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930. AFTER Dongall was Alpine receiued to the crowne and gouernement of the realme, by Alpine crowned king of Scotland. the generall voices of all the people, whose chiefest studie was vpon his first entring into the estate, to follow his sute touching his title to the Pictish kingdome: and herevpon with all diligence preparing a mightie host and all other things (which were thought requisite for the furthering of his enterprise) he passed foorth towards Angus, not staieng till he came Alpine with an armie inuadeth Pictland. to the casrell of Forfair, which he besieged; but the third day after his comming thither, Feredeth the Pictish king with a great armie of his subiects aranged in good order of battell, came and presented himselfe in sight of the Scots, whervpon immediatlie néere vnto the towne of Restennoth they met, and ioining there in battell, fought right fiercelie. At the first encounter the right wing of the Scotish armie was néere hand ouerthrowne; but Fenedocht lieutenant Fenedocht the thane of Athole. of Athole came spéedilie to the succors with 400 of his countriemen, and restored the battell on the Scotish side: whereby insued a right sore bickering with great slaughter, and no signe of shrinking on either part, by meanes whereof it séemed doubtfull for a long space vnto whether side the victorie would incline.

At length Feredeth perceiuing the middle ward of his battell a litle to shrinke, speedilie preassed forth to succor the same with a chosen companie of such as he had appointed to attend him: but entring thus with great violence amongst the thickest prease of his enimies, he was closed in on each side, and excluded so from the residue of his owne people, that hée could neither returne the same way he entered, neither yet by anie other, so that he with those that were with him, perceiuing their liues to be in present danger, did cast themselues into a ring, determining yet to reuenge their owne deaths, whervpon rather wearied with continuall fight, than vanquished, or with any feare oppressed, they were slaine all the whole number of them, togither with Feredeth their king. Yet herewith did not the other Picts giue ouer the Feredeth is slaine. The night parted the armies. battell, so long as anie dale light was on the skie. So that the night in the end parted them in sunder, both the armies withdrawing to their camps with small ioy or triumph, by reason of the great slaughter which had béene made on both sides.

The capteins of the Picts weieng with themselues the losse of their king, and great multitude The Picts fled by night. of their men, thought it not best to abide any longer in the field: wherefore leauing their wounded people behind them, with all their baggage in the campe, they fled incontinentlie the same night, some into one place, & some into another, where they thought best for their owne wealth and safetie. The Scots had fled immediatlie likewise, but that word was brought them as they were about to depart, how the Picts were gone alreadie, and had left their campe void of men of warre to defend the same. Wherevpon the Scots taried till it was day, not farre from the place of the battell. In the morning there were certeine horssemen appointed to ride abroad, and to view the field, thereby to vnderstand whether the Picts ment anie deceit by their departure, as by laieng of some ambushments, or otherwise: but vpon the returne of those horssemen, when it was once knowne how there was no such matter, but that they were fled in deed, the Scots reioising thereat, fell to and gathered the spoile of the field, The Scots diuide the spoile. diuiding the same amongst themselues according to their accustomed order.

Alpine himselfe commanded the bodie of his enimie Feredeth to be laid in christian Feredeth is buried. buriall not farre from Forfair. After this causing the musters of his people to be taken, he found that he had lost the third part of his armie in that mortall and cruell battell, and therevpon brake vp his campe for that time, licencing those that were left aliue to returne vnto their homes. This battell being fought in the first yéere of the reignes of the two foresaid The Scots determine to warre onlie with ineursions. kings, weakned the forces of both nations, so farre forth that the Scots doubting to bring the realme into danger of vtter ruine (if they should commit their whole puissance eftsoones to the hazard of another foughten field) determined to pursue the warre by making of incursions and inrodes onelie vpon their enimies, so to vex the Picts, and to bring them vnto reason, if it were possible. And so much verely the Scotishmen did by such their continuall rodes & incursions which they made into Angus, that the countrie was left void and desolate of all the inhabitants.

Neither did Brudus the sonne of Feredeth, (whome the Picts had chosen to succeed after Brudus succéedeth his father Feredeth. his father in the kingdome) find anie spéedie redresse to withstand those dailie inuasions thus made by the Scots vpon his countries and subiects. For he was but a slouthfull person, and verie negligent in his office, wherevpon he was had in derision of his owne people, who in the end slue him amongst themselues before he had reigned fullie the terme of The Picts slue their slothfull king. Keneth king of the Picts. The king casting off his ariner fléeth. He was slaine by a plowman. one whole yeare. Then succéeded Keneth, the second some of Feredeth, with no better hap or end than his brother. For gathering togither an armie of his subiects, and comming with them into Angus, he came no sooner within sight of his enimies, but that casting off his armor, he fled incontinentlie, leauing his people in the field; and for that his haste, was slaine by a plowman that met him by chance, and knew him not, but yet perceiuing how he had fled from his companie, and therefore deserued not to haue anie other fauour. His people seeing themselues destitute of their head capteine and gouernor, retired from their enimies, kéeping themselues in order of battell without anie further attempt.

After this infortunate end of Keneth, the Picts chose to their king one Brudus, a man of Brudus king of the Picts. a stout and manlike stomach, who immediatlie vpon his entring into the estate, comming into Angus (which region the Scots had made waste) catched there certeine Scotish robbers, and foorthwith hanged them vp vpon gibets. After this, he sent foorth his ambassadors vnto king Alpine for reformation of all iniuries and wrongs betwixt the two nations, and to Brudus sent vnto Alpine for renewing their league. Alpine refuseth anie treatie of peace. haue the ancient league renewed betwixt them. Alpine and the Scotish lords, hauing quicklie aduised what to answer, declared vnto the Pictish ambassadors plainelie, that they would not heare anie treatie for peace, till the Picts had deliuered the kingdome vnto the right heire. Brudus vnderstanding by this answer, that the Scots would still follow the warres against the Picts; to be the better able to withstand their malice, he purposed to Brudus sendeth an ambassador vnto Edwine king of England for aid, with a summe of monie. procure the friendship of the Englishmen, to haue their aid against the Scots. He sent therefore his ambassadors with a great summe of monie vnto Edwine king of Northumberland, requiring him of his fauour, and to haue some number of his people for his wages to serue him against the Scots.

