BUT now to procéed with the historie. After the deceasse of Alexander the fierce and
Dauid is crowned king of Scotland.
first of that name, his brother Dauid came vnto Scone, and there receiued the crowne, as
lawfull heire to his brother, for that he left no heire behind him. This Dauid, according to
the example of his noble parents, set his whole care about the due ministring of justice, to
the honor of almightie God, and the weale of his realme. He had no trouble by warres
with anie forraine enimies, so long as king Henrie Beauclerke liued. Therefore hauing
opportunitie of such a quiet time, he rode about all the parts of his realme, and vsed to sit
in hearing of judgement himselfe, speciallie concerning poore mens causes and matters: but
The care of king Dauid for the poore.
A righteous iudge.
the controuersies of the lords and barons he referred to the hearing of other iudges. If he
vnderstood that anie man were indamaged by anie wrongfull iudgenent, he recompensed
the partie wronged, according to the value of his losse and hinderance, with the goods of
the iudge that pronounced the iudgement.
Thus in the first years of his reigne he did manie things to the aduancement of the
Banketting cheare banished.
common-wealth, and banished such banketting cheare as was vsed amongst his people after
the example of the Englishmen, perceiuing the same to bréed a great weakening & decaie
of the ancient stoutnesse of stomach, that was woont to remaine in the Scotish nation. He
builded to the number of fiftéene abbeies, part of them in the beginning of his reigne
King Dauid built 15 abbeies.
The names of the abbeies builded by king Dauid.
before the warres were begun which he had with the Englishmen, and part after the same
warres were ended. The names of those abbeies are as followeth: Holie rood house, Kelso,
Iedburgh, Melrosse, Newbottell, Holmecultrane, Dundranane, Cambuskenneth, Kinlois,
Dunfirmling, Holme in Cumberland; also two nunries, the one at Carleill, and the other
at north Berwike: with two abbeies beside Newcastell, the one of saint Benedicts order,
and the other of white moonkes. He erected also foure bishoprikes within his realme, Rosse,
Foure bishops sées erected in Scotland.
Brechin, Dunkeld, and Dublane, indowing them with rich rents, faire lands, and sundrie
right commodious possessions. Moreouer he translated the bishops see of Murthlake vnto
Aberden, for sundrie aduised considerations, augmenting it with certeine reuenues, as he
He was admonished (as the report goeth) in his sleepe, that he shuld build an abbeie for
a religious order to liue in togither. Whervpon he sent for woorkemen into France and
Flanders, and set them in hand to build this abbeie of canons regular, as he was admonished,
Holie rood house builded.
dedicating it in the honor of a crosse (wherevnto he bare speciall deuotion) for that verie
strangelie it slipped into his hands (on a time) as he was pursuing and following of a hart
in the chase. But inough of these moonkish deuises. Manie prudent men blame greatlie
Liberalitie in king Dauid toward the church reprooued.
the vnmeasurable liberalitie of king Dauid, the which he vsed towards the church, in diminishing so hugelie the reuenues of the crowne, being the cause that manie noble princes
his successors haue come to their finall ends, for that they haue béene constreined through
want of treasure to mainteine their roiall estates, to procure the fall of sundrie great houses,
to possesse their lands and liuings; also to raise paiments and exactions of the common people, to the vtter impouerishment of the realme. And sometime they haue béene constreined
to inuade England by warres, as desperat men, not caring what came of their liues. Otherwhiles they haue béene inforced to stampe naughtie monie, to the great preiudice of the
common-wealth. All which mischiefes haue followed since the time that the church hath
The church inriched, and the crowne impouerished.
The saieng of King Iames the first.
A sore saint.
60000 pounds in lands giuen to the church.
Superfluous possessions of the church.
béene thus inriched, and the crowne impouerished.
Therefore king lames the first, when he came to king Dauid his sepulture at Dunfirmling,
he said, that he was a sore saint for the crowne, meaning that he left the church ouer-rich,
and the crowne too poore. For he tooke from the crowne (as Iohn Maior writeth in his
chronicles) 60 thousand pounds Scotish of yéerelie reuenues, wherewith he indowed those
abbeies. But if K. Dauid had considered how to nourish true religion, he had neither indowed churches with such riches, nor built them with such roialtie: for the superfluous
possessions of the church (as they are now vsed) are not onelie occasion to euill prelats to
liue in most insolent pompe & corrupt life, but an assured net to draw gold and siluer out
of realms. But now to returne where I left, touching the historie, ye shall note that (as I
said before) Dauid had by his wife Mauld inheritor of part of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Huntington, a sonne named Henrie, who maried the earle of Warrens daughter,
Earle of Warren.
a ladie of high parentage, as descended of most noble bloud both French and English. On
whome he begat thrée sonnes, Malcolme, William, and Dauid; also thrée daughters,
The issue of Henrie.
