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THE first thing he did after he was established in the estate, he sailed into the westerne Iies, to appease a rebellion moued by the gouernour there. Which doone, and the authors punished, he returned into Albion, and came into Carictonium, which was sometimes a famous citie, and metropolitane of Scotland, situat within the countrie cleped Carrike, as it appeareth by the ruines there remaining euen vnto this day. In this citie was Caratake borne,
Caratake was borne in Carrike. & therefore fauouring it the more, he lay there most commoniie, and did what he could to aduance the wealth and state thereof. Whilest these things were a dooing in Scotland, Kimbaline king of the Britains died, who for that he had béene brought vp in Rome, obserued Kimbaline king of the Britains dieth. Guiderius the British king rebelleth against the Romans. his promised obedience towards the empire; but Guiderius succéeding, disdained to sée the libertie of his countrie oppressed by the Romans, and therefore procuring the Britains to assist him, assembled a power, and inuaded the Romans with such violence, that none escaped with life, but such as saued themselues within castels & fortresses.

The emperour Claudius that then gouerned the Romane empire, aduertised hereof, sent two capteins, Aulus Planctius, and Cneus Sentius to appease that rebellion. They landing Planctius otherwise Plautius. Guiderius sendeth to Caratake for aid. France in those daies Gallia. in Britaine with their armie, vanquished Guiderius in battell, so that he was constreined to send to Caratake king of Scots for aid against the common enimies of both nations. Caratake hauing considered the effect of this message, gaue counsell to the Britains to send into France then called Gallia, to practise with the people there to moue some rebellion against the Romans, in hope of helpe, which they were assured to haue by the Britains. This counsell was followed, for immediatlie vpon the ambassadours returne, there were sent ouer into France certeine intelligenciaries to moue some conspiracie which had taken effect (by reason of the generall hate of seruitude, wherein the Romans kept the people subiect to them in those daies) if Guiderius had not beene constreined to giue battell, and chanced to be slaine Guiderius slaine. in the same, yer the Galls could be resolued vpon anie determinat purpose.

This ouerthrow being reported in France, caused the Galls to stale their intended rebellion. Shortlie after Claudius himselfe came ouer into Britaine, and receiuing the Britains vnder his The emperour Claudius commeth into Britaine. Claudius saileth into the Orkenies. obeisance, ordered things among them at his pleasure. And, after preparing his nauie and armie with all purueiance conuenient, he set forward towards the lies of Orkneie, purposing to conquere the same, for that they had aided the Britains in these last warres against the Romans. But approching neere to those lies, he was in danger to haue beene cast awaie by a tempest rising by chance, euen as he was entred the streict betwixt the Orkenies and Dungisbie head in Cathnesse called Pictland frith; yet at length getting to land, he found in that lie where he first arriued, no bodie at home, all the people through feare vpon the first sight of the great multitude of ships being fled to hide themselues in caues and dens amongest the rocks & mounteins.

Claudius therefore leauing this Ile, passed into Pomonia the chiefest of all the Orkenies, New Kirkewale. where discomfiting such as appeared abroad to make resistance, he besieged the king of those Iles named Ganus, within a castell where he was withdrawen, and finallie causing him to Claudius taketh the king of the Orkenies. yeeld himselfe prisoner led him with other nobles of Britaine (whome he had for pledges) vnto Rome, the more to set forth the glorie of his triumph at his returne vnto the citie,

¶ But whatsoeuer Hector Boetius and others write of this passage of Claudius into the The doubt of Claudius going into the Orkenies. Dion Cassius. Orkenies, it is not like that he came there at all, for if he staied not past 16 daies in Britaine, as by Dion Cassius it appeareth that he did not in déed; how should we imagine that he could both pacifie the south parts of Britaine, and after go into Orkenie and conquere the same within so small a time, being readie to returne towards Rome at the end of those 16 daies, as the said Dion affirmeth ? But this discourse haue I made according to their owne histories, least I should séeme to defraud them of whatsoeuer glorie is to be gotten by errours, as the maner is of them as well as of other nations, which to aduance their antiquities and glorie of their ancestors, take the aduantage oftentimes of writers scant woorthie of credit.

