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THEN was Dongall his nephue, as sonne to his brother Dongard, proclamed king, a
Dongall the Sonne of Dongard is made king of Scotland. prince of disposition indifferent either to peace or warre, though in the beginning of his reigne he shewed himselfe more desirous of peace than of warres, by reason the state of the common-wealth so required, considering how things stood not all in the best order, through his predecessors negligence. Dongall therefore desirous of a reformation, appointed men The politike rule of Dongall. of great wisedome and good fame to be iudges and officers vnder him, who in redressing misorders, in punishing transgressions, & in deciding of all strifes and contentions betwixt partie & partie, did so well their endeuour, that peace and concord therevpon insuing, the people recouered peaceable rest and quietnesse, to their no small comfort and contentation.

In this meane while that things passed thus among the Scots, by the procurement of one Vortigerne, Constantius the eldest sonne of the late deceassed Constantine king of Britains, Constantius a moonke elected king of Britaine. was taken out of an abbeie, where he was shorne a moonke, and aduanced to the kingdome: but being not meet of himselfe to gouerne, Vortigerne had the whole rule committed to his hands, wherevpon he first caused the league to be renewed betwixt the Britains, the Scots, and Picts, and appointed a gard of the same Scots and Picts to be attendant on the kings person: in the end also he procured some of them to murther the king, and after Vortigerns treason. Constantius murdered. put all the said Scots and Picts to death, as well the giltie as the vngiltie, and finallie made himselfe king, as in the historie of England you shall find more at large expressed.

The Scots and Picts (for displeasure that their countriemen which had beene appointed to gard the person of Constantius king of the Britains, were maliciouslie circumuented, & the more part of them wrongfullie executed) made sundrie roades and forraies into the British borders, neither sparing fire nor swoord where they came. So that the said Vortigerne by a gréeuous report informed héereof, caused an armie with all spéed to be leuied, and appointed Guitellus the prince of Wales to haue the leading thereof against the enimies: whilest he (doubting least the people would not be ruled by him, for that it was knowen how he would haue made awaie Constantines children) kept him about London, & durst not commit himselfe so much to the sight of a multitude, as to go foorth in that iournie in his owne person.

Guitellus, in respect of the loue which he bare to his countrie, purposing to serue truelie Guitellus generall of the British army causeth fiue hundred of the enimies to be hanged. in defense thereof, chanced vpon his approch to the borders to take the number of fiue hundred of the enimies, being aduanced from the residue to fetch a bootie. These Guitellus caused to be hanged, as condemned for robbers and pillers of the countrie afore anie ouerture of warre was denounced. Wherevpon such other as escaped by flight, and had séene their fellowes thus executed, declared vnto their gouernors what had happened vnto their fellowes. The confederate kings, being in a great chafe héerewith, gather togither their The Scotish and Pictish kings gather their people to resist the Britains. people, and haste forward with all spéed toward the enimies, who at the first shewed manifest tokens that they were sore afraid of the Scotish and Pictish power: wherevpon Guitellus their generall with comfortable woords willed them to be of good courage, and not to doubt of victorie, hauing so iust a cause to fight with truce-breakers, and such as were Guitellus incourageth the appalled harts of his men of warre with comfortable woords. giuen more vnto pillage and spoile, than to anie other commendable exercise or practise of warre.

With such and sundrie other the like woords the Britains being imboldened, as might well appéere by their change of countenances, Guitellus therevpon remooued his campe more neere vnto his enimies, so that at the first and for certeine daies togither, there chanced onelie diuers skirmishes betwixt the parties, as occasion serued. But at length the one being sore mooued against the other, they ioine in a pight field. The beginning of which The Britains ioine in a pight field with the Scots and Picts. The Scots are put backe. Galane king of Picts succoureth the Scots. battell was verie fierce and doubtfull. For on that side where Dongall the Scotish king fought, the Britains shortlie began to preuaile, through the faint fighting of his people: which danger Galanus the Pictish king quicklie perceiuing, foorthwith prouided remedie: for taking with him certeine bands out of his owne battell, willing the residue to stand to it manfullie, and in no wise to giue ground to the enimie, he himselfe with the said bands fetched a compasse about, and set vpon the backs of them that so had ouermatched the Scots.