Edwine receiuing the monie, promised to come himselfe with a mightie armie, at what The monie is receiued and aid promised. The Picts some doo reioise, and some mistrust the Englishmens assistance. The Scots take Angus. Brudus sendeth vnto Edwine for aid. time & place Brudus should appoint, to go against the Scots in defense of him and his subiects the Picts. Manie of the Picts reioised greatlie, that they should haue aid thus of the Englishmen, hoping thereby to haue assured victorie of their aduersaries. Other mistrusted not a little the Englishmens offers, by reason of the old enimitie betwixt the Picts and them. In this meane season the Scots take and seize vpon all the countrie of Angus, euen from the mounteine of Granzebene vnto the riuer of Taie, whereof Brudus being certified, sendeth a post with all spéed vnto king Edwine king of Northumberland, requiring him to send to his aid a power of Englishmen, to helpe to resist the Scots, which at that present inuaded his countrie. To which demand Edwine made this answer, that he was not onelie Edwine deferreth his aid. troubled with ciuill war made against him by other Englishmen, but also had béene requested by Lewes surnamed Pius, as then French king, in no wise to indamage the Scots his confederats, so that for that yeere present he might not conuenientlie send to him anie succours, but if he would defer the warres till the next yéere, he should haue the best helpe that he were able to shew him.

Brudus perceiuing himselfe thus mocked and deluded by the Englishmen, commanded Brudus being deceiued of the Englishmen, called his owne subiects to the warre, assembling them at the foot of Calidon wood. Brudus entreth into Angus with an armie. by solemne summons, that all such of his subiects, as were able to beare armor, should assemble in nether Calidon within eight daies after, with conuenable prouision of vittels, there to know his pleasure. His commandement was obeied: so that a mightie armie of men at the day and place appointed came togither, which being mustered, they streitwaies remooue vnto Calidon castell, now called Dunkeld, where they passe the riuer of Taie, and so enter into Angus, not without some difficultie: but being once gotten ouer, they march foorth. with towards the place where they vnderstood their enimies did lie. Brudus the night before the day in the which he thought they should haue battell, by the aduise of certeine expert warriours, which he had with him, appointed all the horses that were in the campe, seruing for burden, to be bestowed amongst the women, lackies, and coistrels, part of them being A woonderfull policie vsed by Brudus. clad in armor, and part in white linnen, with long poles in their hands like to speares and iauelins. Amongst them also he ordeined an hundred horssemen to be placed, whome he made priuie as then to his intention, by whose leading that feat which should be wrought in this behalfe, was to be atchiued. These he caused to lie couertlie within a wood néere vnto the place where the battell should be fought, giuing them in commandement not to shew themselues till the battell were begun.

King Alpine all this while held himselfe in a castell which stood vpon an hill, a little from The incamping of Alpine his armie. Dundée, being now decaied, so that little thereof remaineth to be séene at this day. Vpon the north side of the hill, there lieth a great large plaine, compassed on ech side with mounteins, as then full of woods & launds, but now for the most part bare and without anie trées or bushes. In this plaine were the Scots incamped. Alpine beholding foorth of the castell, how the Picts approched to giue battell, got him into the campe, & exhorting his people to shew themselues valiant, placed them in araie. The Picts no lesse desirous to fight than their gouernors would haue wished them, began the battell before they had Rashlie the Picts begin the battell. commandement, with such violence, that the right wing of the Scots was sore disordered. But Alpine perceiuing that, came spéedilie to their succours, greatlie reproouing them for their faintnesse of courage. To be short, he did so much to imbolden them, that by his means the fight was renewed in most cruell wise: insomuch that those which before were put backe, began to winne ground againe, and to beate downe their enimies verie fiercelie.

But heerewith did the counterfet troope of horssemen, which was hid in the wood suddenlie come foorth, and shewed themselues vpon the backe halfe of the Scotishmen, appéering in sight to be an huge number, & farre more than they were in déed: with which sight the The Scots being deceiued with a counterfet troope of horssemen fled. Scots being brought into a sudden feare, least they should be compassed about with multitude of enimies, they brake their arraie, threw off their armor, and tooke them to their féet so to escape and saue themselues by flight. Thus few were slaine in the battell, but a great number died in the chase, & were beaten downe on ech side as they were ouertaken by the Picts. Alpine himselfe was taken, and hauing his hands bound behind him, was led to the King Alpine taken by his enimies and after beheaded. next towne, and there beheaded. The place beareth the name of him vnto this day, being called Pasalpine. His head also was set vpon a pole, and borne vnto Camelon, and there set vp vpon one of the highest turrets of the wall. The Scots that escaped from this sorowfull ouerthrow, got them with all spéed into Argile, where they inuested Kenneth the Kenneth the sonne of Alpine inuested king of Scotland. 834. sonne of Alpine king of their realme. This was in the yéere of our Lord 834, and the fourth yéere after Alpine entred first into the estate.

The Picts hauing atchiued this great and ioifull victorie, assembled at Camelon by commandement of their king, where causing a solemne procession to be made, in rendering thanks to almightie God for their good successe in their passed iournie: they take a generall The Picts giue thanks vnto God for their victorie. They make a vow to continue the warre. The good counsell of graue men is despised. oth vpon the gospell booke, that from thencefoorth they would not ceasse to make the Scots war, till they had vtterlie destroied the race of them: and herewith ordeined a law, that if anie man made mention of anie peace or league to be had with the Scots, he should lose his head for it. There were indeed some ancient personages amongst them, that spake against this insolent outrage of the people, alledging that in time of prosperous successe men ought to vse a modestie: but certeine youthfull persons offended with such graue aduise, thrust the authors thereof out of the church, within the which they were as then assembled. The Scots being certified héereof, were nothing héerewith discouraged, but rather put The Scots are animated. in good hope of better successe, sith the enimies abused themselues thus in time of felicitie.

The next summer after, the Picts assembled their power togither, and setting forward The Picts fall at variance within themselues. towards the Scots, thorough a light occasion they fell at variance amongst themselues, and fought with such hatred togither, that the king was not able to appease the fraie, till night parted them in sunder. Then calling the lords afore him, he assaied alwaies to haue agréed the parties, but when he saw it would not be, in the morning he gaue them licence to depart euerie man to his owne home, breaking off his iouinie for that time. Brudus liued not past three moneths after, for through griefe that things went not forward as he wished, he fell into a gréeuous disease, and finallie thereof died. After whose deceasse, the Picts Brudus died. Drusken K. ouer the Picts. chose his brother named Drusken, to succéed in gouernment of the kingdome, who applied his whole indeuour vpon his first entring into the estate, to appease the ciuill discord amongst his subiects.

