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CORBREID GALD being thus chosen (as I haue said) to succéed in the gouernment of
Galdus other wise called Galgacus, not a Scot but a Britaine as other thinke, Sée more of him in England. Scotland after Dardan, is called by Cornelius Tacitus Galgacus, a prince of comelie personage, and of right noble port. In the first begining of his reigne he punished such as had béene furtherers of his predecessors misgouernement, and afterwards he passed ouer into the westerne Iles, where he appeased certeine rebels, which went about to disquiet the state of the common-wealth there. From thence he sailed vnto the Iles of Lewis and Skie, Gald punisheth such as disturbe the quiet state of his subiects. and put to death certeine offendors that would not be obedient vnto their gouernors and iudges. After this he returned by Rosse, and set a stay also in that countrie, touching certeine misdemeanors of the people there. To be short, hée purged the whole realme of all such robbers, théeues, and other the like offendors against the quiet peace of his subiects, as were hugelie increased by the licentious rule of his predecessor Dardan, and herevnto he was mightilie aided by the Morauians, who pursued such offendors most earnestlie, and The Morauians helpe to apprehend théeues and offendors. brought in vnto him no small number of them, euer as they caught them.

By this meanes was the state of the common-wealth brought into better quiet, and the yeere next insuing, being the third of Gald his reigne, he called a councell at Dunstafage, wherein he laboured much for the abrogating of the wicked lawes instituted by king Ewin, Gald laboreth to abrogate wicked lawes. as before is partlie specified: but he could not obteine more, than that poore men from thencefoorth should haue their wiues frée vnto themselues, without being abused from time to time indifferentlie by their landlords, as heretofore they had bene. Whilest he was thus busied about the establishing of holsome orders & statuts for the welth of his subiects, woord was brought him that Petilius Cerealis a Roman capteine, being sent from Vespasian the Petilius Cerealis a Romane capteine sent by Vespasian into Britaine. emperour to haue the gouernement of Britaine, was landed with a puissant armie in the countrie, and minded shortlie to inuade the borders of his realme, as Annandale and Galloway.

With these newes Gald being somewhat astonished, thought good to vnderstand the The Ordouices and Brigants mistaken by the Scotish writers. certeintie of the enimies dooings, before he made anie sturre for the leuieng of his people, and therefore appointed certeine light horssemen to ride foorth, and to bring certeine newes of that which they might heare or see: who at their returne declared that the enimies armie was abroad in the fields, vpon the borders of Pictland, and had giuen the Picts alreadie a The Picts ouerthrowne by the Romans. The Romans purpose to enter into Galloway. Gald determineth to fight with the Romans. Strange sights appéere to the Scotish armie. great ouerthrow; and further, how they were turned westward on the left hand, in purpose to enter into Galloway. Gald being thus certified of the Romans approch towards his countrie, determined to giue them battell, before they entered into the inner parts of his realme, and therefore with all spéed he assembled his people, to the number of fiftie thousand men, all such as were able to beare armor, being readie to repaire vnto him in such present necessitie for defense of their countrie.

It hath béene reported, that as he marched foorth towards his enimies, sundrie strange sights appeared by the way. An eagle was seene almost all a whole day, flieng vp and downe ouer the Scotish armie, euen as though she had laboured hir selfe wearie. Also an armed man was seene flieng round about the armie, and suddenlie vanished away. There fell in like maner out of a darke cloud in the fields, through the which the armie should passe, diuerse kinds of birds that were spotted with bloud. These monstruous sights troubled mens minds diuerslie, some construing the same to signifie good successe, and some otherwise. Also the chiefest capteins amongst the Scots were not all of one opinion, for some of them The Scots not all of one mind. weieng the great force of the Romane armie, being the greatest that euer had béene brought into their countrie before that day, counselled that they shuld in no wise be fought withall, but rather to suffer them to wearie themselues, till vittels and other prouision should faile them, and then to take the aduantage of them, as occasion serued.

Other were of a contrarie mind, iudging it best (sith the puissance of the whole realme was assembled) to giue battell, least by deferring time, the courage and great desire, which the people had to fight, should wax faint and decaie: so that all things considered, it was generallie in the end agréed vpon to giue battell, and so comming within sight of the enimies The Scots agrée to fight with the Romans. host, they made readie to incounter them. At the first the Scots were somewhat amazed with the great multitude of their aduersaries, but through the chéerefull exhortations of their king, and other their capteins, their stomachs began to reuiue, so that they boldlie set vpon the Romans, whereof insued betwixt them a right fierce and cruell battell, howbeit in the end the victorie inclined to the Romans, and the Scots were chased out of the field. Gald The Scots are discomfited. himselfe was wounded in the face, yet escaped he out of the battell, but not without great danger in déed, by reason the Romans pursued most egerlie in the chase.

There were slaine of the Scotishmen (as their chronicles report) aboue twelue thousand, and of the Romans about six thousand. This victorie being thus atchiued, the Romans got The citie called Epiake is woon by the Romans. possession of Epiake with the greatest part of all Galloway, and passed the residue of that yéere without anie other notable exploit: but in the summer following, Petilius the Romane gouernor went about to subdue the rest of the countrie, the Scots oftentimes making diuerse skirmishes with him, but in no wise durst ioine with them, puissance against puissance, least The Scots durst not fight any field with the Romans. they should haue put their countrie into further danger, if they had chanced eftsoones to haue receiued the ouerthrow.

¶ Here haue we thought good to aduertise the reader, that although the Scotish writers impute all the trauels, which Petilius spent in subduing the Brigants, and Frontinus in conquering the Silures, to be imploied chieflie against Scots & Picts : the opinion of the best learned is wholie contrarie therevnto, affirming the same Brigants & Silures not to be so far Touching all the dooings of the Romans in Britaine yeshall find sufficientlie in the historie of England. north by the distance of manie miles, as Hector Boetius and other his countriemen doo place them, which thing in the historie of England we haue also noted, where ye may read more of all the dooings of the Romans here in Britaine, as in their writers we find the same recorded. But neuerthelesse wee haue here followed the course of the Scotish historie, in maner as it is written by the Scots themselues, not binding anie man more in this place than in other to credit them further than by conference of authors it shall seeme to them expedient.