But now againe to our purpose. Aruiragus being established in the kingdome of Britaine, Aruiragus forsaketh his lawfull wife. vpon some priuat displeasure forsooke his wife named Voada, the sister of Caratake king of the Scotishmen, and maried Genissa a Romane ladie, which act manie of the Britans disallowed; the more in deed, because he had faire issue alreadie by Voada, as a son and two daughters. But this was doone, as all men iudged, by the counsell of Aulus Planctius, thereby to breake all friendship and aliance betwixt the Britains and the Scots, to the end that in no case of rebellion they should ioine their powers togither. Neither did he onelie refuse Voada, whome all men knew to be his lawfull wife, but also caused hir to be kept in Voada imprisoned. Voada is deliuered out of prison, and conueied into Wales. prison, till that the Britains (hauing indignation thereat) got hir out of the place where she was kept, and conueied hir into Wales togither with hir children.

With which dealing Aruiragus being highlie moued, determined with force of armes to punish them that had thus misused him: but perceiuing that not onelie those people which inhabited the countrie, now called Wales, and other that adioined on the north marches thereof were readie to defend the queene against his malice, he was faine to require aid of the Romans, who with their capteine Aulus Planctius assembling togither with such of the Britains as tooke part with Aruiragus, set forward toward the enimies, and ioining with them in battell, did giue them the ouerthrow. The next day after this victorie thus gotten, word Aruiragus giueth his enimies an ouerthrow. A commotion against Aruiragus. was brought that the people inhabiting in the countries which we now call Lanchashire, Yorkeshire, and Darbishire, were vp in armour against the king and the Romans, by reason whereof Aruiragus and Aulus Planctius withdrew towards London, that defending the sea coasts towards France, they might yet haue the sea open at all times whatsoeuer chanced. And to re-enforce their power, Aulus Planctius sent ouer for two legions of souldiers into France, to come with all spéed to his aid.

The Britains, who had gone so farre in the matter that they could not well withdraw The Britains make themselues strong. themselues, now being certified of all their enimies dooings, thought best to make themselues so strong as was possible. And to the end that they might procéed in some orderlie meane, all the greatest lords and estates assembled togither at Shrewsburie, in those daies called The Britains assemble themselues at Shresburie. They confederat themselues togither. Coriminum, where they concluded vpon a league to aid one another with all their might and maine against the Romans & Aruiragus, who went about to bring them wholie vnder seruile subiection and thraldome of the same Romans. They being thus agréed to make warres in this quarrell, and for the same purpose to ioine their whole puissance togither, there rose a doubt whome they might choose for their generall capteine, for that it was feared least there might grow some secret enuie amongest the nobles being of equali power, if one should be in this case preferred before an other. For the auoiding of which mischiefe, by the graue admonition of one Comus a noble man of the parties of Wales, they accorded to send messengers vnto Caratake chosen to be capteine of the Britains. Aruiragus would disherit his own children which he had by Voada. Caratake the king of Scotland, requiring him to aid them in their right and iust quarrell against Aruiragus and the Romans, whereby he might reuenge the iniurie doone to his sister quéene Voada and hir issue, whome the father through counsell of the Romans purposed to disherit to the end, such children as he had by Genissa (for that they were of the Romane bloud) might inioy the kingdome. They further declared, that all the British lords which were confederat in this enterprise, had chosen him by common assent to be their generall and chiefe leader, if it might so please him to take it vpon him, as their trust was he would: considering the iust causes of their warre, and the suertie which by victorie gotten might insue vnto all the inhabitants of the whole lie of Albion.

Caratake hauing heard the summe of their request, and throughlie weieng the same, Caratake promised aid to the Britains. promised them to be readie with his whole puissance in the beginning of the next spring, to come to their aid, vnto what place soeuer they should thinke expedient: and thereof he told them they might be most assured, willing them in the meane time so to prouide for themselues, as their enimies might haue no aduantage at their hands. With this agreeable answere the British messengers returned to Shrewsburie to the confederats, who reioising at the news, made prouision against the next spring to go against the Romans, in hope of good successe, speciallie through aid of the Scots and Picts, who also with their king called Conkist were The Picts ioine with Scots and Britains against the Romans. willing to helpe towards the deliuering of the land from bondage of the Romans, whose nestling so neere their noses they were loth to sée or heare of. So soone therefore as the spring approched, all those thrée people, Britains, Scots, and Picts, gathered their powers together, and met in Yorkeshire, in purpose to incounter with their enimies in battell, wheresoeuer they found them.