This sudden chance sore disordered the Britains, and immediatlie the Scots incouraged afresh, assailed their enimies with more eger minds than they had doone at the first, so that maintenantlie both the wings of the British armie were vtterlie discomfited. And héere The wings of the Britains put to flight. The campe of the Britains woon. The Britains chased, know not whither to flée. Guitell with twentie thousand Britains slaine. Foure thousand Scots and Picts slaine. A councell holden at London. Vortigerne doubting the hatred of his people, would haue fled out of his realme. with a certeine number of the Picts were commanded by their king to make haste to win the campe of the Britains, that such as sought to escape by flight, should find no refuge in the same. Thus the Britains being chased and slaine on euerie side, they knew not whither to flée: so that in the end a great number of them throwing awaie their weapons, yéelded themselues, most humblie crauing mercie at their enimies hands. There were slaine in this battell aboue twentie thousand of the Britains, togither with their generall Guitellus, and a great number of other of the nobilitie. There died also of the Scots and Picts, néere hand foure thousand. The prisoners with the spoile of the field were diuided by appointment of the kings amongst the souldiers. Which doone, they marched foorth into the countrie to conquere castels and townes, such as stood in their waie.

In the meane time, the Britains being sore discomfited with the ouerthrow, assembled a councell at London, there to deuise by what meanes they might best defend their countrie from the imminent danger in the which it now stood. Vortigerne as one giltie in conscience, doubted least through want of good wils in his commons, he should not be able to withstand the mightie inuasion of his enimies, whervpon he was minded to haue auoided the realme, but there were of his councell that aduised him to the contrarie, holding, that better it was for him to trie the vttermost point of fortunes hap, than with dishonor so to yéeld at the first blow of hir froward hand, considering the abundance of treasure which he had in store, wherewith he might wage souldiers and men of warre out of Germanie & other places, in number sufficient to match with his enimies. This counsell as the best was followed, Vortigerne is counselled to send for aid into Germanie. and messengers with commission & sufficient instructions sent with all spéed into Germanie, to reteine a number of Saxons, and to bring them ouer into Britaine, to serue against the Scots and Picts in wages with Vortigerne.

At the same time there were amongst those Saxons two brethren, descended by rightfull linage of the princes of that nation, who being reputed for valiant capteins, appointed with the British commissaries for a certeine summe of monie to take vp their prescribed number of men, & to receiue charge of them as coronels, aswell for their conuaie ouer into Britaine, as also for their seruice there, after their arriual. The one of these two brethren was called Hengist and Horsus reteined in seruice with Vortigerne. Hengist or Engist, and the other Horsus, who hauing their appointed numbers once filled, conteining about ten thousand souldiers in the whole, they bestowed them abroad in thirtie hulks, hoies, and plaits, and in the same transported them ouer into Britaine, in the 449 yéere after Christ, as our histories doo affirme: where they were receiued with great ioy and gladnesse of Vortigerne, who trusted by their aid to ouercome his fierce and dreadfull enimies.

Therefore when they had refreshed themselues somewhat after their trauell by sea, they were sent foorth with an other armie which Vortigerne had assembled of his owne subiects The Saxons together with a power of Britains are sent to the borders of the enimies countries. The Saxons in hope of good successe begin the wars against the Scots with bloud. the Britains, to the frontiers of the enimies countrie, where at their first comming they passed ouer the riuer of Humber, before the Scots or Picts had knowledge that anie such people were come in support of the Britains to bid them battell. They being therefore amazed with the strangenesse of the thing, some of them fled into the inner parts of their countrie, & other that made but sorie shift, fell into the hands of the Saxons, who to begin their enterprise with bloud, slaie all such as they could laie hands vpon, without anie respect of person. Great was the slaughter by them committed in all those parties where they passed, namelie about the riuer of Tine. And when they had made an end there, they entred into Northumberland, and so into the dales aboue Berwike, next adioining vnto Pictland, destroieng all before them with fire and swoord.