In the meane time then, whilest Petilius was occupied (as before ye haue hard) in the conquest of Galloway, Voadicia the daughter of Aruiragus (whom the Romans had before Voadicia reneweth wars with the Romans. time misused, as before in this treatise is partlie touched) gathered togither a crew of souldiors within the Ile of Man, partlie of the inhabitants, and partlie of such Scotishmen of Galloway as were fled thither for succor: with these shée tooke the seas, and landing in Galloway, vpon purpose to reuenge hir iniuries in times past receiued at the Romans hands, she set The Romane campe assailed in the night by Voadicia. vpon their tents in the night season, when they looked for nothing lesse than to be disquieted, by reason whereof they were brought into such disorder, that if Petilius had not caused such fierbrands to be kindled as he had prepared and dressed with pitch, rosen and tallow, for the like purpose, the whole campe had beene in great danger: but these torches or firebrands gaue not onlie light to sée where to make resistance, but also being cast in the faces of the enimies, staied their hardie forwardnesse, whereby the Romans hauing leasure to place themselues in arraie, defended the entries of their campe, till the day was sproong, and then giuing a full onset vpon their enimies, they put them quite to flight.

But Voadicia not herewith discouraged, hasted with all speed vnto Epiake, and taking Epiake is taken & burned by Voadicia. that citie she set fire on it, and slue such Romans as she found there, where of Petilius being certified, sent foorth a legion against hir to withstand hir attempts. Those that had the charge of them that were thus sent, vsed such diligence, that laieng an ambush for hir in a place fit for that purpose, they so inclosed hir, that slaieng the most part of hir company, she was taken prisoner hir selfe, and being brought aliue vnto Petilius, vpon hir stout answer made vnto him, as he questioned with hir about hir bold enterprises, shée was presentlie Voadicia is slaine. slaine by the souldiors.

Anon after Petilius was certified, that the inhabitants of the Ile of Wight, with other The Britains rebell. The Britains are appeased. Petilius the Romane legat dieth. Iulius Frontinus sent into Britaine. southerne Britains, had raised a commotion against king Marius, so that without spéedie succors they were like to driue him out of his kingdome: wherevpon he hasted thither with all conuenient speed, and subduing the rebels, set all things there in good order and staie: and so remaining there till the next yeere after, he fell sicke of the flix and died. Immediatlie wherevpon the emperour sent one Iulius Frontinus to succéed in his place. This Frontinus brought with him two legions of souldiors, and after he had taken order with king Marius for the kéeping of the Britains in due subiection of the empire, he purposed to bring such vnto obedience, as inhabited within and beyond the woods of Calidon, and as yet not The Silures mistaken for Scotishmen. vanquished by anie man.

Therefore entring first into Galloway, and visiting such garrisons of the Romans, as Petilius Frontinus purposeth to pursue the conquest of the Silures whō The Scots mistake for Galloway men. Frontinus requireth to ioine in amitie with the Picts. The Pictish king refuseth to be in league with the Romans. had left there for the keeping of that quarter, he commended their loialtie and diligence, in that they had looked so well to their charge, that the enimie had gained no aduantage at their hands, whilest the armie was occupied in the south parts about other affaires there. He also sent an herald vnto the king of the Picts with letters, requiring him to renew by confirmation the former league betwixt his people & the Romans, & not by any means to aid the Scots as before they had done to their great losse & hindrance. Hervnto the king of Picts much suspecting the matter, made a direct answer, that he saw no cause why he should in fauor of the Romans suffer his confederats the Scots to be subdued, and brought to destruction without all reason or equitie: and therefore he was determined by the aduise of his péeres & councellors, to aid the Scots against such as sought nothing but the meanes how to bring the whole Ile of Albion into thraldome and seruile bondage.

Frontinus little regarding this vntowardlie answer, set forward to subdue such Scots as were yet disobedient. And so entring into the borders of Kile, Carrike, and Coningham, Gald resisteth the Romans. By reason of sicknesse he withdraweth to Argile. had diuers skirmishes with such as king Gald had assembled to defend his countrie, but forsomuch as he was diseased with sicknesse, he was at length constreined to withdraw him selfe into Argile, leauing his power behind him to resist the enimies attempts: but shortlie after his departure from amongst them, they were fought withall by the Romans, and discomfited, thrée thousand of them being slaine in the field. By reason of which ouerthrowe those countries submitted themselues to the Romans, perceiuing no hope otherwise how to They submit themselues to the Romans. escape that present danger.

These Scots of Carrike, Kile, and Coningham, being thus brought into subiection, the armie was licenced to withdraw to their lodgings for the winter season, during the which, Frontinus being vexed with sicknesse returneth to Rome Iulius Agricola is sent into Britaine. The Scots of Annandale beat downe the Romans. Agricola prepareth to go against the Scots. Karanach K. of the Picts discomfited by the Romans. Frontinus fell sicke of superfluous abundance of flegme, which vexed him in such sort, that the emperor Domitian, who as then gouerned the Romane empire, sent for him home to Rome, and appointed a right valiant personage, one lulius Agricola to succéed as lieutenant of Britaine in his roome. About the time of whose arriuall there, the Scots of Annandale slue a great number of the Romans, with which successe they procured also the Picts with the inhabitants of Galloway, Kile, Carrike, and Coningham to rebell.

These newes being reported vnto Agricola, he made his prouision with all spéed to go against them, and first entring into the borders of Pictland, he reduced such as inhabited about the confines of Berwike to their former subiection, and after marching towards the citie of Camelon, Karanach king of the Picts incountred him by the waie, but being fiercelie beaten off by the Romans, he fled backe into the citie, and within three daies after hauing reinforced his power, he eftsoones gaue battell againe to his enimies; but then also being vanquished, he lost the most part of all his men, and so immediatlie therevpon was Camelon woone by force, & a great number of the citizens slaine.

Agricola caused it to be newlie fortified, and further through fame of this victorious beginning, he recouered the most part of all the castels and fortresses of Pictland. The forenamed Karanach escaping out of that present danger, got him beyond the water of Firth, Karanach flieth beyond the Firth. for the more suertie of his owne person. Agricola hauing sped thus in Pictland, marched foorth against them of Annandale, who at the first màking resistance for a time, at length were constreined to giue backe, and so fled to their houses, where in the night following by their owne wiues they were murthered each mothers sonne: for so the women of that nation The Scots of Annandale slaine by their wiues. vsed to put awaie the shame of their husbands, when they at any time had fled out of the field from their enimies.

Agricola vnderstanding that by winning him fame in the beginning, it should be no small furtherance vnto him for the atchiuing of other enterprises in time to come, determined to Here is a manifest error in the Scotish writers, taking Man for Anglesey. pursue his good fortune, and therevpon prepared to subdue the Ile of Man; but wanting vessels to conuey his armie ouer, he found meanes that such as could swim, and knew the shallow places of that coast, made shift to passe the goolfe, and so got on land, to the great Agricola assaileth the Ile of Anglesey and not Man as Hector Boetius mistaketh it. woonder and amazing of the inhabirants, who watched the sea coasts, to resist such ships as they looked for to haue arriued vpon their shore: but now despairing to resist such kind of warriors as indangered themselues to passe the seas in that maner of wise, they submitted themselues vnto Agricola.