Adhama, Margaret, and Mauld. But now in the meane time, whilest the estate of the common-wealth in Scotland stood in high felicitie, vnder the prosperous gouernement of king
Dauid, there happened to him an heauie losse. For the quéene his wife the foresaid Mauld
Quéene Mauld deceasseth.
deceassed in hir flourishing age, a woman of passing beautie and chastitie, which two points
(as is thought) commend a woman aboue all the rest. King Dauid therefore tooke such
griefe for hir death, that he would neuer after giue his mind to marie anie other, but passed
the residue of his life without companie of all women. She was buried in Scone, in the
yeare of our Lord God 1132.
Whilest these things came thus to passe in Scotland, Henrie Beauclerke king of England,
caused all the nobles of his realme to take their oths, that after his deceasse they should
receiue his daughter Mauld the empresse for their souereigne ladie and quéene. She was
Mauld the empresse.
as then returned into England; for hir husband the emperour was latelie before deceassed.
King Dauid also tooke his oth, and therefore when king Stephan (who vsurped the crowne
of England after king Henries deceasse against the said empresse) sent vnto king Dauid to
Homage is required.
come and doo his homage for the earledoines of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Huntington (according as by his tenure he was bound to doo) with intimation that if he refused,
king Stephan would inuade him with open warre; king Dauid answered, that he had giuen
his faith once aforehand for those lands vnto the empresse Mauld, which he minded not to
breake for the threatning words of anie new inuasions. King Stephan moued with this answere, sent a power of men to the borders of Northumberland, (which as then was vnder
The Englishmen inuade Northumberland.
the dominion of the Scots) to make a rode vpon the inhabitants of that countrie. They
that had the charge of this enterprise, entering into the lands of their enimies, put all to
fire and sword that came in their way. The Scots kindled with that displeasure, roded into
The Scots make rodes into England.
The earle of Glocester Robert was against king Stephan, but there might be some other happilie vnto whome king Stephan had giuen that title.
K. Stephan repenteth.
England, and did the like displeasures and hurts there. For the yeare after, the earles of
March, Menteth, and Angus entred into England with a great armie, against whome came
the earle of Glocester, and giuing them battell at Northalerton, lost the field, and was taken
prisoner himselfe, with diuers other nobles of England. King Stephan therefore, constreined to redéeme the captiues, gaue not onelie a great summe of monie for them; but
also made resignation of all such title, claime, or interest, as either he or anie of his successors might make or pretend to the counties of Northumberland and Cumberland. Howbeit his nobles were no sooner returned home, but that repenting him of that resignation,
he gathered his puissance againe, and entering into Northumberland, fought with the Scots
that came foorth to resist him, and obteining the victorie, tooke a great part of the countrie
into his possession.
King Dauid, to redresse these iniuries, gathered a mightie armie, with deliberat mind,
either to expell the Englishmen out of all the bounds of his dominions, or else to die in
the féeld. But shortlie after, Thurstane archbishop of Yorke came vnto Roxburgh, called
Roxburgh is old time Marken.
in those daies Marken, to treat for peace, where a truce was concluded for three moneths,
with condition, that the Englishmen should deliuer vp the dominion of Northumberland
vnto the lord Henrie king Dauid his sonnes. But for so much as this couenant was not
performed on king Stephans side, king Dauid inuaded that part of the countrie which the
King Dauid inuadeth Northumberland.
King Stephan passeth vnto Roxburgh.
Englishmen held, making great slaughter of all them that he found there about to resist
him. King Stephan mooued herewith leuied his people, and came in puissant araie vnto
Roxburgh ; but for that he had secret knowledge that some of the nobles in his armie
sought his destruction, he was constreined to returne without atchiuing of anie woorthie enterprise.
The yeare next insuing, a peace was talked vpon, the archbishops of Cantuburie and
Yorke appointed commissioners in the treatie thereof on the behalfe of king Stephan, and the
bishops of Glascow, Aberden, and saint Andrews on the part of king Dauid. But Mauld
quéene of England, the daughter of Eustace earle of Bullongne, and néece to king Dauid
by his sister Marie, was the chiefest dooer in this matter, to bring them to agréement. The
one of the kings, that is to say Stephan, laie at Duresme with his nobles; and the other,
that is to say Dauid, lay at Newcastell, during all the time of this treatie, which at length
sorted to the conclusion of a peace, on these conditions: that the counties of
Northumberland and Huntington should remaine in the gouernement of Henrie prince of Scotland, as
heire to the same by right of his mother; but Cumberland should be reputed as the
Couenants of agreément.
inheritance and right of his father king Dauid. And for these lands and segniories the forenamed prince Henrie & his successors, princes of Scotland, should doo homage vnto king
Stephan and his successors kings of England, for the time being.