The Pictish king in the meane time had sent vnto Dongall the king of Scots to come The king of Picts sendeth for aid vnto the Scotish king. with all spéed to support him against the dreadfull inuasion of the enimies, whose force being now increased with a power of Saxons, would woorke much mischéefe, if the same were not the more spéedilie in the beginning repressed: but hearing that the Saxons and Britains dailie approched, he thought not good to tarie for the comming of the Scots, but hasted foorth with his owne power to incounter his aduersaries, and rashlie giuing battell, he was The king of the Picts vanquished. The Saxons won praise, and the Britains noted of cowardize. ouercome, and thereby lost no small number of his people. In this conflict the Saxons wan them a great name for their high valiance, where contrarilie the Britains got them no small note of giltie cowardize, fighting so faintlie, that their capteins had much adoo to cause them to kéepe their ground, being readie still to haue run awaie: which their faintnesse of stomach being noted of Hengist, euen then put him in no small confidence that it should be an easie matter for him to conquere them at his pleasure, when time and occasion might serue thereto.

The Pictish nation hauing receiued this grieuous ouerthrow at the hands of their cruell enimies, sent againe an other ambassage vnto the Scotish king Congall, to signifie to him by way of lamentation, what losse had happened to them by that most cruell people the Saxons void of all religion and mercie, and what mischiefe by the same people was intended, aswell against Scots as Picts, vnto the great danger of the vtter ruine of both nations, if the The Picts eftsoones solicit the Scots for aid. enimies in time were not resisted. They that were sent, declared all this matter unto king Congall, and as they had in commission, besought him of spéedie succors. Congall not onlie moued for the harms and losses of the Picts his friends and alies, but also much more for the likelihood of the imminent danger and perill towards himselfe and his owne people, determined spéedilie to go with all his power, and to ioine with the Picts, as fullie resolued to preuent that mischiefe which was like to follow, if the violent rage of the enimies were not the sooner resisted.

He sent word therefore to the Pictish king, that if he might kéepe off the enimies by Cōgall promised to aid the Picts. light skirmishes and incursions for a small time, he would come to his aid shortlie, with all the whole puissance of his realine. And herewithall he commanded by open proclamation, that all those within his dominions, which were able to beare armour should by the twentith day after assemble togither at the south side of Calidon wood, all and euerie of them bringing then and there with them vittels sufficient to serue them for two moneths. According Prouision made by the Scots to aid the Picts. to the which proclamation, there came togither at the day and place assigned, about the number of 40000 able men, fit and méete for the warres. On the morrow after, when Congall had taken the musters & vew of his whole numbers, he set forward towards the place where he vnderstood that the king of the Picts as then lodged, who had likewise assembled his people, and in campe taried for the comming of the Scotish armie. On the fift day after, both the kings met togither, and shewed great tokens of intire loue and The Scotish and Pictish kings assemble togither with their powers. friendship the one towards the other. After this they go to heare diuine seruice, where they make their deuout praiers vnto almightie God for their good spéed and luckie successe in that iournie: which being doone, they march foorth toward the enimies, as then lieng in campe not past ten miles from them. Here at the first sight of the enimies, diuers of the The Scots and Picts come within sight of the enimies. Scots and Picts being striken with feare to behold so great a multitude, as the like had not béene séene in those parties manie a day before, they stale away and secrctlie hid themselues in the next woods. But the kings, to giue example to other, caused them that were thus stolne away, to be sought out, & brought againe into the campe, where they were hanged in open sight of all the armie.