But whilest he was thus busilie occupied about the same, there were certeine Scots, which The head of king Alpine is stolne, and solemnlie buried with the bodie. sore disdained to vnderstand that the head of their late king should remaine vnburied, in such reprochfull sort amongst their enimies. Wherevpon hauing perfect knowledge of the Pictish toong, they feined themselues to be merchantmen of that countrie, & comming vnto Camelon, watched their time, till they found meanes in the night season to steale to the wals, and secretlie taking awaie the head, escaped with the same home into their owne countrie.

This act of theirs was not a little commended; and so now the head of king Alpine being recouered, was closed in a ledden coffin, and Kenneth himselfe, hauing in his companie a great number of his nobles, went with it ouer into Colmekill, where he buried it in the abbeie, amongst the sepultures of his elders, togither with the residue of the bodie in verie solemne wise, as apperteined. And further, those persons that had put their liues in aduenture to fetch the same head from the wals of Camelon, were by Kenneth rewarded with rich gifts and lands in perpetuitie, to remaine to them and to their heires for euer. After this, Kenneth deuising for the suertie of his subiects, furnished all the holds and castels on the Kenneth fortified the realme. frontiers of his enimies with men and munition, according as he thought expedient: and moreouer tooke order, that all the youth of the realme should be in a readinesse vpon an houres warning, to go foorth against the Picts, if they attempted anie new inuasions.

But the Scotish lords had no great lust to take anie enterprise in hand eftsoones against the Picts, remembring how infortunatelie they had sped the last time: so that for the space of thrée yéeres there was no great exploit atchiued, saue certeine roads and incursions, which both the nations continuallie vsed to make one vpon an other, as time and occasion serued. At length king Kenneth being verie desirous to be reuenged of the Picts, for the Kenneth called his nobles to reuenge his fathers death. death of his father king Alpine, and other iniuries by them doone and attempted against the Scotish nation, in the fourth yéere of his reigne, he assembled the peeres and chiefest nobles of his realme, trusting to persuade them to aid him in all such enterprises as he ment to take in hand against the Picts, whome he purposed to pursue with open warres, till he had them at his pleasure. But calling his lords and peeres thus assembled on a day before him, and going earnestlie about to mooue them to the warres, he could stir them no more to his purpose, than if he had beene in hand to haue counselled them vnto that which in no wise had apperteined vnto their duties: which their lacke of stomach, Kenneth perceiuing, he began to deuise a pretie shift, whereby to induce them to his accord.

First therefore, breaking vp the assemblie for the same day, he commanded that they should A pretie shift deuised by the king to persuade the nobilitie. come togither againe on the next morow, to consult further for the state of the realme, as they should sée cause. The same euening also he had them all to supper, which being prolonged till farre in the night, it was late before they went to bed, so that being ouerwatched, when they were once gotten to rest, they were soone brought into a sound sléepe. Now had the king appointed for euerie one of their chambers one man apparelled in garments pretilie deuised and made of fish skins vnskaled, bearing in one of their hands a staffe of such rotten wood as shineth in the night, and in their other hand a great oxe horne, to the end that vttering their woords through the same, the sound of their voices should séeme farre differing from the vsuall spéech of man.

Thus appointed in the dead of the night, they enter the chambers to ech of them assigned, where (as is said) the lords laie fast asléepe, who being at the first as it were halfe awakened, were woonderfullie amazed at the strangenesse of the sight (doubting whether it were but a dreame, or some true and vnfeined vision.) Héerewith also were heard certeine seuerall voices, Of such sights there were manie in those daies: and oftentimes no doubt estéemed to be heauenlie visions indéed. far greater than those of men, declaring that they were messengers sent from almightie God vnto the Scotish nobilitie, to command them to obeie their king, for his request was iust: the Pictish kingdome due vnto him by rightfull heritage, & ought to be recouered from that people, which for their great offenses and sins towards almightie God, should shortlie come to vtter destruction: such was the determinate pleasure of his diuine maiestie, against the which might neither counsell nor puissance of man be able to resist.

When the counterfeited messengers had thus made an end of their woords, they slilie hid their staues vnder their innermost garments, and therewith quicklie conueied their vppermost vestures made of fish skales (as I haue said) into their bosoms, in such slight and nimble wise, that it seemed these visions had suddenlie vanished awaie. Those lords that had séene these sights, laie still for that night, greatlie musing on the matter. In the morning being got vp, and assembled in the councell chamber, they declared to ech other what they had seene and heard in the night passed. And for that all their visions which they had seene by ech others report, were in euerie behalfe like, and nothing differing one from an other, they beléeued verelie it was some celestiall oracle & message sent from God. Therefore The lords declare their vision vnto the king. presentlie they go vnto the king, declaring vnto him how they had béene admonished from aboue, to continue the wars with all their forces against the Picts.

The king told them he had séene the like vision, but they ought to kéepe it close, least The answer of king Kenneth. by glorieng too much in the fauour shewed by almightie God toward them, they might happilie displease his diuine maiestie, which otherwise they might perceiue was readie in their aid. Then finallie might the vision be published, when thorough his fauourable assistance, the warres were brought to a luckie end. This aduise of the king was well liked of them all, and commandement giuen, that all maner of prouision should be prepared with all spéed for an armie to be set foorth into Pictland. The lords going busilie about to prouide themselues of all things necessarie, mustered their men in all parts, so that there was leuied a greater host than had béene seene in those parties of long time before. When the whole power was come togither, Kenneth marched foorth with the same, entring by great violence Kenneth entred into Sterlingshire. Drusken hastilie inuaded his enimies. into the Pictish borders about Sterling.

Drusken the king of Picts aduertised héereof, and hauing his armie in a readinesse both of Picts and such Englishmen as he had reteined, to serue him for his wages, fetcheth a compasse about, and passing by the Scotish armie in the night, incampeth betwixt them and home, insomuch that the day did no sooner appéere, but the one part desirous to be in hand with the other, without token of trumpet, or commandement of capteine, they rushed togither most fiercelie. The hastie spéed of the Picts to ioine, put them to no small disaduantage; but the departure of the Englishmen, withdrawing themselues aside to the next The Englishmen fled. mounteine, most of all discouraged them: for the Scots therwith giuing a shout, declared themselues to be highlie recomforted with that sight. Drusken in all haste sent vnto those Drusken sendeth to the Englishmen. Englishmen a messenger, willing them with large promises of reward to returne to his aid: but the Englishmen answered, that their vse was not to fight without order and commandement of their generall, and that the Picts like vnskilfull men had cast awaie themselues to be slaine by the enimies hand, where it apperteined vnto warlike knowledge to auoid the battell, when no hope of victorie appeered.