Who taking pledges of them, and appointing certeine garoons to kéepe diuers holds and The Ile of Anglesey is subdued by Agricola. places of defense within that Ile, passed ouer with the residue of his people into Galloway, where he soiourned all the winter following: which being passed, and summer once come, he assembled his men of warre againe, and visited a great part of that countrie with Kile, Carrike, and Coningham, the inhabitants whereof he put in such feare with the onelie shew of his warlike armie, disposed in such politike order and wise conduct, that there was none to be found that durst aduance themselues to incounter him, so that he spent that summers season in kéeping such of the Scots as had beene aforetime subdued, from attempting any commotion. And when winter was come, he assembled the nobles of the countrie, Agricola studieth to bring the Scots vnto ciuilitie. exhorting them by gentle persuasions, to frame themselues to a ciuill trade of liuing, as well in building of temples, houses, and other edifices after the Roman maner, as also in wearing of comelie and decent apparell; and aboue all things to set their children to schoole, to be brought vp in eloquence and good nurture. By this meanes he thought to traine them from their accustomed fiercenesse, and to win them the sooner to be content with bondage, though he coloured it with neuer so faire a glose of humanitie.

The third winter being thus spent, and the next summer commen vpon, Agricola inuaded such countries as were yet vndiscouered by the Romans, entring by the nether side of Calidon wood, euen vnto the dolorous mounteine, which afterwards by the Scots was cleped Kalendar wood Agricola commeth to Sterling. Sterling. It was called the dolorous mounteine, for that in the night season there was heard right lamentable noise & cries, as though the same had béene of some creatures that had bewailed their miserable cases: which vndoubtedlie was the craftie illusions of wicked spirits, to kéepe mens minds still oppressed in blind errors and superstitious fantasies.

Agricola considering the naturall strength of this mounteine, with the site of an old ruinous castell that stood thereon, he caused the same with all diligence to be repared, and Agricola buildeth the castle of Sterling with the bridge. a bridge to be made ouer the Forth there, by the which he passed with his whole armie ouer into Fife: and the daie after, hearing that the king of the Picts was withdrawne into a castell thereby, standing vpon an high mounteine cleped Beenart, he inuironed the same Mount Béenart. with a strong siege, howbeit his hoped prey was not as then within it, for Karanach king of the Picts, informed of the Romans approch, got him foorth abroad into the fields, and assembling his power, purposed by night to haue broken the bridge, which Agricola had Karanach assaileth Sterling bridge, which the Romans defended. made ouer the Forth at Sterling, but being repelled by such as were set there to defend the same, in his returne from thence he was incountred by Agricola himselfe, who being certified of this attempt of his enimies, had leuied his siege, and was comming towards them, so that both the hosts méeting togither in the fields, there was fought a sore battell betwixt them, though in the end the Picts were discomfited, and their king the foresaid Karanach chased Karanach is eftsoones chased. Fife with other countries brought into subiection of the Romans. vnto the riuer of Tay, where he got a bote, and escaped to the further side of that water. By reason of this ouerthrow, Agricola brought in subiection those countries, which lie betwéene the waters of Forth and Tay, as Fife, Fothrike, and Ernedall, and soiourning there all the winter following, he built sundrie fortresses in places most conuenient for the kéeping of the inhabitants in their couenanted obedience, after his departure from amongst them.

In the meane while, the king of the Picts kept him at Dundée, whither resorted vnto him a great number of the Pictish nobilitie, such as had escaped the Romans hands. These Karanach comforted by his nobles. comforted their king in all that they might, willing him to be of good chéere, and to hope well of the recouerie of his losses againe by some good fortune and meanes that might happen to come yer ought long, promising to the furtherance thereof all that in them laie, as well for counsell as aid of hand : and herevpon they tooke aduise which waie to worke, insomuch that at length it was by great deliberation thought good to séeke for succor at the hands of their ancient confederats the Scots, and so incontinentlie there were certeine messingers dispatched with all speed vnto Gald the Scotish king, requiring him in that The Picts send for aid to king Gald. common ieopardie to ioine. in league with his ancient friends the Picts, against the ambitious and most cruell Romans, who sought nothing else but the vtter subuersion of the whole land of Albion, as manifestlie appéered by their procéedings, hauing alreadie occupied and wrongfullie surprised a great part not onlie of the Pictish kingdome, but also of the Scotish dominions, minding still to go forward in such vnrighteous conquests, if by timelie resistance they were not staied. Gald vpon this request and motion of the Picts gladlie consented to Gald premiseth to ioine in league with the Picts against the Romans. ioine his power with theirs, in common defense of both the realmes (against such common enimies as the Romans were esteemed) hauing herevnto the assent of all his péeres and chéefest councellors.

Thus whilest the kings of the Scots and Picts were concluding a league togither for defense of themselues and their countries, certeine Scots entred into the confines of Kile, Carrike, and Coningham, and wan diuers fortresses, wherein certeine garrisons of Romane souldiers soiourned, whome they slue downe right without all mercie, spoiling the whole The Scots slea the Roman souldiers lieng in certeine garisons. The riuer of Clide, otherwise called Clude. Agricola repelling the Scots, could not yet win the castell of Dunbreton, ancientlie called Awldcluch, or Alcluth. countrie. Agricola hauing knowledge hereof, went streightwaies thither with a power, and pursuing them that had doone those iniuries, some he tooke amongst the hilles and mounteines, whither they fled; and the residue he chased beyond the riuer of Clide, but the castell of Dunbreton he could not by any meanes obteine, though he assaied to win it euen to the vttermost of his power. It was called in those daies Alcluth, that is to meane: All stone. The Scotishmen being thus driuen backe, Agricola repared such castels and fortresses as they had ouerthrowne and beaten downe.

In the yeare following, being the fift after the first comming of Agricola into Britaine, he caused his ships to be brought about frō the Ile of Wight into the water of Lochfine in Argile, thereby to put his enimies in vtter despaire of escaping his hands either by water or land: and therevpon passing ouer the riuer of Clide with his armie, and finding his nauie there, he set vpon the countrie of Lennox, in purpose to subdue the same. But after he Agricola inuadeth Lennox. had made sundrie skirmishes with the inhabitants, he was certified by letters from the gouernor of Camelon, that the Picts were readie to rebell, by reason wherof he left off this enterprise against the Scots, and drew backe into Pictland, leauing a part of his armie to Agricola returneth into Pictland, to appease a rebellion of the people there. He returneth vnto Clide. keepe possession of the water of Clide, till his returne againe into those parties. At his comming into Pictland, he appesed the rebels with small adoo, punishing the chéefe authors according to their demerits. This doone, he returned vnto the water of Clide, lieng all that winter beyond the same, taking order for the gouernment of those parties, in due obedience of the Romane empire.