Aruiragus and Aulus Planctius hauing knowledge of all the dooings of the confederats, likewise assembled their power, & comming towards them, for a while forebare to ioine in battell, through counsell of Planctius, who perceiuing the most part of the Britains and Scots to be but new souldiers, taken vp of late to fill the numbers, knew that by protracting time they would be soone out of heart, through watching and euill harborough, in such sort that in the end they should be easie inough to deale with; and euen so it came to passe. For the Romans refusing to fight a generall battell, yet scoured so the fields on ech The Britains wearid through trauell. side abroad, that neither the Britains nor Scots could go forth anie waies for forage or vittels, but they were still snatched vp, so that what through hunger, lacke of sléepe, and other diseases, manie of the Britains began to conueie themselues from the campe home to their houses, of whome some being taken by the enimies, declared that the whole armie of the confederats was in great distresse, and sore inféebled by such vnaccustomed trauell and diseases as they were inforced vnto in the campe. Wherevpo Aruiragus and Aulus Planctus determined the next day to giue battell. And so in the morning they arraied their people, & marched foorth betimes towards the campe of the confederats.

Caratake, who (as ye haue heard) was generall of all the confederates, vnderstanding the The Romans giue battell to the Britains. enimies intent, was as readie to receiue battell as they were to offer it; wherevpon there insued right great and vnmercifull slaughter betwixt them on both parts, without sparing any at all, till such time as the night parted the fraie, with such losse on either side, that Night parteth the fray. after they were once got in sunder, neither part had anie hast afterwards to ioine againe: so that in the morning there appeared none in the field but onelie the dead bodies, those that were left aliue as well on the one part as the other being fled and scattered into the woods and mounteins. Aruiragus and Planctius got them vnto London: and Caratake Caratake returneth home to Carictonium. Ambassadors are sent vnto Caratake from Aulus Planctius. commanding his people home each man into his countrie, he himselfe withdrew first towards Yorke, and after vnto the citie of Carrike; whither shortlie after there came vnto him ambassadors from Aulus Pianctius, sent to know vpon what occasion he did aid the British rebels against the Romane empire, declaring that if he would not be conformable to make a woorthie amends for so presumptuous an enterprise, he should be sure to haue the Romans his enimies; and that in such wise, as he should perceiue, it were much better for him to séeke their friendship, than to abide their enimitie.

Herevnto Caratake answered, that he had iust cause to doo that which he did, considering Caratake his answer vnto the ambassadors. the iniuries which his sister Voada with hir sonne Guiderius had and were like to receiue by their counsell and meanes: and therefore he was so little minded to make anie amends for that was doone, that hee thought it more reason that the Romans should clearelie auoid out of the whole possession of Britaine, either else they might assure themselues to haue aswell the Britains, as also the Scots & Picts to be their perpetuall enimies, and that onelie for the chalenge of their ancient liberties and fréedome. The Romane ambassadors being returned with this answer, Planctius tooke no small indignation thereat, sore menacing to be reuenged of so high and contumelious words pronounced against the maiestie of the Romane empire.

About the same time Aruiragus, vpon trust conceiued by ioining his power with the other confederate Britains, to expell the Romans quite out of the realme, and so to recouer the intire estate, reuolting from them, fled into Shrewsburie, where, at the same time such British Aruiragus reuolteth. lords as were enimies to the Romans, were assembled againe in councell, by whom Aruiragus was receiued with great gladnesse (ye maie be sure) of those lords, trusting by his meanes to haue their force in maner doubled. His wife Genissa being at the same season great with child, tooke such thought for this reuolting of hir husband, that trauelling before hir time, Genissa the wife of Aruiragus dieth. A messenger sent vnto Claudius the emperor from Planctius. she immediatly died therwith. But Aulus Planctius, perceiuing now thoroughlie how little trust there was to be put in the Britans, dispatched a messenger in all hast with letters vnto Claudius the emperour, who as then soiourned at Rome, signifieng vnto him in what danger the state of Britaine stood, if timelie prouision were not the sooner made.