The peace thus ratified betwixt the two kings and their subiects, K. Stephan returned into
K. Stephan returneth.
Carleill was repared by William Rufus king of England, about the yeare of our Lord, 1092.
The death of Henrie prince of Scotland.
Kent, and king Dauid repaired into Cumberland, where he fortified the towne of Carleill
with new walles and ditches. Thus passed the first thrée yeares of king Stephans reigne,
In the fouŕth yeare came Mauld the empresse into England to claime the crowne thereof
(as in the English historie more plainelie may appeare.) But whilest England was sore tormented with warres by contrarie factions of the nobles for the quarels of these two persons,
no small sorrow hapned to Scotland for the death of Henrie the prince of that land, and
onelie sonne vnto king Dauid, who died at Kelso, and was buried in the abbeie church
there, in the yeare of our redemption, 1152. His death was greatlie bemoned aswell of
his father the king, as of all other the estates and degrées of the realme, for such singular
vertue and noble conditions as appeared in him. But yet, for that he left issue behind him
Prince Henrie his issue.
thrée sonnes and thrée, daughters (as before is mentioned) the realme was not thought
vnprouided of heires.
The king also being mortified from the world, tooke the death of his sonne verie patientlie, considering that all men are subiect vnto death by the law of nature, and are sure
The lawes of nature.
no longer to remaine here, than their day appointed by the eternall determination of him that
giueth and taketh away life & breath when it pleaseth him, as by dailie experience is most
manifest. Therefore that king Dauid weied the losse of his sonne in such balance, it may
appeare by an oration which he made to his nobles, at what time (after his sonnes deceasse) they came to comfort him. For he perceiuing them to be right heauie and sorrowfull for the losse which he and they had susteined by the death of so towardlie a prince, that
was to haue succéeded him, if God had lent him life thereto; in the end of a roiall feast,
the which he made vnto those nobles that came thus to visit him, he began in this wise.
"How great your fidelitie and care is, which you beare towards me, although oftentimes
heretofore I haue prooued it, yet this present day I haue receiued most ample fruit thereof:
for now doo I plainelie sée, that you lament no lesse for the losse of my late decessed
sonne, than if you had buried some one of your owne sonnes, and are therefore come to
your great trauell and paine to comfort me, whome you estéeme to be sore afflicted for the
ouer-timelie death of my said most obedient sonne. But to let passe for this time dae
yéelding of thanks to you for the same, till occasion and leasure may better serue thereto;
this now may suffice, that I acknowledge my selfe to be so much beholden to you, that
whatsoeuer thing I haue in the world, the same is readie to doo you pleasure. But concerning the cause of your comming hither, in shewing your courtesies therein, you shall vnderstand, that my parents, whom I trust to be in heauen, and (as saints) inioy the fruits of their
vertuous trauels here taken on earth, did so instruct me from my tender youth, that I should
woorship with all reuerence the most wise creator and prudent gouernor of all things; and
to thinke that nothing was doone by him in vaine, but that the same is prouided and ordeined to some good vse by his high and unsearchable counsell. And therefore whilest day
and night I haue and doo reuolue and call to remembrance the precepts and instructions of
my parents, whatsoeuer hath chanced either tuching aduersitie or prosperitie, good hap or
His parents godlie instructions.
bad, the same hath séemed to me (at the first) receiuing all things with equall and thankefull
mind, and interpreting them to the best, farre more light than they commonlie séeme to others;
and lesse they did disquiet me: so as with vse I haue learned at length, not onelie patientlie to
beare all aduersities that may happen, but also to receiue the same as things pleasant and
euen to be desired. And verelie my hap hath beene to be greatlie exercised in this behalfe,
for I haue first seene my father, more déere to me than anie earthlie treasure; and no lesse
Losse of friends.
profitable than greatlie desired of all the people; and yet neither the loue of the people, nor of
his kinsmen and friends might warrant him from this fatall necessitie of death. I haue knowen
my mother right famous in the world for hir singular vertue to passe hence in like maner.
My brethren that were so louing, and againe so greatlie beloued of me; also my wife whome
I estéemed aboue all other creatures, are they not gone the same way, and compelled to beare
deaths hard ordinance? So verelie standeth the case, that no man might yet at anie time auoid the
Death cannot be dispensed with.
violence of his force when he commeth, for we all alike owe this life vnto him, as a due debt that
must needs be paid. But this is to be receiued with a thankefull mind, in that the bountifull beneuolence of our God hath granted that we shall be all immortall, if we our selues through vice,
& as it were spotted with filthie diseases of the mind, doo not fall into the danger of eternall death.
