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CORBREID.

AFTER Caratakes decease, his yoongest brother Corbreid was chosen to succeed in his place, in the fiftie and eighth yéere after Christ, for his elder brother was departed at Rome through change of aire not agréeable to his nature. This Corbreid was a stout man of stomach, much resembling his brother Caratake. In the first beginning of his reigne, he did his indeuor to purge his dominion of such as troubled the quiet state thereof, by robbing and spoiling the husbandmen and other the meaner people of the countrie, of the which robbers there was no small number in those daies, speciallie in the westerne Iles, also in Rosse & Cathnes. In the meane time the Picts hauing created there a new king called Conkist, gouernour of Mers and Louthian, they set vpon the Romans being about to make fortresses in those parties. And
The Picts mooue war against the Romans. but that succours came in time from the next townes and castels adioining, they had slaine all the whole number of them, & yet aided as they were, the maister of the campe, and eight other of the capteins, with diuers officers of bands, besides common souldiors, lost their liues there.

Shortlie after also, the same Picts ouerthrew a number of forragers, with such companies The Picts ouerthrow the Romane forragers. of horssemen as came to defend them. Herewith Ostorius being not a little mooued, made readie his bands, and fiercelie incountred with the Picts, who defended themselues so vigorouslie, that the fore ward of the Romans was néere hand discomfited. Which danger Ostorius Ostorius is wounded. perceiuing, speedilie came to relieue the same, but preasing too farre amongst his enimies, he was sore wounded, and in great danger to haue béene slaine. The night comming vpon parted the fraie, not without huge slaughter on both parts. After this, the warre continued still betwixt them with often incursions and skirmishes. At the length the Picts with such other The Romans trained foorth into ambushes and so distressed. Britains as were come vnto them out of the Ile of Man and other parties, incountred with the Romans in battell, and vpon the first ioining, of purpose gaue backe, training some of the Romans to pursue them vnto such places, where they had laid their ambushes, and so compassing them about, slue a great number of them, and chased the residue into the streicts of the mounteins, where they were also surprised by such of the Picts as returned from the battell.

Ostorius vnderstanding how the matter went, withdrew with the rest of his people to his campe, and shortlie after sent a purseuant vnto Rome, to informe the emperour in what state things stood in Britaine, by reason of this rebellion of the Picts, who neither by force nor gentle persuasions could be pacified. The emperour determining to prouide remedie therefore, sent word againe that he would not that the Picts should be eftsoons receiued vpon their submission, if they were driuen to make sute for pardon,but vtterlie to be destroied and exterminated. For the accomplishment whereof he appointed two legions of such men of warre, as soiourned in France to passe ouer into Britaine. But in the meane while Ostorius departed this world, Ostorius dieth. whether of his hurts (as the Scotish chronicles make mention) or through sickenesse (as should rather séeme by Cornelius Tacitus) it forceth not. After whose deceasse Manlius Valens had Manlius Valens inuadeth the Picts. the chiefest charge, who bringing his armie foorth to incounter the Picts that came to séeke battell, was fiercelie fought withall, notwithstanding the victorie had abidden on his side, if at the verie point there had not come succours to the Picts (that is to wit) 400 horssemen out of the The Romans are discomfited by the Picts. countrie of Kendall, by whose fresh onset the Romans were discomfited and chased vnto their campe, there being slaine aboue 3000 of them at that ouerthrowe, and on the Picts side there wanted 2000 of their number at the least.

About the same time there arriued in Britaine an other Romane capteine to be generall in place of Ostorius now deceassed, his name was Aulus Didius, with him came the two legions Aulus Didius commeth into Britaine. afore remembred. At his first comming ouer he mustered the old crewes of the Romane souldiers first, much blaming them for their negligence, in suffering the enimies so to increase vpon them, to the great danger of loosing all that (through sloth and faintnesse of courage) which latelie before in Britaine had béen woone and conquered by high prowes and valiant conduct of his predecessours. In the end he exhorted them to put away all feare, and fullie to determine with themselues to recouer againe the honor which they had latelie lost, which he said would easilie be brought to passe, if they would take vnto them manfull stomachs, and obeie him and such other as had the gouernance and leading of them. The Picts being informed that this Aulus Didius was arriued with this new supplie of men, & prepared to come against them, they thought good to send vnto Corbreid king of Scotland, to require his aid The Picts sent to the Scots for aid. against the Romans, reputed as common enimies to all such as loued libertie, and hated to liue in seruile bondage. For which respect Corbreid was the sooner moued to condescend vnto the request of the Picts; and therevpon assembling an arme entred into Galloway. Wherof Aulus Didius being certified, sent an herald vnto him with all speed, commanding that he should depart out of those quarters, sith he had no right there, considering that Galloway was assigned vnto Caratake but for tearme of his owne life, by force of the emperours grant, and now by the death of the same Caratake was reuersed againe vnto the empire.