Claudius weieng the matter by good aduise of councell, ordeined by decrée of the senate, that Vespasian (of whome ye haue heard before) should be sent hither with an armie, to tame the proud and loftie stomachs of the Britains, with their confederats the Scots & Picts. Vespasian herevpon departing from Rome, came into France, & increasing his legions, with Vespasian commeth into Britaine. a supplie of such souldiers as he found there, passed ouer into this our Britaine, where contrarie to the report which he had heard afore his comming, he found euerie fortresse so well furnished after the warlike order of the Romane vsage, and moreouer all such companies of men of warre as kept the field so well appointed and ordered, that he could not but much praise the great diligence and politike gouernement of Planctius.

Now when Vespasian had a little refreshed his men, and taken order how to procéed in the reducing of the Britains to their former obedience, he set forward toward Aruiragus & other the enimies, whom he vnderstood as then to be at Yorke, making their assemblies not generallie of all that were able to beare a club, as they did the yeere before; but out of The Britains gather an armie. all parties a chosen number of piked men were sent for, as out of Deuonshire & Cornewall there came 6000, foorth of Wales and the marches 12000, and the like number out of Kendall, Westmerland, and Cumberland. Out of Oxfordshire and other the parties of Iceni. Britaine subiect vnto Aruiragus, there came 35000. All which numbers assembled nere vnto Yorke, euerie man bringing his prouision with him to serue him for two moneths space. Vnto the same place came also Caratake with 30000 Scotish men : and Illithara otherwise The Scots & Picts come to aid the Britains. Illithara or Tharan king of Picts. called Tharan, king of the Picts, with almost as manie of his subiects.

Vespasian being certified still from time to time of all the dooings of his enimies, hasted with all spéed towards them; and by the leading of trustie guides comming to the place where they were incamped within a marish ground not passing 12 miles from Yorke, he fiercelie vpon a sudden setteth vpon them within their campe, yer they thought he had Vespasian assaileth the Britains in their campe. béene néere them. But yet notwithstanding they manfullie stood to their defense: insomuch that those in the right wing of the Romans armie were like to haue beene distressed, if Vespasian perceiuing the danger, had not sent a legion to their aid in time, wherby the battell was newlie in that part restored. The capteins on either side did what they could to incourage their folkes to sticke to their tackle, without giuing ouer by anie meanes, considering what gaine came by victorie, and what losse insued by receiuing the ouerthrow.

The Britains, Scots, and Picts, like inraged lions, ran vpon the Romans, with such cruell The despera hardinesse of the Britains and Scotishmen. Fortune fauoureth the Romans. desire of' reuenge, that euen when they were thrust through vpon the point of any weapon, they would run still vpon the same, to come vnto him that held it, that they might requite him with the like againe. But yet would not all that their fierce and desperate hardinesse preuaile, for fortune by fatall appointment being bent to aduance the Romans vnto the dominion of the whole world, shewed hir selfe so fauourable vnto them in this battell, that in the end, though the Britains with the confederats did what lay in men to doo for atteining of The Britains receiue the ouerthrow. victorie, yet were they beaten downe and slaine euerie mothers sonne, a few onelie excepted, which escaped by flight.

Aruiragus séeing the slaughter of his people, would haue slaine himselfe, but that some of his seruants caried him by force out of the field, that hée might be reserued yet vnto some better fortune. Caratake escaping by flight, fled into his countrie, but Tharan king of the Picts, Caratake escapeth. Tharan king of the Picts is slaine. not coueting to liue after such losse of his people, threw away his armor with all his kinglie ornaments, and sitting downe vpon a stone, as a man past himselfe, was there slaine by such as followed in the chase. Aruiragus being conueied out of danger, and gotten into Yorke, considered how by reason of this great discomfiture, it was vnpossible to resist the Romane puissance, and therefore with consent of the residue of his nobles that were escaped from the battell, he sent an herald vnto Vespasian, offring to submit himselfe in most humble wise vnto anie Messengers sent by Aruiragus vnto Vespasian with submission. reasonable conditions of peace and agréement. Wherevpon Vespasian commanded that Aruiragus should in priuate apparell come in vnto him, for he would not talke of anie peace, except he had Aruiragus present, and therefore he sent vnto him his safe conduct to assure him safetie both to come and go.