The Saxons & Britains also vpon the approch of their enimies gathered their companies The Scots through comfort of Hengists exhortation desire battell. The Scotish and Pictish kings exhort their people to fight valiantlie. The battell is begun. togither, & maintenantlie herewith the Saxons incouraged with such comfortable speach as Hengist vttered amongest them, required to haue battell without delay: whose example the Britains following, shewed themselues also right willing therevnto. Congall the Scotish king perceiuing the enimies to make readie for battell, went likewise amongst his folks, and exhorted them in best wise he could, to play the men. The like also did Galanus the Pictish king amongest his people, omitting nothing that might incourage them to fight manfullie. After this, the battell on both sides comming forward to ioine, the arrowes and darts flue freshlie betwixt them, but neither part minding to give place for all the shot, at length they ioined at handblowes, first the Britains in the right wing with the Scots in the left wing; but the Britains not able long to indure against the force of the Scots, gaue backe and fled. The Britains flée. A great tempest. In the meane while came a great shower of raine, mixt with such a tempest of haile, that the hardiest there wished himselfe thence, the storme beating so fast vpon them, that one might vnneath sée an other, so that the Scotishmen and Picts wist not whether were better to pursue the Britains that fled, or to keepe their places.

On the other part, the Saxons according to their maner in time of anie present danger, The Saxons close themselues togither. The Scots and Picts pursue the Britains. The Saxons assaile the Scots and Picts disordered in pursute of the Britains. closed themselues togither and drew neere vnto their chiefeteins standard. Finallie the tempest no sooner began to ceasse, but the Scots and Picts leauing their order of battell, fell to follow the chase of the Britains, supposing the victorie had beene wholie theirs. Which the Saxons (now after that the element began to cleare vp) plainelie perceiuing, by commandement of Hengist their generall, assailed the Scots and Picts here and there dispersed about the spoile and slaughter of the Britains, and made such murther of them on euerie side where they found them, that pitie it was to behold. Those that escaped by flight, neuer staied till they were gotten into places farre inough out of danger. This was a blacke day with the Scots and Picts. Neither was it verie ioifull to the Britains, of whome no small number died in the place by the enimies sword lamentable to sée. Hengist hauing thus gotten the victorie, withdrew to Yorke, leauing those countries betwixt Tine and Twéed in Hengist purposed at the first to make conquest of the Britains. the enimies handes, of purpose ceassing from further indamaging them, that the Britains might haue neighbours whome to feare: for that (as he thought) should make much for his purpose, alreadie hauing determined to make a conquest of this Ile.

When summer then was well néere passed, he placed his souldiers in harbrough to lodge Hengist returneth to London. for the winter season, and went himselfe to London, where he counselled Vortigerne to send of his owne people to the borders of his enimies, to keepe the same from their inuasions till the next spring, against which time he promised to cause such notable numbers of his Hengist offereth to send for more aid into Germanie. countriemen to come to his aid, as should suffice not onelie to vanquish the Scotishmen and Picts, but also vtterlie to destroy both the nations, or at least wise to driue them foorth of the whole countrie. This offer vnto some of the nobilitie was not greatlie liked, as euer Hengists offers misliked of some of the nobilitie of Britaine. suspecting that which followed, least in time to come Hengist should seeke the dominion of the realme in placing his owne people, and expelling the former inhabitants. But Vortigerne did not onelie giue him most hartie thanks for those his offers, but also shewed by the maner of his interteinement, which he vsed towards him, that he thought he could not The honor shewed vnto Hengist by Vortigerne. Britains sent to defend the borders, are distressed. doo vnto him too much honor for such notable seruice as he had doone alreadie, and trusted he should doo hereafter. According to Hengists aduise also, there was a crue of men of warre of Britains sent vnto the borders to the number of fiue thousand, who shortlie after their comming thither, were quicklie dispatched and made awaie in sundrie skirmishes and incounters with the Scots and Picts, that assailed those places which they were appointed to defend.