The herald had vnneath doone his message, when word came vnto Corbreid how an armie Caesius Nasica entred with an armie into Galloway. of the Romans vnder the guiding of Caesius Nasica was entred into the marches of Galloway, to the great terror of all the inhabitants, doubting to be spoiled and robbed on ech hand. These newes put the herald in danger of his life, had not Corbreid vpon regard to the law of armes licenced him to depart. The host which Corbreid brought with him into Galloway, he bestowed in castels and fortresses abroad in the countrie for more safegard, but he himselfe rode in all hast vnto Epiake, to haue the aduise and aid of one Venusius that had maried the Venusius the husband of Cartimandua. forenamed Cartimandua that vnkind stepmother of Caratake, as ye haue heard before. This Venusius was of counsell with his wife Cartimandua in the betraieng of king Caratake, and therefore was growne into much hatred of the people for that fact, but through support of the Romans he was for a time defended from all their malices. Notwithstanding in the end being Venusius reuolteth. wearied of the proud gouernment of the Romans, he reuolted from them vnto Corbreid. Wherewith his wife being offended, found means to apprehend both him and his brethren with certeine of his kinsfolks, and laied them fast in prison.

But now Corbreied at his comming thither, did not onelie set them at libertie, but also tooke Cartimandua is buried quicke. & caused Cartimandua to be buried quicke. In the meane while a certeine number of Scots distressed a few forragers of the Romans, but following the chase somewhat rashlie, they were inclosed by the enimies and slaine. This mischance put the Scots in great feare, and the Romans in good successe, so that Nasica was in purpose to haue assailed a certeine strong place, wherein a number of the Scotishmen were gotten, and had fortified the entries, had not other newes altered his purpose; for hearing how an other armie of the Scots was joined with the Picts, and were approched within thrée miles of him, he brought his host foorth into a plaine where he ordered his battels readie to receiue them. Whereof the Scotishmen hauing knowledge, hasted foorth towards him, and were no sooner come in sight of the Romans, but that with great violence they gaue the onset, most fierclie beginning the battell, which continued till sun-setting with great slaughter on both sides; at what time the Romans were at the point to haue discomfited their enimies, had not those Scotishmen which were left in fortresses (as is said) abroad in the countrie, come at that selfe instant to the aid of their fellowes, by whose means the battell was renewed againe, which lasted till the mirke night parted them The darke night parted the fraie. in sunder. The Romans withdrew to their campe, and the Scots and Picts got vp into the mounteins.

Shortlie after a peace was concluded betwixt the parties, with these conditions; that the A peace concluded. Romans should content themselues with that which they had in possession before the beginning of these last wars, and suffer Corbreid to inioy all such countries as his brother Caratake held. And likewise the Picts paieng their former tribut for the finding of such garisons of Romans as laie at Camelon, they should be no further charged with anie other exactions. Moreouer it was agreed, that neither the Scots nor Picts from thenceforth should receiue or succour anie rebels of Frenchmen or Britains, nor should aid by anie maner of means the inhabitants of the Ile of Man, who had doone manie notable displeasures to the Romans during the last warres. This peace continued a six yeares during the life of Aulus Didius, who at the Aulus Didius departeth this life at London. end of those six yeares, departed this life at London, leauing behind him all things in good quiet.

