesse, there to heare and determine all sutes and quarels of his subiects, & to giue order for the administration of the lawes and all publike affaires, as they should sée cause and occasion. He required also S. Colme to be present euer with them, that matters touching religion might be the better preuided for, and that the people might take all things doone in those publike sessions in right good part, bicause such an holie and vertuous father of the church was amongst them, and hauing the chiefest authoritie.

Thus continued the realme in quiet state for certeine yeeres togither, till it chanced that diuers of the nobles being togither on hunting, fell at variance, and therevpon making a A fray among the nobles being a hunting. fraie, sundrie of them were slaine. The beginners and such as were most culpable were sought for by the kings officers, to haue béene had to ward, but they in disobeieng the arrest, stroke and beat the officers verie sore, and immediatie therewith fled vnto Brudeus king of the Picts, so by wilfull exile to safe gard their liues. King Aidan according to the King Aidan requireth to haue certeine Scotish outlawes deliuered at the hands of Brudeus king of Picts. Brudeus by denieng to deiuer the Scotish outlawes, procureth warres to him selfe and his countrie. maner in such cases accustomed, required to haue those outlawes deliuered vnto him, that he might doo iustice vpon them accordinglie as they had deserued. Brudeus taking pitie of the yoong gentlemen, alledged manie things in their excuse, still deferring to delluer them, till at length hee procured warre to himselfe and his countrie. For Aidan the Scotish king, offended in that hée might not haue those rebels and publike offendors restored vnto him, caused a number of his people, first to fetch a great bootie of cattell and prisoners out of Angus.

Wherewith the Picts being kindled, made a like rode into Galloway. Finallie the matter grew vnto a field, which was foughten in Mentieth, not farre from Calidon castell otherwise The breach of peace betwixt the Scots and Picts. A field fought betwixt Scots and Picts. Saint Colme reproueth K. Aidan. The repentance of king Aidan. Saint Colme goeth vnto the king of the Picts. An agréement betwixt the Scotish and Pictish kings by the sute of saint Colme. Saint Colme returned vnto the westerne Iles. England diuided into seuen seuerall kingdoms. Edelfred K. of Northumberland. called Dounkeld, with great slaughter on both sides, though in the end the victorie yet remained with the Scots ; but losing Arthurnus the sonne of Aidan their king, they reioised not greatlie at the gaine. That holie man saint Colme troubled with such rewes, came vnto Aidan, and declaring vnto him how grieuouslie he had offended almightie God, in procuring such mischiefe as had insued of this warre, and reciting in particular the branches thereof, he mooued the king vnto such repentance for his trespasse, that he wholie submitted himselfe vnto saint Colmes chastisement, who being about to depart in semblance sore offended, the king got him by the sleeue, and would in no wise suffer him to go from him, till he had declared vnto him some comfortable meanes how to redresse the matter, for the quieting of his conscience. At length saint Colme lamenting the kings case, suffered himselfe to be intreated, and therevpon repaired vnto Brudeus the Pictish king, mouing him by way of diuerse godlie aduertisements to incline his affection vnto peace. At length he did so much by trauelling sundrie times to and fro betwixt the two kings, that he brought them vnto agréement, for all matters depending in controuersie betwixt them and their subiects.

Thus saint Colme hauing accomplished that which he came for, returned againe into the westerne Iles vnto his woonted home, where he did by wholesome documents and vertuous examples instruct the seruants of God in the way of his lawes and commandements. In this meane time the Saxons hauing driuen and put backe the Britains into Wales, and occupieng all the residue of their lands and countries, they diuided the same into seuen parts, ordeining seuen seuerall kings to gouerne the same as kingdomes. Ouer that of Northumberland, adioining next vnto the Picts, one Edelfred reigned, a man of excéeding desire to inlarge his dominion. He went by all means he could deuise, to persuade Brudeus the Pictish king to renew the warres with the Scots, promising him all the aid he could make against them, not onelie for that he knew the Scots to haue béene euer enimies vnto the Saxons, but also for that he himselfe was descended of the nation called Agathyrses, of the which the Picts (as was thought) were also come. But the cause why he wished that there might be warres raised betwixt the Scots and Picts, was not for anie good will he bare to the Picts, but onelie Edelfreds purpose. to the end that their power being weakened through the same, he might haue a more easie preie of their countrie, the which he purposed vpon occasion to inuade, and ioine vnto his owne kingdome of Northumberland.