The summer following he appointed his nauie to search alongst by the coast all the hauens Agricola pursueth his enterprise against the Scots. and créeks of Argile, and of the Ilands néere to the same. Whilest he by land passing ouer the water of Leuine, went about to conquer townes and castels, though halfe discouraged at the first, by reason of the rough waies, streict passages, high mounteines, craggie rocks, thicke woods, déepe marishes, fens and mosses, with the great riuers which with his armie he must néeds passe, if he minded to atteine his purpose: but the old souldiers being inured with paines and trauell, ouercame all these difficulties by the wise conduct of their woorthie generall and other the capteins, and so inuading the countrie tooke townes and castels, of the which some they beat downe and raced, and some they fortified and stuffed with garisons of men of warre.

About the same time by commandement of king Gald, and other the gouernors of At the Scots assemble. Scotland, all the able men of Cantire, Lorne, Murrey land, Lugemarth, also those of the westerne Iles, & of all other parties belonging to the Scotish dominions, were appointed to assemble and come togither in Atholl, at a place not passing fiue miles distant from the castell of Calidon now cleped Dunkeld, there to abide the comming of Karanach king of the Picts, to the end that ioining togither in one armie, they might some high exploit. But he hauing assembled fiftéene thousand of his men of war, as he marched alongst by the mounteine of Granzbene, in times past cleped Mons Grampius, there chanced a mutinie amongest his people, so that falling togither by the eares, Karanach himselfe comming amongst them Karanach K. of the Picts slaine by misfortune of one of his owne subiects. vnarmed as he was to part the fraie, was slaine presentlie at vnwares, by one that knew not what he was. By reason of which mischance that iournie was broken, for the Picts being vtterlie amazed and discomfited héerewith, skaled and departed asunder.

Gald with his Scots now being thus disappointed of the Picts his chéefest aid, durst not ieopard to trie the chance of battell with the enimies, but determined with light skirmishes, and by withdrawing of vittels out of their walke, to stop them from further proceeding in conquest of the countrie, & in the mean time to prouide against the next summer new aid and succors to kéepe the field, and so to incounter with them, puissance against puissance, if they remained so long in the countrie. The Scots resting vpon this resolution, thought good to send some honorable ambassage vnto the Picts to mooue them vnto mutuall An ambassage frō the Scots to the Picts. agréement & concord amongst themselues, whereby they might be able to resist the common ruine of their countrie as then in present danger to be oppressed by the Romans.

Those that were sent on this message, did so diligentlie behaue themselues, in bringing The Picts brought to agréement amongst themselues. their purpose to passe, that the Picts in the end agréed to ioine in friendlie amitie one with another, and to choose one Garnard to their king to succéed in the roome of Karanach. They also confirmed the former leage with the Scots, and by their procurement sent messengers vnto the Nowwegians and Danes, requiring them of aid against the Romans the common enimies of all such nations as loued to lue in libertie, wheresoeuer the same were inhabiting in anie part on the whole face of the earth. There were also sent ambassadors vnto the Ambassadors sent vnto the Danes and Irishmen for aid. Irishmen from the Scots for the same intent, and from both those places there was great aid promised, as frō them that estéemed themselues halfe bound by a naturall respect, to succor such as were descended of the same ancestors and countries that they were of, and now like to be expelled out of the seats which their forefathers had got possession in by iust title of conquest, and left the same into their posteritie to enioy for euer.

Whilest these things were thus in dooing, Galdus diuiding his armie into sundrie parts, did what was possible to resist all the attempts of the Romans. Who standing in doubt of The fame of Gald his puissance putteth the Romans in feare. his puissance, rather through fame thereof, than for anie apparant sight or other knowledge had, durst not put themselues in danger to enter into Calidon wood, of all that summer; and thewinter following was so extreame, by reason of frost, snow, and coldnesse of aire, that they were not able to enterprise anie exploit on neither part: howbeit the summer was no sooner come (being the seauenth after the comming of Agricola into Britaine) but that they prepared to inuade one an other againe with all their forces.

Foorth of Ireland there came (according as was promised) a great power of men of warre, An aid of Irishmen come to the succors of the Scots. and ioined with an armie of Scotishmen in Atholl, being there alreadie assembled in great numbers out of all quarters of the Scotish dominions. Thither came also Garnard king of the Picts with his power. All which forces being thus assembled togither by common agréement amongest them, Gald king of the Scots was chosen to be their generall, who Gald chosen to be generall against the Romans. hearing that Agricola with his host was entred into Kalendar wood, diuided the whole armie into three battels, and so marched foorth towards the enimies in purpose to incounter them. Agricola being of this aduertised by spials, parted his people also into thrée wards, doubting to be inclosed within some combersome place by reason of the great multitude of his enimies, that were estéemed to be in number aboue 50000 of one and other.

Gald on the other side vnderstanding by spials this order of the Romans, in the dead of the night setteth vpon one of those legions, which was lodged next vnto him, and finding meanes to slea the watch, was entred into the enimies lodgings, before they had anie Gald setteth vpon one part of his enimies in the night. knowlege of his comming, so that the fight was right fierce & cruell euen among the Romans tents and lodgings. But Agricola being certified of this enterprise of the Scots, sent foorth with all spéed a certeine number of light horssemen and footmen to assaile them on the backs, & so to kéepe them occupied, till he might come with all the residue of his people to the rescue. They that were thus sent, accomplishing their enterprise according to the deuise in that behalfe appointed, gaue a right fierce & stout charge vpon the Scots and Picts, greatlie to the reliefe of those that were by them assailed, and withall sore amazed and disordered by reason of the enimies sudden inuasioh.

By this meanes the fight continued right fierce and cruell on all sides, till at length the daie Agricola ommeth to the succors of his men. Agricola discomfiteth his enimies. beginning to appéere, shewed to the Scots and Picts the plaine view of the whole Romane armie, approching vnder the conduct of Agricola, to the succour of his people, being thus in danger to be distressed. Heerewith were the Scots and Picts put in such feare, that immediatlie they fell to running awaie towards the woods and bogs, the accustomed places of their refuge. This ouerthrow did so abash both the Scots and Picts, that they durst attempt no more the fortune of battell, till they had some aid out of Denmarke, but onelie did what they could to defend their townes and countrie, by making sundrie raises vpon their enimies, as occasion and opportunitie serued. But the Romans, supposing nothing to be hard for their vndaunted valiancie, but that they were able to ouercome whatsoeuer should stand at defiance against them, determined at length to find an end of the Ile of Albion, and so passing thorough The Romans passe through Calidon wood ouer the riuer of Amond. Kalendar wood, and ouer the riuer of Amond, they pitched their field néere to the riuer of Taie, not far from the castell named Calidon or Kalendar.