Shortlie after was sent thither also an other companie, double in number to the first, to reuenge the deaths of their fellowes; but they finding fortune as froward vnto them as the former had doone before, sped much-what a like, for in sundrie conflicts diuers of them being slaine, and diuers other by treason of the borderers themselues deliuered captiue into the aduersaries hands, the residue that was left, perceiuing in what danger they stood, sithence they might not trust their owne countriemen, returned backe into the inner parts of the land, and so left the borders altogether vnfurnished. In this meane while a new A new power of Saxons commeth ouer into Britaine. supplie of fiue thousand Saxons, with their wiues and children, came ouer into this land, in eighteene hoies, and amongest other came Hengists wife and his daughter the ladie Roxena. Shortlie after king Vortigerne gaue vnto Hengist & his Saxons a great part of the countrie called Lindseie, with a castell of great strength called Thongcastre. Some haue written that Hengist required of Vortigerne so much ground as he might compas with an oxe hide, and hauing that granted, he tooke a mightie oxe hide, and cut it into small thongs, and so compassing about a right strong plot of ground with those thongs line wise, began there the foundation of a castell, which tooke name of those thongs, wherewith the plot of ground Thwang castell, or Thōgcastell. The Saxons first inhabited in Lindseie. was first measured, and so was it called Thong-castell. But vpon what consideration so euer it tooke that name, certeine it is by record of all the Scotish histories, that there the Saxons first inhabited after their entring into Britaine.

When Hengist had set things in order for the placing of his people there in dwellings (appointed them by Vortigerne) according as seemed best vnto his politike head and craftie forecast, he tooke foorth the souldiers and men of warre, ordered vnder certeine capteins and officers of bands, and led them forward by slow iournies as it were staieng for the comming of the Britains. Vortigerne had gathered as then an huge host of his subiects, and appointed his generall lieutenant ouer them his sonne Vortigerne*, a yoong man of great [* sic. q. Vortimer.] Vortimer generall of the Britains. The Saxons and Britains against the Scots and Picts. 60000 of Scots and Picts come to méet their enimies. force and valiancie, but so that he should be ordered in all things by the aduise and discretion of Hengist, whose authoritie for the warres he commanded chieflie to be followed.

When both the armies of Saxons and Britains were met togither, Hengist led them ouer the riuers of Humber and Tine, marching directlie towards the place where he thought the enimies laie. The Scotish and Pictish kings, hauing knowledge of such preparation made by the Britains, they gathered their powers togither, to the number of 60000 men, furnished with prouision of vittels for a long time. But before their comming to the riuer of Tine, vpon knowledge had that the Saxons and Britains were passed the same, they made streight towards them, in purpose to haue giuen battell without longer protracting of time: howbeit comming to the place where they were lodged, they found them so stronglie incamped, that no aduantage could be perceiued which waie they might be constreined to raise and come foorth of their strength to receiue battell vpon some euen ground, which Hengist of purpose for a time séemed to deferre.

Hengist prolongeth time to giue battell. Betwixt them also and the armies of the two kings there was a vallie, in the botome full of mires and marish grounds, which the Scotishmen & Picts must néedes passe, yer they could find meanes to doo anie notable displeasure to the enimies. Wherefore at length they determined with turfe and fagots to make passage ouer those mires. Which being accomplished in the night following, the next morning they passed ouer and got them vnto certeine hilles lieng right ouer against the Saxon and British campes, some of them taking their lodgings vpon the brow or front of an hill so néere to the lodgings of their enimies, that they might throwe a dart into their campe: and hereof they tooke no small occasion to worke a feat against their aduersaries, to their great annoiance and vexation.

There was growing in that place, where they were thus incamped, verie much of that kind of heath or ling, which the Scotishmen call hadder. Of which heath or hadder, they gathered a great quantitie togither, and binding it in bundels like vnto fagots, in the night A policie of the Scots. season they set the same on fire, tumbling it downe the hill, on that side where the Saxons laie. The wind in that instant being somewhat aloft, caused these bundels of ling to blase and burne vehementlie, and hereto standing that waies foorth, droue the flame so streinablie amongest the tents and cabins of the Saxons, that the fire catching in the straw and twigs which they had couched togither vnder them in stéed of beds, increased the feare amongst the souldiors woonderfullie, by reason that the blasing bundels of the ling or hadder, still comming downe the hill vpon them, seemed as though the same had fallen from aboue, and euen foorth of the heauen it selfe.