Brudeus at the first gaue no eare vnto his earnest motions and large offers, but at length through the counsell and procurement of some of his nobles, corrupted by bribes receiued at Edelfreds hands, and still putting into the kings head sundrie forged informations of the Scotishmens dailie attempts against the Pictish nation; he determined to ioine with the Saxons against them, and caused thervpon warre to be proclamed against the Scots, as those that had spoiled and robbed his subiects, contrarie to the league and all bonds of old friendship and former amitie betwixt them. The Scotish king Aidan perceiuing the practise of the A league concluded betwixt the Scots & Britains, with the articles of the same. Saxons, and togither therwith the vntruth of the Picts, the better to be able to resist their malice, ioineth in league with the Britains: this ardicle being the chiefest in the whole couenant : that if the enimies first inuaded the Britains, then an armie of Scots should be sent with all speed into Britaine, to helpe to defend the countrie against such inuasions: but if the Scots were first inuaded, then should the Britains in semblable maner come ouer to their aid.

The Saxons hauing knowledge of this appointment betwixt Scots & Britains; to draw the Scots foorth of their countrie, and so to haue them at more aduantage, procured the Picts to The Picts & Saxons enter into the land of the Britains. ioine with them: and so both their powers being vnited together, entred into the British confines. Aidan according to the couenant came streight vnto the aid of the Britains. Edelfred and Brudeus refused to fight for certeine daies, as it were of purpose, therby to wearie the Scots with watch and trauell, being as then far from home. Also they looked dailie to haue Ceuline king of the Westsaxons to come vnto their aid : but the Scots and Britains hauing Ceuline or Ceolin. knowledge therof, first thought it best to incounter with him, before he should ioine with the other, and thus vnderstanding that their onelie refuge remained in their armor and weapons, The Scots and Britains put the Saxons to flight, and slue Cutha the sonne of Ceuline king of the Westsaxons. The triumphant ioy made by the Scots and Britains vpon their new victorie. The Saxons and Picts. The sudden feare of the Scots and Picts, after all their great ioy & triumphing. Aidan exhorted his men to manfulnesse. gaue the onset so fiercelie vpon those Saxons, that at the first, sleaing Cutha Ceulines sonne, with a great number of other, they easilie distressed and put the residue to flight.

Aidan would not suffer his men to pursue too far in the chase, but called them backe by the the sound of a trumpet, who being assembled héerewith about their standards, made such ioy and triumph, as greater could not be deuised, what with dansing, singing, and plaieng on pipes and other instruments, according to the manner in those daies. But as they were thus in the middest of their chiefest mirth, suddenlie appéered the Saxons and Picts, which were with Edelfred and Brudeus, approching towards them in good order of battell, with whome were also the residue of the Westsaxons, that had escaped from the late bickering. Wherevpon the Scots and Britains amazed with the sight héereof, were suddenlie striken out of countenance, insomuch that Aidan went amongst them, and with a bold countenance exhorted them to remember how valiantlie they had alreadie put to flight the other of their enimies, so that there was great hope for assured victorie of these likewise, if they would now shew the like manlie courage against them, as they had shewed before in assailing the other. Manie other woords he vsed in admonishing them to fight manfullie, till the onset giuen by the enimies caused him to make an end.

The Saxons laid about them so stoutlie in the beginning, that they forced their aduersaries, The Saxons fight stoutlis. Edelfred. with whome they were matched, to giue backe. Neither did Edelfred faile in that occasion to incourage them to follow the aduantage now thus gotten. Brudeus with his Picts likewise Brudeus K. of the Picts maketh slaughter of the Scots. The Scots run awaie. made great slaughter in that wing of the Scots, with the which he incountred; so that finallie the same Scots perceiuing the Britains beaten downe and sore distressed on their side, fell through discomfort thereof to running awaie. There were slaine in this battell on the Scotishmens side, Brennius lieutenant or (as they termed him) thane of the Ile of Man, with Dungar the kings third sonne, and no small number of other gentlemen beside. The king himselfe scaped by helpe of his sonne, who staieng to get his father out of the preasse, was slaine (as is said) amongst the residue. On the Saxons side, there was slaine Theobald Edelfreds brother, and Cutha the king of Westsaxons his sonne, as before ye haue heard, with a great number of other. Edelfred himselfe lost one of his eies. Brudeus the Pictish king was hurt Edelfred lost one of his eies. Brudeus hurt in the thigh. Deglastone the place where this battell was fought. Galloway inuaded by Edelfred. in the thigh, and besides this, he lost a great multitude of his people.