After his deceasse the emperour Nero, who succeeded Claudius, appointed one Verannius to be lieutenant of Britaine, a man verie ambitious and much desirous of honor, by means Verannius is made lieutenant of Britaine. whereof, in hope to aduance his name, he sought occasions to haue warres with the Scotishmen; and at length hearing that certeine of them being borderers had fetched booties out of Pictland, he did send a great power of Romans to make a rode into the next marches of the Scots, from whence they brought a great spoile, both of men and of goods. With which iniuries the Scots being moued, sought dailie in semblable sort to be reuenged, so that by such means the warre was renewed. But before anie notable incounter chanced betwixt them, Verannius died. His last words were full of ambitious boasts, wishing to haue liued but two Verannius departeth this life. yeares longer, that he might haue subdued the whole Ile of Albion vnto the Romane empire, as if he might haue had so much time he doubted not to haue doone.

Paulinus Suetonius succéeded in his place, a man of an excellent wit, and verie desirous of Paulinus Suetonius. peace. He first confirmed the ancient league with Corbreid king of Scotland: a recompense being made in euerie behalfe for all wrongs & iniuries doone on euerie part. After this (as Angleseie and not Man was thus inuaded by Suetonius. Hector Boetius hath gathered) he conquered the Ile of Man; but for somuch as by probable reasons it is apparant inough, that it was not Man, but the Ile of Angleseie which the Britains name Môn, and at this time was subdued by Suetonius, we haue here omitted to make report thereof, referring you to the place in the English chronicle, where we haue spoken sufficientlie after what sort Suetonius both attempted & atchiued this enterprise, which being brought to end, he was sent for into Gallia, to represse certeine tumults raised among the people there. In whose absence the Britains thinking to haue a meet time for their purpose, mooued a new rebellion. But by the relation of Cornelius Tacitus, this chanced whilest Suetonius was busie in requiring the Ile of Angleseie, as in the English chronicle it likewise appeareth, with the strange sights and woonders which happened about the same time, wherevpon the southsaiers (as Hector Boetius saith) declared that the Romans should receiue a great ouerthrow. Vpon trust of whose words the Picts and other Britains inhabiting Camelon and in the marches The Scots and Picts kill the Romans. thereabouts, set vpon such Romans as inhabited there, and slue a great manic of them yer they were in doubt of anie rebellion. The residue which escaped, got them into an old church, where they were slaine ech mothers sonne.

Also Petilius Cerealis comming with a legion of footmen and a troope of horssemen to their Petilius Cerealis his men being slaine returned. Catus the procurator of Britaine fled into France. Quéene Voada desireth aid of hir brother Corbreid. succours, was incountred by the Picts, & being put to flight, lost all his footmen, hardlie escaping himselfe with the horssmen to the campe. Shortlie after he tooke vp his tents and returned towards Kent, where Catus the procurator or receiuer (as I may call him) of Britaine as then soiourned, who vnderstanding how the whole Ile was on ech side in an vprore, fled ouer into France then called Gallia. This meane while quéene Voada sent vnto hir brother Co breid king of Scotland, requiring his aid against the Romans, who had so vilie vsed hir and hir daughters, to the great dishonor of hir and all hir linage, and now was the time to be reuenged of such iniuries, the whole nation of the Britains through the couetous dealing of the procurator Catus, being risen in armes to recouer their ancient liberties.

Corbreid being highlie displeased towards the Romans for the euill intreating of his sister, determined either to sée hir satisfied by woorthie recompense, or else to be reuenged on them that had misvsed hir: and hereof gaue signification vnto Catus the procurator that was as then returned into Britaine with a power of men of warre. Corbreid receiuing but a scornefull answere from him, found meanes to ioine in league with Charanach king of the Picts, and Charanach K. of the Picts. gathering togither a mightie armie of one & other, pursued the Romans and their associats, The Romans slaine. slaieng downe a woonderfull number of them. He also burned and destroied diuers townes, such as in kéeping their alleigiance to the Romans stood earnestlie to their defense, as Berwike and Carèill with others. About the same season there arriued in the frith a number of Dutch ships, fraught with people of Merherne or Morauia, a region in Germanie situat Dutchmen arriue in Scotland. betwixt Boheme and Hungarie. They were driuen out of their owne countrie by the Romans, and assembling togither vnder a famous capteine named Roderike, came down to the mouth of the Rhene, where making shift for vessels, they tooke the seas to séeke them some new habitations; and thus arriuing in Pictland, were ioifullie receiued of the Picts and Scots, for that they were reputed right valiant men, and glad to reuenge their owne iniuries against the Romans. Namelie with the Picts they were much estéemed, for that they came forth of the same countrie from whence their ancestors were descended.