Wherefore of right (me thinke) I haue cause to reioise, that God by his singular fauour hath
granted to me such a sonne, which in all mens iudgements was woorthie to be beloued whilest
Why we ought to take the death of our children and friends patientlie.
he was here amongst vs, and to be wished for now, after he is departed from hence. But
ought we to take it heauilie, that he to whome he belonged, and who had lent him vnto vs,
should call for him againe, and take him that was his owne? For what iniurie is it, if (when I
see occasion) I shall aske that againe, which you haue possessed through my benefit as lent
to you for a time? Neither doo I trust to want him long, if God shall be so mercifull vnto
me, as I wish him to be: for I hope shortlie to be called hence by commandement of that
most high king, and to be caried vp to rest among that fellowship of heauenlie spirits,
where I shall find my father and mother, my brethren, wife, and sonne in far better estate
than here I knew them. Therefore that I may repeate it once againe, I reioise (I say) to haue
obteined in my sonne, by the grace of the supernall God, that I am assured by faith, he is alreadie in that place to the which all we doo earnestlie wish that we may atteine, and doo indeuour by all means, that when the time commeth in which our soules are to be loosed foorth
of these fraile bodies of ours, as out of prisons, they may be found woorthie of that companie,
in which our confidence is that he now most blissefullie is remaining. Except anie man may
thinke that we are so enuious, that therefore we doo lament, because as yet we sticke fast
ouerwhelmed and drowned in such filthie miers, and cumbred in such thornie thickets and
bushes, out of the which he (being now deliuered of all cares) hath escaped. But let vs rather by following the footsteps of him and other vertuous persons that are gone afore vs,
labor both day and night, that at length (through heauenlie fauour) we may come to the place
where we doo reckon that by diuine power he is alreadie arriued."
After that the king had made an end of his oration, and thanks giuen to God for his bountifull magnificence, they rose from the table, and departed to their lodgings, they all greatlie
maruelling at the kings high prudence and godlie wisdome. Then was Malcolme, the eldest
Malcolme the sonne of Henrie proclamed prince of Scotland.
sonne of the before mentioned prince Henrie, proclamed in his place prince of Scotland, and
conueied through the most parts of the realme by Duncane earle of Fife, and other of the
nobles appointed to attend vpon and to receiue the oths of all the barons for their allegiance
in his name. William the second sonne of prince Henrie was conueied into Northumberland
Earle of Northumberland.
by the foresaid nobles, and there proclamed and created earle of that countrie. Then went
king Dauid himselfe vnto Carleill, where he met with Henrie the sonne of the empresse, who
receiued the order of knighthood there at his hands. This was a little before that the same
Henrie the empresse his sonne receiueth the order of knighthood.
Henrie came to an agréement with king Stephan, whereby he was admitted to the possession
of halfe the realme of England, and promised by oth of assurance (as the Scotish writers say)
that he should neuer go about to take the countries of Northumberland, Cumberland, and
Huntington from the crowne of Scotland.
Shortlie after was king Dauid taken with a sore disease and maladie, which continued with
him to the end of his life. And so when he perceiued himselfe to wax faint and féeble, he
required to be borne into the church, where he receiued the sacrament of the Lords bodie and
bloud, with most solemne reuerence: and then being brought againe to his chamber, he called
togither his nobles, and commending to them his yoong nephues, the sons of his son the
The exhortation of king Dauid to his nobles.
King Dauid departeth out of this life.
forenamed prince Henrie, he kissed ech one of them after another, most instantlie desiring them in
the honor of almightie God, to séeke the preseruation of common quiet, to the aduancement
of the publike weale. This doone, he departed out of this life in the 29 yeare of his reigne,
or rather in the 30 yeare, if he reigned 29 and two moneths, as Iohn Maior saith. His bodie
was buried in Dunfirmeling, after the incarnation of Christ our Sauiour 1153 yeares.
How farre this prince king Dauid excelled in noble vertues and sober conuersation of life,
I haue thought it better to passe ouer with silence, than to go about in few words to comprehend that, wherein if I should spend much time, I were not able in anie wise woorthilie to performe. For where in such cases few things are slenderlie shewed, the residue may séeme to be
omitted through fault of the writer. But yet this is not to be forgotten, that where his singular
His singular pitie toward the poore.
King Dauids court.
pitifull regard, which he had toward the reliefe of the poore, passed all other his notable vertues, he purged his court also in such wise of all vicious rule and misordered customes, that his
whole familie was giuen onelie to the exercise of vertue. No riotous banketting nor surfetting chéere was vsed amongst them, no lasciuious woord heard come forth of anie mans mouth,
nor yet anie wanton signes shewed to prouoke sensuall lust or carnall concupiscence. All the
woords, works, and whole demeanor of his seruants tended to some conclusion: nothing
King Dauids seruants.
mooued to stirre strife or sedition, but all things ordered in such friendlie and peaceable sort, that
the chaine of brotherly loue séemed to haue linked them all in one mind and will. Such a
King Dauids example, a rule of godlie life.
rule was their maister king Dauid vnto them and all other, to direct and frame a perfect and
godlie life after.