Aruiragus séeing no other remedie, came in vnto Vespasian, according to his appointment, Aruiragus commeth in vnto Vespasian. Aruiragus is restored again to his former dignitie. The Britains are pardoned, but yet deliuer new hostages. Their lawes abrogated. New lawes. and vpon his submission was pardoned of all his trespasse, and placed againe in the kingdome. The cities and good townes also that were partakers in the rebellion, were in semblable wise forgiuen without fining or other indemnitie, and so likewise were all the nobles of the countrie. Howbeit, for the better assurance of their loialtie in time to come, they deliuered new hostages. Their ancient lawes also were abrogated, and the Romane lawes in their place established. For the administration of the which, in euerie prouince was appointed a Romane iudge to sée good orders obserued according to the forme thereof. By which meanes the British nation eftsoones returned vnto hir former obedience of the Romane empire. All the winter following, Vespasian laie at Yorke, making his apprests against the next spring to go against the Scots and Picts. So soone therefore as the summer was come, Vespasian setteth forward with his armie, and entering into the marches of his enimies, he did put them in such feare that the Picts were glad to yéeld themselues vnto him, a few of the nobles & some other excepted, which were withdrawne into Camelon, in hope through strength of that town to defend themselues from all assaults. Vespasian being certified therof, came & besieged them within the same citie, not minding to depart till he had them at his pleasure. This siege Camelon besieged by Vespasian. Camelon surrendred. The kings regall ornaments taken. continued till they within, being in danger to famish through want of vittels, surrendred themselues with the town into Vespasians hands. In this town were found all the regall ornaments, as the crowne & sword, with other iewels belonging to the kings of the Picts. The sword hauing the haft of gold, & a purple scabberd very finely wrought & trimmed, Vespasian vsed to weare in all the warres wherin he afterwards chanced to be, in hope (I wot not) of what good successe and lucke to follow therof. The Pictish lords which were within Camelon, were commanded to deliuer pledges: and after licenced to depart without anie other damage. Vespasian himselfe remaining at Camelon, tooke order for the peopling of the towne Camelon peopled with Romans. Iulius Hoff. This was at Colchester, as the British & English writers doo gesse. Caratake assembleth an armie. Planctius sent forth with an armie against Caratake. with Romans, granting them the vse of the liberties and priuileges which the Romans inhabiting in Rome inioied. Also ouer against the towne vpon the banke of the riuer of Caron, he builded a temple in honor of the emperor Claudius, wherein he set vp two images, the one representing Claudius, and the other the goddesse Victoria.

Whilest he was thus occupied, tidings came to him, that Caratake king of the Scotishmen had assembled in Galloway a great army of Scots, Picts and Britains, in purpose against the Romans, to reuenge the last ouerthrow. Whervpon Vespasian with all speed sent foorth a strong power vnder the leading of Aulus Planctius to incounter the enimies. Planctius being approched within foure miles of them, incamped himselfe in a strong place, as though he minded not to passe further, till Vespasian with the rest of his whole puissance were come to his aid. Neuerthelesse, night was no sooner come on, but that he gaue generall commandement through his host, that euerie man should make him readie to depart at a certeine houre vnder the standards of their capteins in order of battell.