The Picts, by reason that their enimies were lodged so neere to the confines of their countrie doubting what might follow thereof, burned the citie of Tuline, least the same enimies chancing The Picts burne the citie of Tuline. The place where Tuline stood is called by the inhabitants at this daie Inchtuthill. to take it, should furnish it with some garrison of men, to the great danger of the whole Pictish kingdome. This citie stood vpon the banke of Taie, right beautifullie built, with many faire castels and towers, as may appeere euen vnto this daie by the old ruines therof, strong rather by the workemans hands, than by nature. The Scotishmen in our time call the place Inchtuthill. All their wiues and children they remooued vnto the mounteins of Granzbene for their more suertie and safegard.

About the same time the Romans were not a little disquieted, by reason of a mutinie which The Germans cōming to serue the Romans rebell against their captein and leaders. chanced amongst such Germans as were appointed to come ouer to Agricola, as a new supplie to furnish vp such numbers as were decaied in his armic. These slaieng their capteine, and such other Romans as were appointed to haue the order of them for their training in warlike feats at the beginning, as the maner was, got certeine pinnesses which they happened vpon in the riuer of Thames, and sailing about the east and north coasts of this Ile, arriued in Taie water, offering themselues to the Scots and Picts to serue against the Romans, whose malice they dread for their offense committed if they should returne into their owne countries, which laie about the mouth of the Rhene, and was as then subiect to the Romane empire, the These Vsipites first inhabited the parties betwixt the mounteins of Hessen and the Rhene, now called Hochrug, frōwhence they remoued into the nether countries. Danes, and Norwegians, come to aid the Scots and Picts. Gildo is kept off from landing by the Romans. Gildo arriueth in Taie water. Cornetius Tacttus maketh no mention of anie forraine aid to come to the succours of his enimies, comprehending them all vnder the name of Britains. Garnard the king of Picts ioifullie receiued Gildo. Gald commeth into Dundée to welcome Gildo. Gald Garnard and Gildo assemble a councell at Forfare, where they deuise how to procéed in their warre. They determine to rest all the winter, and make fronter warre onelie. inhabitants in those daies being cleped Vsipites, the which (as some suppose) inhabited Cleueland and Gulike.

Their offer was accepted most thankefullie, and places appointed for them to inhabit amongest the Murraies, because they were descended as it were of one nation. Whilest these things were thus a dooing, there came also the long wished aid from the Danes and Norwegians, to the number of ten thousand men, vnder the leading of one Gildo. This Gildo with his nauie first arriued in the frith betwixt Fife and Louthian, but for that the Romans kept him off from landing there, he cast about and came into the riuer of Taie, where he landed all his people, for prouision wherof he had good store both of vittels and armour. Garnard king of the Picts hearing of their arriuall there, foorthwith vpon the newes departed from Dundée, accompanied with a great number of his nobles, and comming to the place where Gildo with his armie was lodged, receiued him in most ioifull wise, feasted and banketed him and his people, and shewed them all the tokens of most hartie loue and friendship that could be deuised. Gildo himselfe was led by the king vnto Dundee, and lodged with him there in the castell, his people were prouided for abroad in the countrie in places most for their ease, to refresh themselues the better after their painefull iournie by the seas.

Shortlie after there came vnto Dundée the Scotish king Gald, who for his part did all the honour that in him lay vnto Gildo, shewing himselfe most ioifull and glad of his comming, yéelding vnto him and his people such thanks and congratulations as serued best to the purpose, and receiued no lesse at his and their hands againe. After they had remained thus certeine daies togither at Dundée, both the kings Gald & Garnard, togither with this Gildo, went vnto the castell of Forfare, there to consult with their capteins and gouernours of their men of warre, how to mainteine themselues in their enterprise against the enimie. At length they resolued not to go foorth into the field till the winter season were past, for doubt of the inconuenience that might insue, by reason of the extreame cold intemperancie of the aire, whereto that countrie is greatlie subiect.

In the meane time they tooke order for the furniture of all things necessarie for the wars, to haue the same in a perfect readines against the next spring, and till then they did appoint onelie to kéepe fronter warre, that the Romans should not straie abroad to fetch in vittels and other prouisions to their owne gains, and to the vndooing of the poore inhabitants. Vpon this determination when the councell was broken vp, Gald withdrew into Atholl, to defend those parties; and Garnard with the Danish generall Gildo, furnished all the castels and holds in Angus ouer against the riuer of Taie, to stop the passages of the same, that the enimies should enter no further on that side. Thus passed the winter for that yeare, without anie great exploit on either part atchiued.

In the beginning of the next summer, Agricola appointed his nauie of ships to saile about Agricola sendeth forth his nauie of ships, to discouer the furthest point of Britaine northward. the coasts of the furthest parts of Albion, making diligent search of euerie créeke & hauen alongst by the same. The mariners executing his commandement, sailed round about the north coast, discouering manie of the westerne Iles, and likewise those of Orkneie, till at length they found out Pictland firth, being a streict of the sea of twentie miles in bredth, which separateth the Iles of Orkneie from the point of Cathnesse, passing with so swift a course, that without an expert pilot the ships that shall passe the same are oftentimes in great danger, by reason of the contrarie course of the tides. The Romane mariners therefore, finding certeine husbandmen in the next Iles, constreined them to go a shipbord, & to guide them through that streict, promising them high rewards for their labour; but they vpon a malicious intent not passing for their owne Iiues, so they might be reuenged of their enimies in casting away The Romane ships through want of pilots are lost in Pictland frith. such a notable number of them togither with their vessels, entred the streict at such an inconuenient time, that the ships were borne with violence of the streame against the rocks and shelues, in such wise that a number of the same were drowned and lost without recouerie.

Some of them that were not ouer-hastie to follow the first, séeing the present losse of their Agricola making a bridge ouer Tay water, passeth by the same with his host, and incampeth néere to the foot of the mounteine of Granzbene. fellows, returned by the same way they came vnto Agricola, who in this meane time had caused a bridge to be made ouer the riuer of Tay, by the which he passed with his whole armie, and incamped on the further side thereof néere to the roots of the mounteine of Granzbene, leauing the bridge garnished with a competent number of souldiers to defend it against the enimies. The Picts being not a little troubled herewith, dispatched forth a messenger with all hast vnto Gald the Scotish king, signifieng vnto him the whole matter, and thervpon required of him aid.