The middle ward of the Picts séeing themselues left naked on the one side, and assailed on the backs; whereas the Englishmen should haue kept their ground and defended them, they began to shrinke: which the Scots perceiuing, stroke on the more fiercelie, till at length the Picts not able to withstand their force, fell to running awaie. They made their The Picts are vanquished. course towards the water of Forth, which was not farre from the place of the battell, where being ouertaken, they were beaten downe & slaine in great numbers: for Kenneth gaue commandement that they should spare none of the Picts nation, neither gentieman nor other, that fell into their hands. The Englishmen whilest the Scots and Picts were thus occupied The Englishmen escape. in the fight and chase, withdrew homeward with all spéed; and by reason of the mounteins which they had to passe, that tooke awaie the sight of them from the Scots, they escaped into their countrie without anie pursute. Drusken himselfe so soone as he perceiued how Drusken escaped by flight. the field went against him, got him to his horsse, which he had appointed to be readie for him at hand vpon all occasions, and so escaped out of danger with a few other in his companie.

The Scots returning from the chase, remained in the place of the battell all night, kéeping strong watch about their campe, for doubt least the Englishmen had béene lodged in some secret place néere by to haue set vpon them at vnwares, if they might haue séene anie aduantage; but in the morning when it was knowne how they were quite gone their waies, and returned into their countrie (as before ye haue heard) then was the spoile of the field and Pictish campe gathered and bestowed amongst the souldiers, after the ancient custome of that nation. And then were they all licenced to depart eueie man to his home, with thanks for their seruice and paines in this iournie so manfullie imploied. Within few daies after, the Pictish king Drusken sent his ambassadors vnto king Kenneth to sue for peace. The Picts sue for peace. Kenneth was contented to heare him, and promised to grant a peace, so they would surrender into his hands the gouernement of their kingdome due vnto him by right of inheritance. But this condition being vtterlie refused of the Picts, was the cause that the warre was eftsoones renewed with more crueltie than before.

The yéere next insuing this battell, Kenneth got Mernes, Angus, and Fife into his hands, Kenneth getteth Mernes, Augus, and Fife. furnishing all the castels and holds with men, munition, and vittels. But whilest he went about to subdue the countries about Sterling, woord was brought him that such as he left thus in garison in those countries, were betraied by the inhabitants, and slaine euerie mothers sonne. Kenneth woonderfullie kindled in wrath for the newes, left off his treatie, which then he had in hand with the people of Menteth and Sterlingshire for their submission, and returned in great hast towards Fife, where being arriued, he put all to the fire Fife is put to the fire and swoord. Mernes and Augus is cruellie punished. and swoord, not leauing one aliue of the Pictish nation within all those quarters. The like crueltie was shewed through the whole countries of Mernes and Angus, for an example to other to beware how they falsified their faiths once giuen by waie of allegiance.

In the meane time that Kenneth with his Scots raged in such wise through those Drusken commeth to rescue his people. countries, Drusken assembling all the power of his countries, came foorth into the field to méet the Scots, meaning either to put them backe out of the confines of his dominion, either else to die with honor in the attempt thereof. Thus passing through the countrie, at length he came vnto Scone, where afterwards stood a famous abbie of chanons of saint Augustines order, and here he found Kenneth with his armie alreadie incamped. The next day, when both parties were redie to haue giuen battell, Drusken wishing rather to aske peace whilest his power was yet in safetie, than after he were once vanquished (if such were his misaduenture) to intreat for the same in vaine, sent an herald at armes vnto Kenneth, willing that he might talke with him before he ioined, for that he had to say certeine things, which being followed, might turne to the great benefit and commoditie of both the Scotish and Pictish nations.

Kenneth for that he would not seeme to refuse anie indifferent offers, was contented to come to a communication, and so therevpon both the kings in presence of both their armies arranged in the field readie to fight, came togither in a place appointed, either of them being accompanied with a like number of their nobles, as by the heralds it was accorded. Here Drusken with manie reasons going about to persuade peace, shewed how necessarie The persuasion of peace by Drusken. the same was betwixt the two nations: and againe, how doubtfull fortune was to them that trusted too much in hir vnstedast fauour: at length he grew to this end, that if Kenneth could be contented to grant a peace, the Picts should release all such right, title and interest Mernes, Angus, and Fife is required of the Picts to release. as they had in the countries of Mernes, Angus, and Fife, vnto him and his successors the Scotish kings for euer, so that he should make no further claime vnto anie other of those countries which the Picts as yet possessed.

Herevnto Kenneth answered, that he well vnderstood how vnstable fortunes lawes were, Kenneth his answere. but sithens the Picts fought in an vniust quarell, as to defraud the posteritie of their lawfull king Hungus, who latelie reigned amongest them, of the rightfull inheritance of their kingdome, they themselues had just cause to doubt fortunes chance, where the Scots hauing put vpon lawfull armour, and séeking to atteine that by warre which by other means they could not atteine at the hands of the vniust possessors, they had lesse cause to mistrust hir fauour, & therefore if the Picts were desirous of peace, they ought to cause a surrender to be made of their kingdome into his hands, accordinglie as they well knew it was reason they should. And what commoditie might thereof insue to both nations, being by such means once ioined and vnited into one intire kingdome, he doubted not but they vnderstood it sufficientlie inough. And as for other conditions of peace than this, he told them plainelie there would be none accepted. Thus did the kings depart in sunder, without anie agréement concluded: and being returned to their armies, they make readie to trie the matter by dint of sword.

Kenneth exhorted his people that day to shew themselues men, sith the same should iudge whether the Scots should rule and gouerne the Picts, or the Picts the Scots. With these and manie other effectuall words when he had incouraged his folks to the battell, he diuided The order of the battell. them into thrée wards, as two wings and a maine battell. In euerie of them he set first archers and arcubalisters; and next vnto them pikes and speares, then bilmen and other with such short weapons: last of all, an other multitude with all kind of weapons, as was thought most expedient. The fore ward was committed to the leading of one Bar, a man right skilfull in all warlike knowledge, the second one Dongall gouerned, and the third was led by Donald the kings brother. The king himselfe with a troope of horssemen followed them to succour in all places where he saw néed.