Great was the tumult and noise throughout the whole campe, with such roring of beasts, The tumult and feare raised in the campe of the Saxons. Hyperbole. and running vp and downe both of them and of the horsses which were there in the campe, that if heauen and earth had gone togither, there could not haue béene a more terrible noise nor clamor. At length, when the souldiors had doone what they could to quench the fire, and to appease the trouble, not without some vprore and disorder raised on each side, they got them with their armor and weapons foorth into the next field, which Hengist himselfe perceiuing (hauing first doone what he could to stay them) inuironed with a companie of his choisest men of warre, he got him vp vnto a little hill next adioining, and there gaue knowledge Hengist calleth his people togither. by the sound of a trumpet that all his people should draw thither vnto him. After this, when they were come togither, he disposed them in order of battell with all diligence, abiding for the spring of the daie, to vnderstand more certeinlie the meaning of his enimies.

The Scots and Picts supposing the enimies to be farre disordered, by reason of the fire descended downe from the hilles, fullie determined to assaile them in their camps: but vpon their approch to the same, perceiuing how the Saxons were gotten foorth, and stood readie in good order of battell, minding to defend their ground, both the kings thought it best to tarie till the morning, yer they made anie exploit, for doubt of perils that might befall thereof. In the breake of the daie Congall came amongst his people, exhorting them to remember their Congals exhortation to the Scots. woorthie elders, and by their example to choose rather to die in defense of their countrie & ancient liberties, than by cowardize to saue a dishonested life, which (if their chance was to be vanquished) they should passe in great thraldome and miserie. The Pictish king also with like words incouraged his men to doo valiantlie. Neither was Hengist slow in Hengist exhorteth the Saxons to fight manfullie. persuading his Saxons to plaie the men, that obteining the victorie they might deliuer themselues from terror of all enimies from thencefoorth in Britaine.

Whilest he was thus exhorting his people, the Scots and Picts with great force and violence The Scots & Picts giue the charge. The Saxons in danger to haue the ouerthrow. An ambush of thrée thousand men. began to giue the charge vpon him, which whilest the Saxons and Britains went about to defend, they were beaten downe by heaps so fiercelie on ech side, that the discomfiture had light vpon them foorthwith, had not Hengist by sound of trumpet called foorth about three thousand fresh men to their succors, which he had placed in an ambush a little before the spring of the daie within a thicke groue of wood, fast by his campe, appointing them to remaine there in a readinesse, to come at his call, vpon what danger soeuer happened. These most fiercelie setting vpon the backes of the Scots, brought them streight out of all order: for they being occupied with the other Saxons before, and now assailed of these behind, they had vnneath roome for anie aduantage to turne their weapons. In the meane time the Picts being matched with the Britains did put them to flight, and chased them out of the field, not The Britains put to flight by the Picts. ceassing to pursue them in the chase, till they came to a riuer in the which a great number of them were drowned, as they ieoparded to passe ouer the same, and to saue themselues by swimming. On the other side, the Scots being sore handled by the Saxous, both before and The Scots forced to flie. behind, were at the length constreined to giue ground and breake foorth by flight, & so to escape the cruell hands of the enimies. Manie were slaine in the chase, and some taken prisoners. The residue getting away, fled streight to the Picts: but Congall himselfe, through Congall is wounded, but yet escapeth through helpe of his houshold seruants. helpe of his houshold seruants escaped to the top of an high hill, and saued himselfe all wounded as he was.