Thus Edelfred hauing got such a notable victorie at Deglastone in Britaine, he could not be so contented, but eftsoones assembling his people, and ioining againe with Brudeus and his Picts, the next summer after inuaded Galloway, and began to rob and spoile that cc mtrie, to the end he might either inforce the inhabitants, with other the countries next therevnto adioining, to yeeld vnto him; either els to bring them into extreme pouertie in wasting all afore him. But Aidan being aduertised héereof, sent to the Britains for their couenanted aid, and comming forward with his owne people which he had assembled together, ouerthrew certeine Certeine companies of Saxons ouerthrowne. companies of his enimies, as he found them dispersed abroad in seeking for preles : then passing by their maine armie, he commeth into Anandale, where he ioineth with the Britains, being come so farre forward on their waie to méet him. The Saxons and Picts hauing knowledge of their enimies dooings, wan such a place of aduantage, as they thought it an easie matter for them in kéeping the same, to distresse both the Scots and Britains through stopping vp the passages, by the which they must of force passe, if they minded to come Passages thorough Sulleway sands. foorth on that day. These passages laie through certeine quicksands. and by a riuer which had but a few foords passable.

The Scots and Britains, perceiuing how they were thus inclosed, with all spéed trenched their campe about, raising certeine bulworks and turrets in places where they thought The diligence of king Aidan in prouiding to resist his enimies. expedient, as though they had ment still there to haue continued. Aidan himselfe tooke such pains in séeing euerie thing doone in due order, that his people mooued more through his example than by anie exhortation, were most diligent in their duties, desirous of nothing so much as to haue occasion ministred, to shew some proofe of their woorthie valiancies. At length, when the enimies were most at quiet, and (as was supposed) nothing in doubt of anie attempt The Scots and Britains dislodge. The Scots and Britains enter into Northumberland. to be made by the Scots and Britains in the night season, leauing a great number of fires in their campe, they suddenlie dislodged, and passing the water by secret foords, they entred into Cumberland, and so after passing into Northumberland, they wasted and destroied with fire and swoord all that came within their reach: the report of which their dooings brought Edelfred and Brudeus backe into that countrie to resist their inuasion, neither resting day nor night, till they had got sight of their enimies.

The next day, the souldiers on both sides requiring battell, together they go with great The fight betwixt Scots and Britains on the one side, and Saxons and Picts on the other. noise and din both of men and instruments. Too much hardinesse in the Saxons caused no small number of them to be slaine, rather choosing to die with reputation of manhood, than to giue backe neuer so little ground to the enimie. Thus the battell continued for a space, verie doubtfull which waie the victorie would incline. On the Britains and Scotishmens side, there were foure chiefe rulers amongst them, beside Aidan himselfe, as Constantius and Alencrinus Britains, Callan and Mordacke Scotishmen. Ech of these taking a seuerall charge vpon him, did earnestlie applie their vttermost indeuors therin, incouraging their bands to put awaie all cowardlie feare, and manfullie to sticke to their tackle, since by victorie there was hope of eternall fame, beside suertie of life, and aduancement to the commonwealth of their countrie; where otherwise they might looke for nothing, but the contrarie mishaps, as shame, rebuke, and importable seruitude. So that the Scotishmen and Britains incouraged hérewith, preassed vpon the enimies so fiercelie, that at length as well the Saxons The Saxons and Picts discomfited and chased. as Picts were compelled to breake their arraie, & fall to plaine running awaie: the Scots following so egerlie in the chase, that more of their enimies were thought to die in the flight, than before there had doone in the battell.

S. Colme as yet being aliue, and within his monasterie in the lie of Iona, had knowledge by diuine inspiration (as the Scotish chronicles make mention) of all these matters how they went : and at the verie time that the battels were in sight together, he had assembled a companie of verie vertuous and godlie disposed persons, making intercession for the prosperous speed of their king the foresaid Aidan : and at the verie instant (as it was knowne after) that the Saxons began to flée (as they which had the ouerthrow) that holie old father shewed great token of ioy and gladnesse, declaring vnto his brethren by the spirit of secret knowledge S. Colme indued with the spirit of secret knowledge. Ceuline king of Westsaxons slaine. Quhitelline or Whiteline. or prophesie, how Aidan had the better, and that his enimies were discomfited, willing them therevpon to giue vnto God thanks for the same. There was an huge multitude slaine in this conflict, but namelie the death of Ceuline king of the Westsaxons, with other two woorthie capteins of that nation, made the slaughter more sorowfull on that side, the one of them was called Cialine, and the other Quhitelline.