Gald hauing mustered his people aswell Scotish as Irish, assembled them togither to the Gald king of the Scotish men commeth to the aid of the Picts. The Scots and Picts determine to giue battell to the Romans. Gald exhorteth his people to fight manfullie. number of fortie thousand persons, what of one and other, and incontinentlie with all spéed marcheth forth to come vnto the aid of the Picts, and so within a few daies passing ouer the mounteine of Granzbene, he arriueth in a vallie beyond the same mounteine, where he findeth the Picts, Danes, and Norwegians incamped togither not far off from the host of the Romans. Here taking aduise togither, & in the end determining to giue battell, king Gald (vnto whome as before is expressed, the gouernance of the whole was cōmitted) assembling togither all the number of the confederats, made vnto them a long and pithie oration, exhorting them in defense of libertie (the most pretious iewell that man might inioy) to shew their manlie stomachs against them that sought onelie to depriue them of that so great a benefit. And sith they were driuen to the vttermost bounds of their countrie, he persuaded them to make vertue of necessitie, and rather choose to die with honor, than to liue in perpetuall shame & ignominie, which must néeds insue to their whole nation, if they suffered themselues to be vanquished in that instant. With these words, or other much of what the semblable effect, Gald so moued the hearts of his people, that they desired nothing but to ioine with their enimies, & to trie it by dint of sword, which they vniuersallie signified according to their accustomed vse with a great noise, shout, and clamor.

On the other part Agricola, though he perceiued a great desire amongest his souldiers to fight, yet he was not negligent on his owne behalfe to incourage them with most chéerefull words and countenance; so that both the armies being thus bent to haue battell, the generals on both parties began to set them in araie. Agricola to the end his armie being the lesser number should not be assailed both a front and on the sides, prouided (by disposing them in a certeine order) a remedie against that disaduantage. On the other side, king Gald by reason of Gald by reason of his multitude, thinketh to inclose his enimies. The armies approch togither to fight. They ioine. the aduantage which he had in his great multitude and number, ordered his battels thereafter with a long and large front, placing the same vpon the higher ground, of purpose to compasse in the enimies on ech side. At the first approch of the one armie towards the other, the battell was begun right fiercelie with shot of arrows and hurling of darts, which being once past, they ioined togither to trie the matter by hand-strokes, wherein the Scots & Picts had one disaduantage, for those that were archers, or (as I may call them) kerns, comming once to fight at hand-blowes, had nothing but broad swords and certeine sorie light bucklers to The Scotish mens disaduantage, by reason of their vrifit weapons. defend themselues with, such as serue to better purpose for men to ride with abroad at home, than to be carried foorth into the warres, though the same haue béene so vsed among the Scotishmen, euen till these our daies.

The Romans therefore being well appointed with armor and broad targets, slue downe right a great number of these Scots and Picts thus slenderlie furnished, without receiuing anie great damage againe at their hands, till king Gald appointed his spearemen to step forth before those archers & kerns, to succor them, and therewith also the bilmen came forward, and stroke on so freshlie, that the Romans were beaten downe on heaps, in such wise that they were néere at point to haue bene discomfited, had not a band of Germans (which serued amongst the A cohort of Germans restored the Romane side néere at point to haue had the worse. Romans) rushed foorth with great violence vpon the Scotishmen, where most danger appeared, and so restored againe the fainting stomachs of the Romans, whereby the battell renewed on both sides againe right fierce and cruell, that great ruth it was to behold that bloudie fight and most vnmercifull murther betwixt them, which continued with more violence on the Scotish side than anie warlike skill, till finallie the night comming on, tooke the daies light from The night seuereth the armies in sunder & parteth the fray. The Romans withdraw to their campe, & the Scots to the mounteins. them both, and so parted the fraie. The Romans withdrew to their campe: and the Scots and Picts with their confederats the Danes, Norwegians, and Irishmen, such as were left aliue, got them into the next mounteins, hauing lost in this cruell conflict the most part of their whole numbers.

¶ Cornelius Tacitus agréeth not in all points with the Scotish chronicles, in a booke which he wrote of the life of Iulius Agricola, where he intreateth of this battell. For he speaketh but of thirtie thousand men (which he comprehendeth vnder the generall name of Britains) Sée more hereof in the historie of England. The number of them that were slaine at this battell. to be assembled at that time against the Romans, making no mention of anie Scots, Picts, Irishmen, Norwegians, or Danes, that should be there in their aid. The number of them that were slaine on the Britains side (as the same Tacitus recounteth) amounted to about ten thousand men, and of the Romans not passing three hundred and fortie. Amongst whom was one Aulus Atticus, a capteine of one of the cohorts. But as the Scotish writers affirme, there died that day of Scots, Picts, and other their confederates at the point of twentie thousand, and of the Romans and such as serued on their side, as good as twelue thousand. Moreouer, the night following, when Galdus with the residue of his people which were left aliue was withdrawne to the mounteins, and that the huge losse was vnderstood by the wiues and kinswomen of the dead, there began a pitifull noise among them, lamenting and bewailing their Women bewaile their friends. miserable case and losses.

But Gald, doubting least the same should come to the eares of some espials, that might lurke neere to the place where he was withdrawne, caused an huge shout and noise to be raised by his people, as though it had béene in token of some reioising, till the women bewailing thus the deth of their friends, might be remooued out of the way. This doone, they fell to take counsell what was best to doo in this case: and in the end all things considered, it was determined that somewhat before the dawning of the next morrow, euerie man should The Scotish men & Picts breake vp their campe. dislodge and withdraw himselfe into such a place as he thought most méet for his safegard, saue onelie such as were appointed to attend Gald and Garnard into Atholl, whither they minded with all spéed to go.

Thus leauing a great number of fiers to dissemble their departure, they dislodged and made awaie with all spéed possible. In the morning when their departure was once discouered, a great number of the Romans followed as it had beene in the chase, but some of them The Romans in pursuing vnaduisedlie are distressed. vnaduisedly aduenturing too farre forward, were inclosed by their enimies and slaine. Those that wrought this feat got them to the next hils and so escaped. At length, when all the fields and countries adioining were discouered, and the same appearing to be quite deliuered of all the ambushments of the enimies, Agricola caused the spoile to be gathered, and after marched foorth vnto Angus, where (forsomuch as summer was past) he appointed to winter, and so Agricola subdueth Angus and wintereth there. comming thither and subduing the countrie, he tooke pledges of the best amongst the inhabitants, and lodged his people about him in places most conuenient.

About the same time Agricola heard newes from his nauie (as then riding at anchor in Agricola is certified of the mischance of his nauie. Argile) what mishap had chanced to the same in Pictland frith. But herewith being not greatlie discouraged, he gaue order that the ships that had escaped, should be new rigged and furnished with all necessarie prouision, and manned throughlie, both with able mariners and men of war. This doone, he appointed them eftsoones to attempt fortune, and to take their course againe to come round about by the Orkenies, and so vp alongst by the east coast: which enterprise The komane fléet saileth round about the north point of Albion. they luckilie accomplished, and in the water of Taie they burnt the Danish fléet lieng there in harbrough.