Then commanded he his trumpets to sound to the battell, which the Scots began with such a chéerefull shout, that the Picts euen vpon the first onset were so amazed, that if Drusken had not with comfortable words relieued their fainting stomachs, the most part of King Drusken imboldeneth his people the Picts. them had fled without anie stroke stricken. But being incouraged through the presence of their king, shewing himselfe with chéerefull countenance amongst them, and therewith exhorting them to stand by him at that present, there was fought a right sore and cruell battell betwéene them. The women that were amongest the Picts, of whom there was no small The women were a cumbrance to the Picts. number, speciallie in the right wing, made such a wofull noise, when they beheld the men one kill an other, that they were a more cumbrance to the Picts, than aid, when it came to the point of seruice: by reason whereof that wing was shortlie beaten downe, and put to flight. Which when Kenneth beheld, he set in with his horssemen on the backs of the Kenneth with the horssemen disordered the Picts araie. The right wing of the Picts is put to flight. Picts, now left bare by the running thus away of those in the foresaid wing: and so entring in amongest them, disordred their araie in such wise, that by no means they were able to aid themselues, or come into anie order againe: so that in the end they were faine to throw downe their weapons, and take them to their féete, thereby to escape the danger. Such heaps of slaine men, armour, & weapons laie here & there strewed in the place of the battell, that the Scots were forced in following the chase to breake their araie, so to passe the more speedilie: by means whereof, falling amongest whole bands of the Picts, manie of them were slaine.

This mischiefe Kenneth perceiuing, commandeth to sound the retreat, and so gathering Kenneth causeth the retreat to be sounded. his people about their standards, he appointed certeine companies in warlike order to pursue in chase of the enimies, whilest he himselfe with the residue abode still in the place (where the field was fought) all that day and the next night following. The Scotish capteins that were sent to follow the chase, earnestlie executing their kings commandement, made great slaughter of Picts in all places where they might ouertake them. Drusken the Pictish king The king of the Picts slaine. himselfe being pursued to the riuer of Taie, for that he could not passe the same, was there slaine with the whole retinue which he had about him. It is said, that the Scotishmen incountred with the Picts that day at seuen sundrie times, and in seuen sundrie places, and still the victorie abode with the Scots. The day after the battell such as had followed the chase returned to the campe; where they presented vnto Kenneth their king, the armour and other spoile of Drusken the Pictish K. which they brought with them, besides great abundance of other pillage and riches, which they had gotten of the enimies that were slaine. Druskens armour and other things belonging to his owne bodie, was offered vp to saint Colme, in the church dedicated to his name within the Ile of Colmekill, there to remaine as a monument of this victorie to such as should come after.

After this the whole preie and spoile was gathered and diuided amongest the souldiers. Kenneth was counselled to haue discharged his armie, and to haue departed home; but he purposing now to make an end of the whole warres, sith he was in such a forwardnesse, called togither the multitude, and in this wise began to vtter vnto them his mind and purpose. "¶ It is the dutie of a good capteine, when he hath the victorie in his hands, & as An oration of king Kenneth. yet the warres not ended, if he mind the preseruation of himselfe and his countrie, and to vse the victorie as he ought, not to cease from pursuing the enimies once vanquished, till he haue either made them his friends, or else vtterlie destroied & rid them out of the way; for if anie man shall thinke it best to suffer the enimie to remaine in quiet, after he be once weakened and brought to a low ebbe, till time peraduenture he shall haue recouered his forces againe, he shall procure to himselfe (as I gesse) more danger than happilie he is well ware of. And that we may speake somewhat of this danger now present, the state of the Pictish kingdome (as ye know) is sore inféebled, their power being diminished by force of warre, is brought to that point, that it resteth in our hands vtterlie to destroie and exterminat the whole nation. Which act ought to be abhorred, if it were possible for vs by anie meanes to draw them (our honor saued) vnto our friendship. But the Picts are of such a stubborne nature, and so desirous of reuenge, that so long as there remaineth anie one of them aliue, they will beare in their hearts a desire to reuenge all such losses as they haue in anie wise susteined by this warre. Wherevpon I doo verelie belieue, that there is none of the Pictish nation from hencefoorth, will beare anie faithfull friendship towards the Scots. Therefore sith we can not make the Picts, thus latelie scourged by vs, our friends, I thinke it best (except we will neglect our owne safeties) vtterlie to destroie the whole nation, by putting to the sword not onelie both men and women, but also all their youth and yoong children: least they being descended of that linage, hereafter in time to come, arme themselues to the reuenge of their parents deaths, and that not without perill of the vtter losse of our countrie and kingdome."

This sentence of the king, though it séemed too cruell to many, yet whether for that they The commos allow the kings saieng. A cruell act committed by the Scots vpon the Picts. saw the same to stand with the kings pleasure, or that they thought it most expedient for the suertie of the Scotish common-wealth, it was allowed and ratified by them all. Such crueltie herevpon was foorthwith shewed throughout all the Pictish regions, that there was not one liuing creature of humane shape left aliue, sauing such as saued themselues within the walles of Camelon, or in certeine other holds and fortresses, and also about two thousand of those that fled into England: for all the residue were most vnmercifullie murthered and slaine, without respect either of age, sex, profession, or estate. Thus Kenneth hauing dispatched the Pictland parted vnto diuers men. inhabitants, seized the countrie into his owne hands, making partition of the same as he saw cause, and diuiding it amongst his nobles, according to the merits of euerie of them dulie weied and considered, he added new names vnto euerie quarter and region (either after the name of the gouernor, or else of some promontorie, riuer, or other notable water or place, according as was the ancient custome of the nation) that the memorie of the Pictish names might end togither with the inhabitants.

The countrie ancientlie called Horestia, was giuen vnto two brethren, Angusian, and New names are giuen vnto euerie region. Angus. Merne. Fife. Mernan, by reason whereof the one part of the same countrie was called Angus, and the other the Mernes. The linage of those two noble men remaine vnto this day. The region which till then was named Otholinia, was turned afterwards to the name of Fife, after the name of one Fife Duffe : whose valiancie was throughlie tried in these last warres with the Picts. There remaine vnto this day tokens and old ruines of a castell situate betwixt the riuer of Leuin and saint Kenneths church, which (as yet appeareth) was fensed about with seuen rampires, and as manie ditches, wherein the posteritie of this woorthie man after his deceasse had their habitation by the space of of manie hundred yéeres. Louthian reteined still the former name, Louthian. so honorable was the remembrance of that famous prince king Loth amongst all men. The A reward giuen vnto Bar which was the fortresse of Dunbar. strongest castell of the whole countrie, Kenneth bestowed vpon that valiant capteine named Bar, whose counsell and forward seruice stood the Scots in no small steed in those warres, in which the Picts were thus subdued. That fortresse euer sithence (after his name) hath béene called Dunbar, that is to say, the castell of Bar.