Then in the second watch of the night he set forward, following certeine guides (which knew Planctius setteth vpon the Scotish campe. all the straits and passages of the countrie) till he came to the place where Caratake with his armie was lodged: and first killing the watch which stood to defend his entrance, till the armie was raised, he set vpon the whole campe, and though he found such resistance that the battell continued right fierce & cruell from the dawning of the day, till it was hie noone, yet in the end the victorie remained with the Romans; and the Scots with the Picts, & such Britains as were on their part, put to flight and chased. Caratake escaping out of the battell, fled Caratake flieth vnto Dunstafage. into Argile, and got him to the castell of Dunstafage. Diuerse of the Britains & Picts, which as yet had not submitted themselues, were put in such dread through brute of this ouerthrow, that immediatlie therevpon they came in and yéelded themselues vnto Vespasian. And in The people of Galloway submit themselues to the Romans. semblable wise the people of Galloway vtterlie despairing any longer to defend their countrie against Planctius (who was now entred into their confines, and had taken the citie of Carrike) offred to become subiects vnto the Romans, which they might neuer be brought vnto before that time.

These newes being certified vnto Vespasian by a purseuant, he rode streightwaies vnto Carrike, & there receiued the oths of the nobles, and other the inhabitants of the countrie. That done, he sent ambassadors vnto Caratake, to trie if he might by anie meanes to become Ambassadors sent vnto Caratake. Caratake vtterlie refuseth to become a subject. friend vnto the Romane empire, in acknowledging some maner of subiection therevnto : but this deuise was to small purpose, for Caratake was determined rather to end his life as a frée Scotishman in defense of libertie, than to become thrall vnto anie forreine nation, in hope to liue long time in seruitude, doubting least if he came anie waies foorth into danger of the Romans, they would vsurpe the whole dominion vnto themselues. Whose mind when Vespasian vnderstood by his answer made to the ambassadors which were sent vnto him, he was minded to haue gone with an armie vnto Dunstafage where Caratake lay, but that he was informed what dangerous passages he must march thorough, all full of desart mounteins, bogs, and quauemires, without anie prouision of vittels or forrage to bée found by all the way as the armie should passe.

Leauing therfore this enterprise, he caused so manie vessels to be assembled, as could be prouided on all parts, purposing to haue passed ouer into the Ile of Man, into the which there were gotten togither a great sort of Britains and Picts, that had escaped the Romans hands. But this iournie also was broken by another incident, for euen at the same time, newes were The Ile of Wight rebelleth. brought that the Britains of the Ile of Wight, with the Kentishmen, and diuerse others the inhabitants vpon the south coast, were reuolted, and had slaine diuerse Romans, which lay in garisons in those parts. Vespasian therefore minding to cure this wound yer it should Vespasian appeaseth the rebels. throughlie fester, hasted thither with all spéed, and with litle a dob pacifieng the rebels, caused the chiefe offendors to be punished according to their deserts.

Shortlie after being sent for by the emperour Claudius, he returned vnto Rome with great Vespasian returneth to Rome. Planctius left as gouernor. Planctius prepareth to méet the Scots. glorie for his noble and high atchiued victories. Aulus Planctius was left in charge with the gouernement of Britaine after Vespasians departure: who hearing that Caratake had assembled a great armie of Scots, and other such Britains and Picts as had not yet submitted themselues vnto the Romans, in purpose to recouer againe those countries which Vespasian had latelie conquered, he likewise prepared to meet them, so that both the armies incountering togither, there was fought a right terrible battell with great slaughter on both parties, till finallie the victorie inclining to the Romans, more through skilfull policie than puissant force, the The Romans through policie vanquish the Scotishmen. Scots, Picts, and Britains were discomfited and chased into the bogs and marishes, the common refuge in those daies for the Scots, when by anie adventure they chanced to be put to flight.

After this ouerthrow the warre was continued for two yéers space, by rodes and incursions made one vpon another in the confines of Kile and Galloway. In which meane while Planctius fallthe sicke. Planctius fell sicke of the flix, which still continuing with him, brought him at length in such case, that he was not able to trauell at all in the publike affaires of his office. So that he wrote his letters vnto the emperour Claudius, signifieng vnto him in what case he stood, and therevpon required that some sufficient personage might be sent to occupie his roome. Claudius hauing receiued his letters, and vnderstanding the effect of the same, sent one Ostorius Scapula, a man Ostorius Scapula is sent into Britaine. of high linage, and of good experience both in peace and war, to haue the gouernance in Britaine.