The day next after the battell, the spoile of the field being gathered together, all that which was knowne to haue béene taken out of Galloway, and other countries of the Scots, was restored by the kings authoritie vnto the owners againe. The residue which remained The diuision of the spoile. was diuided amongst the souldiers, the tenth part onelie excepted, which was distributed vnto priests & curats, to bestow the same vpon ornaments for their churches. The banners and standards of the Saxons and Picts, with manie other rich offerings, king Aidan sent vnto the abbeie of Colmekill, there to remaine as perpetuall monuments and tokens of so notable a victorie. The yeere next insuing, that holie father S. Colme now almost wasted through age, S. Colme departed out of this life. and héereto also sore troubled with a rheumatike humor, fell sicke and died. Some saie he ended his life in his house amongst his brethren, within the Ile of lona, otherwise called Colmekill; but S. Beda writeth, how he died in an Iland called Heu ; where againe the Irish writers arffirme, that he decessed in a towne in Ireland called Dune, & that his toome is there in verie great veneration of the people: vpon the which are these Latine verses ingrauen for the lookers on to read, if they list:

Hitres in Duno, tumulo tumulantur in vno,
Brigida, Patricius, atque Columba pius.
Which verses Bellenden translateth.
Saint Colme, Saint Patrike, and Brigitta pure,
Thir three in Dune lies in ane sepulture.

Neither did Aidan the Scotish king liue long time after, for hearing (as is said) that saint Aidan king of the Scotishmen, departeth this world. Colme was dead, shortlie therevpon, more through griefe than by force of sickenesse, he departed this world, after he had reigned 37 yeares in gouernement ouer the Scotishmen, he died aboutthe yeare of our Lord 606. In the daies of this Aidan there was sent into Albion from Gregorie 606. Augustinus and Mellitus sent into Albion. Ethelbert is baptised. The Saxons hatred toward the British préestes. Sussex and Essex receiue the christian faith. Edelfred his displeasure. the pope of Rome, diuers learned men (amongest whome were Augustinus and Mellitus) to instruct the English people in the faith of Christ, which as yet they had not receiued. By the earnest trauelt and exhortation of these instructors, Ethelbert king of the Kentish Saxons was baptised with all his people. The British priests nor their doctrine the Saxons could in no wise abide, because (as is supposed) the one nation through a naturall hatred, still sought the destruction of the other. The South and Eastsaxons moued with the example of the Kentish Saxons, shortlie after also renounced their old superstitious idolatrie, and likewise receiued the christain faith. Edelfred king of Northumberland moued vnto displeasure herewith, sent word vnto these Saxons of the south parts (as then all of them generallie knowen by the name of Englishmen) that sith they had forsaken the old institutions & ancient religion of their forefathers, he would suerlie from thencefoorth be no lesse enimie vnto them than vnto the Scots and Britains. There liued in these daies that holie man Valdred a Scotish man borne, Valdred otherwise called Baldred doctor of the Picts. but dwelling amongest the Picts, whome he instructed in the right faith, and therefore was named the doctor of the Picts. He departed out of this life within the Iland called the Basse, lieng about two miles off from the maine land within the sea, where the Forth hath entrie betwixt the same Ile, and an other called the Maie. There were thrée parishes fell at contention for his bodie, as Aldham, Tiningham, and Preston, so far foorth, that they were at point to haue fought about it, but that by counsell of some discréet persons amongest them, it was ordeined that they should continue in praier for that night, and in the next morning stand to th' order of the bishop of the dioces, who was come thither the same time to be present at the buriall. The next day in the morning there was found three beires with three bodies decentlie couered A miracle if it be true. with clothes, so like in all resemblance, that no man might perceiue anie difference. Then by commandement of the bishop, and with great ioy of all the people, the said seuerall bodies were caried seuerallie vnto the said thrée seuerall churches, and in the same buried in most solemne wise, where they remaine vnto this day, in much honor with the common people of the countries néere adioining.

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