There descended of him a noble house or familie, bearing the name of this castell, The familie of Dunbar. continuing in great fame and honor, euen vnto our time, of the which the earles of March had their beginning, and continued long in that dignitie from one to another, with sundry branches of right famous memorie. The names of diuerse dales were also changed, but yet The changing of the names of the dales. Annandale. Twedale. Cludesdale. some kept their old names still. Ordolucia shortlie after began to take the name of Annandale, of the riuer of Annan that runneth through the same. And so likewise Twéedale tooke name of the water of Twéed. And Cludesdale of the riuer of Clude. In like maner manie other countries, townes, and castels had their names changed at the same time, after they came into the possession of the Scotishmen, vpon sundrie considerations, for a witnesse of their victorious acts atchiued against the Picts. Furthermore, into the citie of Camelon were The gentlewomen are preserued in Camelon. withdrawne the most part of all the noble mens wiues of the Picts, with their children, vpon trust to be in safetie in the same, as well by reason of strength of the place, as also of the strong garison which was appointed to defend it.

Kenneth therefore hauing taken his pleasure abroad in the countrie, came thither with a Kenneth sendeth vnto Camelon, cōmanding them for to yéeld. mightie armie to besiege the citie. And first sending vnto them within, to know if they would yéeld, he was answered, how sith it plainelie appeared, that the Scots could be satisfied with nothing but with the slaughter of all such as fell into their hands, aswell of women and children, with impotent aged, as of others, they were minded neuer to surrender their hold with life. Wherevpon the siege continued by the space of manie daies. Whilest the Scots in the meane time got togither a great number of fagots, and other such brush and stuffe to fill the ditches withall, which were verie déepe and broad, at length when they within began to want They of Camelon require truce for thrée daies. vittels, they required a truce for thrée daies, in the which meane time they might take aduise for the surrender of the citie. Kenneth mistrutsing no deceit, granted their request, and therevpon commanded his people to ceasse from all maner of annoiance of the enimies, for that terme.

But in the meane time the Picts prepared themselues of all things necessarie to make an issue The Picts issue vpon the Scots with great fortune. vpon the Scots. There was also an old gate forlet and stopped vp with earth and stones vpon the one side of the citie, so that of a long time before there had béene no way foorth by the same. Wherefore in the darke of the night the Picts ridding away the earth and ramell wherewith it was closed vp, about the third watch they passe foorth at that gate in good order of battell, setting first vpon such Scots as kept the standing watch, who were in doubt of nothing lesse than of anie issue to be made on that side, by means whereof they were easilie oppressed, and likewise the other that kept the inner watch, insomuch that the slaughter went on almost euen to the kings tent with great noise and clamor, as is commonlie seene in such sudden tumults, especiallie chancing in the night season.

When the day began once to appeare, the Picts withdrawing towards the citie by the same waie they came, were pursued by the Scots, and no small number of them slaine at the entring. The citie also had beene taken at the same time, but that the Picts out of the turrets and loupes of the walles, discharged a woonderfull number of quarels, darts, arrowes, stones, and other things vpon the Scots, as they approched néere to the gate, where their fellowes (that made the issue) hasted to enter againe into the towne. There were slaine of the Scots at this bickering aboue six hundred, wherewith Kenneth was so kindled with wrath, that An extreame vow made by king Kenneth. detesting the falshood of the Picts, he vowed by open oth that hée would not depart from the siege, till he had put the citie and them within to fire and sword, without spa ng of anie, either one or other.

Sundrie times he attempted to haue woone the citie by force of assault, but the Picts still The constancie of the Picts when they were besieged. defended their walles so stoutlie, that he could not atchiue his purpose. Wherevpon the siege continued for the space of foure moneths togither. So that such scarsitie of all kinds of vittels still arose amongst them, that the wretched citizens absteined from nothing that might in anie wise be eaten, though it were neuer so much to be abhorred. And yet although they were brought into such miserable state, that there was no hope longer to defend themselues, if anie man notwithstanding all such extremitie, were heard make mention of surrendering, he was foorthwith slaine by his fellowes, as an enimie to his nation and a friend vnto the Scots. It was thought that Kenneths oth made them so obstinate in their wilfull contumacie, bicause they saw nothing but death, which way soeuer they inclined.

At length when the citie was thus reduced into all extreme miserie, and the ditches filled A pretie craft vsed by Kenneth. with faggots and other such stuffe, Kenneth one night appointed six hundred of his choisest souldiers to lie in ambush within a wood, ioining néere to one side of the citie, so that in the morning when he should giue the assault on the contrarie side, they might suddenlie come foorth and scale the walles on that other. These souldiers, according to that which they had in commandement, shortly after the breake of day, hearing that Kenneth had begun the assault on his part, quicklie came foorth of the wood, and hauing their ladders readie, came to the walles, reared them vp, and swiftlie getting into the citie, opened one of the gates where one part The Scots enter the citie. of the armie entered ; the citizens standing in no doubt at all of anie attempt on that side : so as being gotten togither to defend the walles on that part where Kenneth gaue the approch, and now hearing how the enimies were got into the citie, and comming on their backs, they were woonderfullie amazed, but yet so long as they were able to make anie resistance, they did what lay in their vttermost power to beat backe the Scots, and to driue them out of the citie againe.

The slaughter therfore was great which the Scots made of the Picts in euerie passage & The Picts are miserablie slaine, without regard of person. corner of the stréets, insomuch that the Scotish lords and other capteins, in reuenge of the late receiued losse of their men, through the false practised policie of the Picts, commanded in a great furie to set fire on the houses, and to kill and slea all such of the Pictish nation as came in their way. Thus the murther proceeded vpon all estates, aswell religious as other, and likewise vpon women and children, without anie difference. A number of ladies and Ladies and gentlewomen desire the king to be pardoned of their liues. gentlewomen, getting them into the presence of king Kenneth, besought him in most lamentable wise, to haue pitie vpon their wofull estate, and to saue their liues from the hands of his most cruell souldiers. But such was the rage kindled in the Scotishmens hearts, that there was no more fauor shewed toward them than toward the other, and so immediatlie were they also slaine without all compassion. So farre foorth was the murther executed on all hands, that there was not one left aliue of the Pictish nation, neither man, woman, nor child to bewaile that All the Pictish nation destroied. The citie of Camelon is throwne downe. miserable destruction of their countrie and kinsfolkes. Then were the walles throwne downe & made euen with the plaine ground. The houses and buildings aswell priuate as publike, with churches and chappels, were set on fire, and that which might not be consumed with the rage of fire was ruinated and destroied with hand, so that there remained of all that famous citie, nothing but the ashes, with heapes of the broken and burned stones, and likewise of the pauement and foundation of some part of the walles.