About the time of whose arriuall into Britaine, Aulus Planctius departed out of this world Aulus Planctius dieth. at Camelon, where he then soiourned. His bodie was burned, and according to the vsage of the Romans in those daies, the ashes were closed in a chest, and buried within the church of Claudius and Victoria, which (as is said) Vespasian builded néere vnto Camelon, vpon the riuers side there. Hereof was a custome taken vp amongst both Scots and Picts (as some The vsage amongst the Scots to burne the dead bodie. thinke) to burne the bodies of the dead, and to burie the ashes: whereof there haue bene found diuerse tokens and monuments in this our age. As in the yere 1521 at Findor a village in Merne, fiue miles distant from Aberdine, there were found in an old graue two chests of a strange making full of ashes, either of them being ingrauen with Romane letters, which so soone as they were brought into the aire, fell to dust. Likewise in the fields of another towne called Kenbacten in Marre, ten miles distant from Aberdine, about the same time were found by certeine plowmen two sepulchres made of cut and squared stones, wherein were foure chests, of workemanship, bignesse and inscription like to the other two. Manie the semblable monuments haue béene found in diuerse places in Scotland in times past: but it is to be thought, that in these sepulchres there were Romans buried, and neither Scots nor Picts.

But now to our purpose. Immediatelie vpon the comming of Ostorius into Britaine, the people of the west countries rebelled, procuring the northerne men with the Scots of The Britains yet eftsoones rebell. The Britains require aid of Caratake. Galloway, and all the Picts to doo the like. They sent also vnto Caratake, requiring him in this common quarell against the Romans to put to his helping hand for recouerie of the ancient libertie of the whole land of Albion, considering it was like they should match well inough with this new Romane capteine Ostorius Scapula, that vnderstood little of the maners and vsages of the Britains. But this notwithstanding, Ostorius being informed of all these practises, and remembring what furtherance it were for a capteine in the begining to win a name by some praise-woorthie enterprise, he made first towards the westerne Britains, whome The Britains of the west part are chased. he thought to surprise yer they should assemble with the other rebels, and so méeting with them, he chased and tooke a great number of them, as they fled here and there out of all order.

After this, he went against the people called Iceni, which (as some thinke) inhabited the Iceni. Oxfordshire is assailed. Some take the Iceni to be the Northfolke men. countrie now called Oxfordshire, but other take them to be Northfolke men, who being gathered togither, were gotten into a strong place, inclosed about with a great ditch as they vse to fense pasture grounds, that no horssemen should breake in vpon them : yet this notwithstanding, Ostorius assailed them within their strength, & in the end breaking downe the rampire, with such aid as he had, burst in at length amongst them, sleaing and taking the most part of them: for few or none escaped, they were so kept in on ech side. But of this battell, and likewise of other enterprises, which Ostorius and other of the Romane lieutenants atchiued here in Britaine, ye shall find more thereof in the historie of England according to the true report of the Romane writers, the which verelie make no mention either of Scots or Picts till the yéere of our Lord 320, at the soonest. And as for the Silures and Brigants remooued by Hector Boetius so farre northward, it is euidentlie prooued by Humfrey Llhoid, and others, that they inhabited countries conteined now within the limits of England. The like ye haue to vnderstand of the Ordouices where Caratake gouerned as king, and not in Carrike, as to the well aduised reader I doubt not but it may sufficientlie appeare, as well in the description as in the historie of England aforesaid.

But now to returne where we left: the brute of this late victorie quieted the busie minds of They of Galloway are beaten and pacified. such other of the Britains, as were readie to haue reuolted. But they of Galloway would not at the first giue ouer, but in trust of aid at the hands of Caratake continued in their rebellion, till Ostorius came thither, and beate downe such as made resistance, whereby the other were soone pacified. After this he entred into the confines of Kile and Cantire, spoiling and Kile and Cantire wasted and spoiled. Caratake assembleth an armie. wasting those countries, and brought from thence a great number of captiues. With which iniurie Caratake being not a little kindled, he assembled a mightie armie, wherein he had at the least 40 thousand men, what of his owne subjects and other such as came to his aid. For after he was entred into Pictland, there came vnto him out of all parties no small number, of such as desired either to be reuenged on the Romans, either else to loose life and libertie both at once, for the tast of bondage was so bitter vnto all the inhabitants of Albion in this season, that they in maner were wholie conspired togither to remooue that yoke of thraldome from their shoulders which so painfullie pinched them.