¶ Here is to be noted, that before the fore-remembred ouerthrow of the Scots and their confederats at the foot of Granzbene, there happened manie sundrie vnketh and strange sights in this Ile. Amongst other there appeared flieng in the aire certeine firie visions, much to be Strange visions. wondered at. Also a great peece of Kalendar wood séemed in the night time as it had béene on a flaming fire, but in the morning there appeared no such token. There was in like maner Ships séene in the aire. It rained frogs A mōstruous child borne. séene in the aire the similitude of certeine ships. And in Angus it rained frogs. At Tuline there was a child borne hauing both shapes, so filthie a sight to behold, that forthwith they rid it out of the way for offending others eies. These prodigious things were diuerslie interpreted, according to the variable fansie of man.

After that the prosperous successe of Agricola was once notified to the emperour Domitian, Domitian the emperour enuieth the prosperous succes of Agricola. Agricola is sent for to Rome, one Cneus Trebellius appointed in his place which causeth the souldiers to make a mutinie. The Scots vpon occasion of discord amongst the Romans, come forth against them. The Scots set vpon the Romans. The Romans are discōfited. he tooke such enuie thereat, that shortlie after, vnder a colour to send him into Syria to be lieutenant there, he countermanded him home vnto Rome, appointing one Cneus Trebellius to succéed him in the gouernment of Britaine, but the armie bearing more fauour vnto one Trebellianus being cousine to Agricola, caused no small trouble amongst the souldiors, so that in the end after certeine bickerings betwixt them, Trebellianus tooke a sort of the best souldiors away with him, and went ouer with them into France.

The Scots taking occasion hereof, ioined with the Picts, and entred into Angus. Whereof Cneus Trebellianus being informed, assembled his people, who perceiuing no great forwardnesse in their leader, created-Caius Sisinnius (brother to the forenamed Trebellianus) their capteine, but he would in no wise meddle with that charge, though they were verie earnest in hand with him to take it vpon him. In the meane time came the enimies vnder the leading of Gald readie to giue the onset, wherewith the Romans being sore troubled, by reason of this discord amongst themselues, set forward yet right valiantlie, to giue battell to their enimies: howbeit in the end, bicause that Sisinnius receiued a mortall wound, and so departed out of the field, they fell at length to running awaie, the Scots and Picts following in the chase right fiercelie.

This atchiued victorie, after so manie vnluckie enterprises, highlie reioised the appalied harts of the Albions, hauing béene continuallie in maner now for the space of fiftie yéeres The Romans withdraw vnto Tuline. through aduerse fortune grieuouslie oppressed by the Romans, who being not a little discouraged by this ouerthrow, withdrew themselues wholie vnto Tuline, and shortlie after for their more safegard, they got them ouer the riuer of Tay, breaking the bridge They retire backe ouer the water of Tay and breake the bridge after them. which they had made there, to the end that by the same the Scots & Picts should haue no passage in that place. But Gald hauing got this notable victorie with the spoile of the Romans campe, thought it best with the aduise of his nobles, to pursue the Romans without delaie, not suffering them to haue time to prouide for resistance. And herevpon comming to the castell of Calidon otherwise Kalendar, they got ouer the riuer of Tay, by a The Scots get ouer the water of Tay néere to Calidon castell. bridge of wood laid ouer the same riuer, which in that place is but narrow, by reason of the rocks & cliffes forcing the banks on either side to a streictnesse.

The Romane capteins also not ignorant of the passage of the enimies, brought foorth The Scots eftsoones giue battell to the Romans. their armie, and made themselues readie to incounter them, but for that the forenamed Caius Sisinnius was not able to stirre by reason of his wounds receiued in the last battell, they chose one Titus Celius, a valiant gentleman of Rome to be their leader, and so vnder his conduct setting vpon their enimies they fought right fiercelie for a time, but yet in the The Romans are againe discomfited. end they were put to flight, & chased into Calidon. There were slaine of the Romane part in this incounter to the number of fiue thousand, and of the Scots and other the confederats two thousand. After this victorie thus obteined by the Scots, a great number of The Britains hearing of the euill aduentures fallen to the Romans, reuolt frō their obedience. the Britains reuolted from the Romane obedience, as those that inhabit the countrie which we now call Wales, with the marches, slaieng & chasing awaie such Romans as lay abroad in those parties.

This doone, they sent vnto Gald king of the Scots, certeine messengers with rich iewels and gifts, in token of their reioising and gladnes for his victories, promising him furthermore such aid as they were able to make against the Romans the common enimies of all the whole Albion nation. Moreouer, in this meane while did the Romans within Calidon The Romans send vnto Marius king of the Britains for aid. castell direct their messengers with letters vnto Marius king of the Britains, signifieng vnto him the present danger wherein things stood in those parties by the cruell rage of the Scotishmen and Picts, whom fortune had aduanced with the gaine of two foughten fields, insomuch that if timelie succours were not the sooner sent, the losse would be irrecouerable. Herevnto Marius answered, that as then a common conspiracie appeared to be in hand Marius king of the Britains doubteth rebellion of his subiects. amongest his subiects, so far foorth that he doubted greatlie the suertie of his owne estate; and as for hope of aid to be sent from Rome, he saw small likeliehood; considering the slender prouision there through the misgouernement of cruell Domitian, who by reason of the hatred which the people bare him, regarded nothing but how to kéepe them from rising vp in armour against him, and therefore he thought it necessarie that leauing the north parts Marius counselleth the Romans to leaue the north parts vnto the enimies, and to draw vnto him into the south parts to kéepe the same. to the enimies, they should all withdraw towards him into the south parts, to kéepe yet the more fruitfull portion of the Ile in due obedience, sith their puissance might not suffice to reteine & rule the whole.

These newes greatlie abashed the Romane armie, & so much the more, for that about the same time it was shewed them how king Gald with an huge armie of Scotishmen and Picts, was come within ten miles of them. Wherevpon the Romans not knowing at that instant what was best for them to doo, in the end they concluded to withdraw into Cantire, where The Romans withdraw into Cantire, & after into Galloway. Gald pursueth the Romans. being arriued, and perceiuing themselues as yet to be in no great suertie there, they went awaie from thence with spéed into Galloway. in the meane time king Gald, supposing it best eftsoones to fight with them yer they might haue anie space to reinforce their power, followed them with all diligence, not forcing though he left behind him diuerse castels and fortresses furnished with sundrie garrisons of his enimies, so that he might discomfit and chase away their maine power, which he thought might as then easilie be doone, considering the great multitudes of people which came flocking in on each side, presenting themselues with offering their seruice vnto him, and shewing furthermore great tokens of ioy and gladnesse, for that it had pleased the gods at length yet to declare themselues fauourable in this their relieuing of the oppressed Britains. Herevnto Galdus on the other side, giuing them heartie thanks for their trauell, receiued them verie gentlie, mixing his talke with most comfortable words, therewith to put them in hope of such good and prosperous successe, as that shortlie they should thereby be restored intierlie vnto their former liberties, and perpetuallie deliuered from all forren seruitude and bondage.