Their huge bodies and mightie lims did greatlie commend them in the sight of all men Merherns were men of goodlie stature. before whome they mustered, so that comming to the place where the kings of Scots and Picts were incamped with their people readie to march foorth towards the enimies, they were highlie welcomed, and vpon their offer receiued into companie, and appointed to go forth in that iournie, in aid of quéene Voada against the Romans. With this Voada was assembled a Women come with the quéene in armour. mightie host of the Britains, amongest whom were fiue thousand women, wholie bent to reuenge the villanies doone to their persons by the Romans, or to die in the paine. And for this purpose were they come well appointed with armour and weapons, to be the first that should giue the onset. Voada hearing of hir brothers approch with the king of Picts and their armies, met them on the waie accompanied with a great number of the nobles of Britaine, and brought them to hir campe with great ioy and triumph.

After taking aduise how to behaue themselues in their enterprise, they thought it good to make hast to fight with the procurator Catus, yer anie new power of men of warre might come to his aid forth of Gallia now called France. Wherevpon marching towards him, they met The Romans are put to flight and ouerthrowne. togither in the field, where betwixt them was striken a right fierce and cruell battell; but in the end the horssemen of the Romans part being put to flight, the footmen were beaten downe on ech side; Catus himselfe being wounded, escaped verie hardlie by flight, and Catus was wounded. shortlie after got him ouer into France. The Scots and Picts with other the Britains, hauing atchiued this victorie, pursued their enimies from place to place, so that there died by the sword, what in the battell and elsewhere in the chase, seuentie thousand Romans and other strangers, 70000 Romans slaine, and 30000 Britains. which serued amongest them; and of Scots, Picts, and other Britains, were slaine thirtie thousand.

The gouernour Suetonius being then in Gallia, hearing of this ouerthrow, & in what danger things stood in Britaine, by reason of the same, came ouer with two legions of souldiers, and ten thousand of other Brigants as aiders to those legions. Voada the quéene Voada assembled an armie against the Romans. vnderstanding of his arriuall, assembled againe hir people, and sent vnto the Scots and Picts to come to hir aid: who togither with the Morauians came with all spéed vnto hir. When they were thus assembled, Britains, Scots, Picts, & Morauians on one part, and Romans with their aids on the other, they marched forth to incounter togither with deliberat minds to trie the matter by dint of sword, being earnestlie exhorted thereto by their gouernors on either side. So that ioining puissance against puissance, they fought a right cruell battell, manie in the beginning being slaine and borne downe on both sides. But in the end the victorie abode with the The Romans ouerthrow the Scots and Picts. The Morauians all slaine. Voada slue hir selfe. Romans, the Britains with other the Albans were chased out of the field. There were slaine of them at the point of foure score thousand persons, as Tacitus writeth. The more part of the Morauians, togither with their capteine Roderike, were in that number. Voada the quéene, doubting to come into the hands of hir enimies, slue hir selfe. Two of hir daughters were taken prisoners, and brought armed, euen as they were found fighting in the battell, vnto Suetonius.

The eldest of them within a few moneths after was maried vnto a noble Romane named Marius, who had defloured hir before time. He was also created king of Britaine by the Marius was made king. emperours authoritie, that thereby the state of the countrie might be reduced vnto a better quiet. He vsed to lie most an end in the parties of Kendale, and named a part thereof (where he passed the most part of his time altogether in hunting) Westmerland, after his owne name, Westmerland. though afterwards, when the Romans were expelled, a portion of the same adioining next vnto the Scots was called Cumberland. The Morauians which escaped from the Humf. Lluid doubteth of this historie of the Morauians. Murrey land. discomfiture, had that portion of Scotland assigned forth vnto them to inhabit in, that lieth betwixt the riuers of Torne and Speie, called euen vnto this day Murrey land.

Corbreid being thus ouerthrowne, and hauing his power greatlie inféebled thereby, passed the residue of his life in quietnesse. For the Romans being troubled with ciuill warres, medled neither with the Scots nor Picts, but onlie studied to kéepe the south parts of Britaine in due obedience. Finallie Corbreid departed this world, after he had reigned 34 Corbreid dead Anno Christi. 71 H. B. yeares, and was buried amongest his elders néere vnto Dunstafage, with manie obelisks set vp about him.

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