Caratake thus furnished with an armie, chose foorth a strong place to lodge in, fensed on the The strength of the place where Caratake was incamped. Of this matter ye may read more in England. Women incamped. Women placed in order of battell. Caratake and his capteins exhort their men to fight. one side with the course of a déepe foordlesse riuer, and on the other sides it might not be approched vnto for the stéepnesse of the crags and such fensing as they had made with great stones, in places where there was any way to enter. All such women as were somewhat stept in age, and came thither with them, in great numbers, were by Caratake placed on either side his battels, both as well to incourage the men to doo valiantlie with shouting and hallowing vnto them, as also to assaile the Romans with stones as they should approch. Other such as were yoong and lustie, were appointed to kéepe araie amongst the men to fight in the battell.

Caratake hauing thus ordered his field, and hearing that Ostorius was come to giue battell, exhorted his people to sticke to it like men, and so in semblable wise did all his capteins and sergeants of the bands, going from ranke to ranke to incourage their souldiors, declaring how that this was the armie that must either bring libertie or thraldome to them and their posteritie for euer. On the other part Ostorius minding to trie the matter by battell, set his people in araie after the ancient maner of the Romans, willing them to consider that they were descended Ostorius incourageth his Romans. of those parents and ancestors which had subdued the whole world : and againe, that those with whome they should now match, were but naked people, fighting more with a certeine maner of a furious rage and disordered violence, than with any politike discretion or constancie.

Herewith vpon commandement giuen on both parts, the battell began right hot, & for a Caratake ouerthrowne by the Romans. good space verie doubtfull, till the practised knowledge of the Romans vanquished the furious violence of the Scots, Picts, and Britains: who being put to flight fled into the mounteins to escape the enimies hands who pursued them most egerlie. Amongst other of the prisoners His quéene taken. Caratake betraied by his stepmother. there was taken Caratakes wife, with his daughter & brethren. He himselfe fled for succor vnto his stepmother Cartimandua: but as aduersitie findeth few friends, she caused him to be taken and deliuered vnto Ostorius. This was in the ninth yeare after the beginning of the warres. Ostorius vsed him verie honorablie, according to the degrée of a king: finallie he Caratake is sent to Rome. sent him vnto Rome, togither with his wife, his daughter, and brethren. His fame was such through all places, that where he passed by, the people came flocking in on each side to see him, of whom they had heard so much report for his stout resistance made so long a time against the Romane puissance.

At his comming to Rome he was shewed in triumph, all the people being called to the sight: He is shewed to the people in triumph. for the victorie and apprehension of him was iudged equall with anie other atchiued enterprise against whatsouer the most puissant enimies of former time. The Emperor Claudius vpon respect as was thought of his princelie behauior and notified valiancie, restored him to libertie, and reteining his daughter and eldest brother at Rome as pledges, vpon his oth receiued to be a true subiect vnto the empire, he sent him home into his countrie againe, assigning vnto him the gouernance of Galloway, with Kile, Carrike, and Coningham. He liued not passing two yéeres after his returne into Scotland, studieng most cheeflie (during that time) how to preserue his Caratake departeth this life. 54. Strange sights séene. people in peace and quietnesse. He departed this world one and twentie yeares after the deceasse of his vncle Metellan, in the yéere of our Lord 54.

A little before his falling into the hands of the Romans, there were sundrie strange sights Strange sights séene. seene in Albion, as fighting of horssemen abroad in the fields, with great slaughter, as séemed on both parts: and forthwith the same so vanished awaie, that no appéerance of them could any where be perceiued. Also a sort of woolues in the night season set vpon such as were kéeping of cattell abroad in the fields, and caried awaie one of them to the woods, and in the morning suffred him to escape from amongst them againe. Moreouer, at Carrike there was a child borne, perfect in all his lims sauing the head, which was like vnto a rauens. These vnketh signes and monsters put the people in no small feare: but after that Caratake was restored to his libertie & countrie, all was interpreted to the best.

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