But to proceéd, at length he did so much by his iournies, that he came into Galloway, where the Romans with all spéed (séeing none other remedie) resolued themselues to giue The Romans determine againe to fight with the Scots. The Romans fiercelie assaile the Scots. him battell, and therevpon exhorting one another to plaie the men, sith their onelie refuge rested in their weapons points, they fiercelie gaue the onset, and at the first put the left wing of the Scots and Picts wholie vnto the woorst. In which wing, according to their maner in those daies vsed, there were a great number of women mingled amongst the men. Gaid therefore perceiuing the danger, succoured them with such as were appointed to giue the looking on till néed required, and then to go where they should be commanded. By which meanes the battell on that side was renewed afresh, the women shewing no lesse Strange dealing in womē, and contrarie to their nature. valiancie than the men, and therewith much more crueltie, for they spared none at all, though they offered neuer so much to haue their liues preserued.

In fine, the Romans being chased in the left wing, their ouerthrow gaue occasion to all The Romans flie to their campe. the residue to flée backe to their campe, being pursued so egerlie by the Scots and Picts, that they had much adoo to defend the entries of their trenches, where both parties fought right egerlie, till at length the night parted them both in sunder. Being parted, the Scots The Scots purpose to assaile the Romane campe. gaue not themselues to rest, but prouided them of all things necessarie against the next morning to assaile their enimies afresh, and namelie from the next wood they fetched great plentie of fagots and brush to fill the trenches withall. But this their demeanor and The Romans require a communication. purpose being vnderstood of the Romans, they required a communication, the which (though some persuaded Galdus to the contrarie) vpon déepe considerations of fortunes fraile fauor, was at length granted vnto them, and foure ancient Romans clad in right honorable and verie rich apparell came foorth and were admitted to the presence of the kings [Gald of the Scots, and Garnard of the Picts] vnto whome with humble submission they The Romans submit themselues as vanquished. acknowledged themselues as vanquished, and that by the iust wrath and reuenge of the equall gods, which against them they had conceiued for the wrongfull inuasion of that which in no wise of right apperteined vnto them. Therefore if it might please those kings to bridle and refraine their displeasure against them, in licencing them vnder some reasonable conditions of appointment to depart, it should be a thing resounding so much to their fame and glorie, as nothing could bee more; considering so humble sute made to them by the orators of those people, who were reputed as vanquishers of the whole world.

Herewith falling prostrate at the féet of those kings, they besought them of pardon, in such pitifull wise, that the hearts of the hearers began somewhat to mollifie, and at length Gald tooke vpon him to answer in name of all the residue of the Scotish and Pictish nations, and in the end concluded, that they were contented to grant a peace on these conditions: That the Romans should ceasse from that day forward in anie wise to infest or disquiet by The conditions of peace prescribed to the Romans by the Scots and Picts. way of anie inuasion the Scotish and Pictish borders, and also to depart wholie out of those countries, restoring all such holds and fortresses as they held within the same: and further, to deliuer all prisoners, pledges, and fugitiues whatsoeuer as then remaining in their hands, togither with such goods & spoiles as they had latelie taken.

These conditions being certified to the Romans by their orators, were gladlie accepted, sith they saw no better meane how to deliuer themselues out of that present danger. And so deliuering sufficient hostages for performance of all the articles of agréement, they The Romans depart out of Galloway. departed without protracting time, marching southwards to come into Kent, where Marius king of the south Britains soiourned as then. Agricola, as the Scotish chronicles report, left at his departure towards Rome, to the number of thréescore thousand men in the Romane armie, what of one and other, but now at their departure out of Galloway, there The Romans giue vp all their holds and fortresses which they kept within the Scotish or Pictish dominions. remained vnneth twentie thousand, the residue being dispatched by one meane or other. By this conclusion of peace then, the Scots and Picts got againe the whole possession of all such countries as the Romans had before woonne and taken away from them, as the Mers, Louthian, the marches about Berwike, Fiffe, and Angus, with Kile, Cantire, Coningham, and Galloway: all the Romane garrisons departing out of the fortresses and holds, and leauing the same vnto the former owners.

Galdus hauing thus ended the warres with the Romans, tooke order to set good directions amongst his people for the quier and peaceable gouernement of the commonwealth, visiting dailie the countries abroad, the better to vnderstand the state of them, and to reforme the same where it was needfull. Further considering that as warre bréedeth good souldiers, so Galdus studieth to preserue his subiects in good quiet now after the warres were ended. peace by iustice riddeth them out of the way, if they be not the better prouided for. Such as had serued long time in the last wars, and had not anie trade now in time of peace whereby to get their lining, he placed in garrisons néere to the borders of the Britains for defense of the countrie. After this, hee came to an interuiew with Garnard king of the Picts at Calidon, or Kalendar, to represse certeine troubles raised betwixt their subiects being borderers, concerning the lmits of their countrie: where perceiuing a sort of euill Such as sought to trouble the peace were punished. disposed persons to be wholie in the fault, vpon a naughtie intent to steale, and trouble the peace, which they had with such trauell and labour sought to restore, they punished the offendors, and set all things in good quiet, and so departed in sunder with great loue and friendship.

Thus Galdus applieng all his studie and diligence to aduance the common-wealth and quiet state of his countrie, liued manie yeeres so highlie in the fauour of all his subiects, that the like hath béene but seldome heard of: finallie, to their great griefe and displeasure he ended his life, more déere to them than their owne, at Epiake, in the 35 yéere of his Gald departeth this life at Epiake. 3. H. B. 5302. H. B. 130. H. B. Galloway taketh the name of Gald. reigne, which was about the 15 yéere of the empire of Adrian, the 4098 yéere after the worlds creation, and from the birth of our Sauiour 131, and was buried with great lamentation in most pompous maner, and laid in a goodlie toome which was raised with mightie huge stones, hauing a great number of obelisks set vp round about it according to the maner. Furthermore, to the end his memorie should euer indure, the countrie where he fought last with the Romans was called Galdia, after his name, which by addition of a few letters is now called Galloway, and before that time Brigantia, as the Scots doo hold: but how that séemeth to agrée with a truth, ye may read in the historie of England.

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