At the same time the castell of Maidens, now called commonlie Edenbourgh castell, was The castell of Maidens is left of the Picts. still kept with a mightie garrison of Picts, but they hearing of the miserable destruction of Camelon, and doubting to fall into the like mischance, left the castell void, and fled to Northumberland. Thus ended the kingdome of the Picts in Albion, in the yéere after they first began to reigne therein 1173, and in the yéere after the birth of our Sauior 839, from the first 839. 1421. H. B. 6038. H. B. comming of Ferguse 1166, and after the creation of the world 4806, if the Scotish chronicles be true. ¶ But whereas the truth concerning the time of the first comming into this Ile, aswell of the Scots as Picts resteth doubtfull, and that aswell by authoritie of approoued writers, as by reasonable coniectures, we haue in the historie of England more largelie written thereof; we referre those that be desirous to see further of that matter, vnto the same, following here in this historie of Scotland the report most an end, as we find it in Hector Boetius, and other the Scotish writers, not taking vpon vs so frankelie to set downe our owne opinion in this Scotish, as in the English historie, through want of such helpes in the one, as we haue got in the other.

There were séene the same yeere two comets or blasing starres of dreadfull aspect to the Prodigious tokens séene in the aire. beholders, the one went before the sunne rising in haruest season, and the other followed the going downe thereof in the spring of the yéere. There was oftentimes also séene in the aire a vision of firie armies, running togither with burning staues, and the one being vanquished, they suddenlie both of them vanished away. Also at Camelon, as the bishop was at seruice holding his crosier staffe in his hand, it was kindled so with fire, that by no meane it could be quenched, till it was burnt euen to ashes. About noone daie, the aire being faire and cleare, as well in the countries of the Scots as of the Picts, there was heard such a noise and clattering of weapons and armor, with braieng of horses, as though two armies should haue béene togither in fight, whereby manie of either nation which heard it, were put in great feare. These The intepretation of these tokens. vncouth woonders were interpreted by diuinors diuerslie : some of them affirming the same to betoken ioy and happie prosperitie, and other alledging, how they signified rather mishap and vtter calamitie.

But to returne to our purpose. King Kenneth hauing thus destroied the Pictish kingdome,togither almost with the whole nation, caused the marblestone (which Simon Breke sometime brought out of Spaine into Ireland, and the first Ferguse out of Ireland into Albion, as The marble stone is remoued from Argile into Gourie, in the place called Scone. before is recited) to be brought now foorth of Argile (where till that time it had béene diligentlie kept) into Gourie, which region before apperteined to the Picts, there to remaine from thencefoorth as a sacred token for th' establishment of the Scotish kingdome in that countrie: he placed it at Scone vpon a raised plot of ground there, bicause that the last battell which he had with the Picts was fought neare vnto the same place, the victorie (as before is specified) chancing to the Scots. Upon this stone (as before is rehearsed) the Scotish kings were vsed to sit, when they receiued the inuesture of the kingdome. ¶ Some writers haue recorded that by commandement of Kenneth, at the same time when this stone was thus by him remooued, those Latine verses were grauen vpon it, whereof mention is made before, where we spake of the aforesaid Ferguse the first his comming ouer foorth of Ireland into Al. bion there to reigne.

Now in the meane time, when those few of the Picts, which by flight had escaped the The residue of the Picts were dispersed. Scotishmens hands, and were gotten into England, could by no meanes persuade the Englishmen, being troubled with intestine warre, to aid them in recouerie of their countrie, some of them passed the seas ouer into Norway, and some into Denmarke, and diuerse other of them remained still in England, where they got their liuing either by some manuall occupation, either else by seruice in the warres. The Scots from thencefoorth liued in quiet, during the life time of K. The Scots liue in quiet. Kenneth, who deserued eternall fame, by the inlarging of the bounds of his kingdome, so mightilie and in such wise, that where he found the fronters, he made the same well néere the middest of his kingdome. Other things he did also touching the politike gouernement of his subjects in time of peace, no lesse woorthie of praise than his noble and famous conquests: but speciallie he ordeined certeine lawes for the wealth of his people, whereby his Kenneth maketh lawes & or dinances. iudges and other officers should proceed in the administration of iustice, of the which I haue thought requisite to rehearse part as yet being vsed, that aswell the author, as the time of their first establishment, maie the better appeare, vnto such as shall peruse this historie.


"LET euerie shire haue certein men skilled in the lawes appointed to be resident in the same, Lawiers necessarie. according as in the beginning it was instituted. Let their sonnes also in their youth be brought vp in knowledge of the same lawes.

"Let them onelie keepe in their custodies the tables of the lawes, with the register bookes The tables of the law to be kept. Bribers to be hanged. of the kings & peeres of the realme.

"If any of them be conuicted of extort bribing, or other the like vniust dealing, let him die vpon the gallowes, and his bodie remaine vnburied.

"Such as are cōdemned for theft, let them be hanged, and those that are proued giltie of Punishment for theft and murther. murther, let them lose their heads.

"A woman which is condemned to die, either let hir bee drowned in some riuer, either A woman cōdemned to be drowned, or burned quick. Blasphemers haue their toongs cut out. The punishment for a lier. else let hir be buried quicke.

"He that blasphemeth the name of God, of the saints, of his prince, or of the capteine of his tribe, let him haue his toong cut out.

"He that is conuicted of a lie to his neighbours hinderance, let him haue his swoord taken from him, and be banished out of all mens companie.

"Such as be accused of any crimes that deserue death, let them passe by the sentence of 7 A man accused to be condemned by an od quest of men. Robbers to be put to the sword. Vagabonds to be whipped and burnt in the checke. The wife shal not suffer for the husbands offense. honest men, either else of 9, 11, 13, 15, or more, so that the number be od.

"Robbers by the high waies, destroiers of come growing in the fields, as is vsed by enimies in time of warre, let them die by the swoord.

"Fugitiues, vagabonds, and such other idle persons, let them be whipt and burnt in the cheeke.

"Let not the wife suffer for the husbands offense, but the husband shal answer for the wiues misdeeds, if he be priuie therevnto. "Any mans lemman or concubine shall suffer the same paines that he dooth which The concubine and hir mare to haúe a like punishment. Rauishers of maids shall die. Adulterers shall die. offendeth with hir.

"He that rauisheth a maid shall die for it, vnlesse she require for safegard of his life, to haue him to hir husband.

"If any man be taken with an other mans wife in adulterie, she consenting vnto him therein, they shall both suffer death for it. But if she consent not, but be forced against hir will, then he shall die onelie for the same, and she shall be released.

"If the child hurt the father either with toong, hand, or foot, let him first be depriued of A child hurting his father shall die. Who are not to inherit. that member, and then hanged, his bodie to remaine without buriall.

"A murtherer, a dumbe person, or he that is vnthankfull to hís parents, shall not inherit his fathers patrimonie.

"Iuglers, wizzards, necromancers, and such as call vp spirits, and vse to seeke vpon them Iuglers and wizzards, &c. for helpe, let them be burnt to death.

"Let no man sow in the earth any graine before it be purged of all the weeds.

Sowing of graine. Euill husbandrie. "He that through negligent slouth, suffereth his arable ground to bee choked vp and ouergrowne with weeds; for the first fault let him forfait an oxe, for the second ten oxen, and for the third let him forgo the same ground.

"Thy companion in the warres, or thy friend being slaine, see him buried, but let the Buriall of friends. enimie lie vnburied.

"Anie straie cattell that commeth into thy grounds, either restore them to the owner, either Waifes and straies. els deliuer them to the searcher out of theeues, commonlie called Tonoderach, or to the parson or vicar of the towne : for if thou reteine them in thy hands by the space of three daies, thou shalt be accounted giltie of theft.

"He that findeth anie thing that belongeth to an other man, let him cause it to be cried in Things found the market, or els he shall be iudged for a fellon.

"He that striketh him, with whom he goeth to the law, about anie matter in controuersie, Aduersaries in sute of law. shall be iudged giltie of the action, and the other set free.

"If oxen or kine chance by running togither to kill one another, the truth being not known Oxen or kine hurting ech other. which it was that did the hurt, that which is found without homes shall be iudged the occasion of the skath; and he that is owner of the same, shall haue the dead beast, and satisfie him for the losse to whome it belonged.

"If a sow eate hir pigs, let hir be stoned to death, and buried, so that no man eate of hir flesh.

A sow. "A swine that is found eating of corne that groweth in the field, or wrooting vpon the Swine. tilled grounds, let it be lawfull for anie man to kill the same without danger.

"Other kinds of beasts, wherein other men haue anie propertie, if they breake into thy Beasts damage faisant. pastures, or eate vp thy corne, impound them, till time the owner haue satisfied thee for the quantitie of the damage." ¶ These were ciuill ordinances belonging to the good Articles touching religion. gouernement of the people, other there were, which apperteine to religion: as these.

"Thou shalt deuoutlie reuerence the altars, temples, images, oratories, chapels, priestes, and all men of religion.

"Thou shalt obserue with due reuerence festiuall and solemne holie daies, fasting daies, Kéeping of holie daies. vigils, and all maner of ceremonies instituted by the godlie ordinance of man, in the honor of our S Christ & his saints.

"To hurt a priest, let it be accounted an offense woorthie of death.

Priests. "That ground wherin anie that is slaine lieth buried, leaue it vntilled for seuen yeeres Ground to be left vntilled. space.

"Repute euerie graue holie, and adorne it with the signe of the crosse, so as thou shalt be Graues. well aduised that in no wise with thy feet thou tread vpon it.

"Burie the dead according to the quantitie of his substance.

Buriall. "The bodie of a noble man & of him that hath well deserued of the common-wealth, shall Buriall of noble men. be buried in solemne and pompous wise, but yet in mourning sort & dolorous manner. "Let there be two knights or esquires to attend his bodie to the graue. The one being mounted vpon a white horsse shall beare the coate-armor of the dead, and the other in mourning apparell with his face couered shall ride vpon a blacke horsse; who after the corps is brought to church, turning his horsse from the altar, shall crie out how his maister is dead : and therewith the people making an outcry against him, he shall streictwaies depart and get him with all spéed to the place frō whence he came; the other going streight to the altar, shall there offer vp vnto the priest his coate-armor with his horsse, as a token to signifie thereby that his maister dooth inioy euerlasting life, in the land of permanent light and ioies eternall."

¶ But this custome of buriall, as that which was supposed not apperteining to the order of the christian religion, the age that followed did vtterlie abolish, appointing to the priests in steed of the horsse and armor, fiue pounds sterling in monie for the offering. With these and diuers other ordinances, which time and other statuts by other kings deuised haue abrogated, Kenneth gouerned his people in great felicitie during his life time.

The bishops sée, which before had béene at Abirnethie, he translated vnto the church of S. Reule his church, now called saint Andrewes. that holie man S.Reule. Euer since which time the towne hath béen called S. Andrewes, and those which gouerned the same church a long time after, were called the great bishops of Scotland: for the realme was not diuided into dioceses till the daies of Malcolme the S, who by diuine inspiration (as is said) ordeined the sée of Murthlake, now called Abirden: but such as were reputed of vertuous behauiour and knowledge méet for the office, vsed the authoritie & roome of bishops, in what place soeuer they were resident. Yet such was the continuance of those which gouerned the church of S. Andrewes, that there haue béene aboue the number of fortie bishops resident there, since the first institution of that sée : manie of them for the opinion conceiued of their holinesse, being numbred according to the manner in times past in the register of saints. But now to returne vnto Kenneth, who hauing (as is said) inlarged The bounds of the Scotish kingdome. the bounds of his kingdome, so as the same stretched foorth vnto the confines of Northumberland on the one side, and to the Iles of Orknie on the other, the sea compassing the residue, at the length after he had reigned about twentie yéeres in great renowme and glorie, he King Kenneth departed out of this life. 855. H. B. departed out of this life, through too much abundance of rheumatike matter, at Fortiuiot, in the yéere of our Lord 856. His bodie was conueied into the Ile of Colmekill, and there honorablie buried amongst his ancestors.

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