The Picts returning from the chase, and vnderstanding how the Saxons had giuen the Scots the ouerthrow, and that they were now marching forward to incounter also with them, determined not to abide their comming at that time. And so night approching yer the Saxons had The policie of the Picts to escape out of danger. got sight of them, order was giuen by commandement of their king, that all their carriage, and a great quantitie of logs and fagots, should be placed and piled togither before them, and in the darke of the night to be set on fire, which being executed according to the appointment, when the fire was once kindled, the Picts with the Scots which were got vnto them, departed as secretlie as they might, and staied not to make awaie, till they were farre inough out of the danger of the Saxons. Hengist hauing thus got the victorie, and perceiuing no enimie abroad to bid him battell, mustered his men, and found that he had lost in this iournie as good as foure thousand of one and other. After this, hée withdraweth to Yorke, and leauing his armie there, went himselfe vnto London, where hée was receiued with ioy inough by king Vortigerne.

Shortlie after, vpon knowledge that Aurelius Ambrose, and Vter, the sonnes of king Aurelius Ambrose & Vter, sons to king Constantine. The Saxons placed in Kent. Constantine prepared to come ouer with a mightie armie of Armorike Britains, and other Frenchmen, to claime the crowne of Britaine, as lawfullie descended to them from their father: the Saxons were sent for out of the north parts, and had dwellings appointed vnto them in Kent, to be at hand if néed were to resist anie such attempted inuasion. But shortlie after, for a policie, Hengist caused it to be bruited abroad, that the Scots and Picts meant eftsoones to inuade the British confines, & therefore was there an other power of Saxons called into the land, and placed in the A new power of Saxons came ouer with their captein Occa. north parts, to defend the same against the Scots and Picts. Occa the sonne of Hengist had the leading of these Saxons, who brought them ouer, being ten thousand men of warre, in fiftie plaits, and fiftie hoies. They brought with them also their wiues and children, and setled themselues in the north parts betwixt the riuer of Humber and the borders of the Pictish dominions. And euen then it began to take the name of Northumberland, which is as you wold Northumberland when it first began to be so called. Vortigerne marieth Hengists daughter. say, the land by north the riuer of Humber, and so it dooth continue.

Shortlie after, Vortigerne forsaking his lawfull wife, maried the ladie Roxena or Rowen, Hengists daughter, to the high offense of God, and great displeasure of his subiects. And in the meane time, Occa not attempting anie exploit against the Scots and Picts, rather sought to get into his hands all the fortresses betwixt Tine and Humber, euen from the east sea to the west: which his purposed intent he greatlie aduanced, winning castels and fortresses there in those parties, some by force, and some by surrender: and amongst other places of importance, he first got possession of Yorke, and feigning accusations against manie of the nobles and Yorke in posession of Hengist. gentlemen, surmising that they would betraie the countrie vnto the Scots & Picts, hée put diuerse of them to death, some secretlie, and others openlie, as conuict of such offenses as were forged and laid against them.

Herevpon the Britains for the stay of such mischiefe as they saw at hand, deposed Vortigerne deposed by his subiects. Vortimer chosen to gouerne the Britains. The Britains require aid of the Scots and Picts against the Saxons. Vortigerne from his kinglie seat, and placed his sonne Vortimer in his roome, which being doone, ambassadors were sent both vnto the Scots and Picts, to require their aid and support against the cruell oppression of the Saxons, who sought not onelie by craftie meanes and fraudulent waies to atteine the dominion of the whole Ile, but also to extinguish and vtterlie subuert the faith of Christ, and the vse of his religion throughout the same. Therefore they earnestlie desired the Scotish and Pictish kings, to assist them against such common enimies as had béene called into the realme, not by publike consent of the nobles, but onlie by the priuate commandement and ordinance of Vortigerne, to helpe as well toward the subduing of the Scots and Picts, as also to represse all commotions of the Britains, which they might happilie raise against him for his wicked tyrannie vsed amongst them, as his guiltie conscience might put him still in feare of.

The Scotish king Congall (vnto whome first the ambassadors were sent) for answer The answer of Congall K. of Scots vnto the British messengers. declared, that he was sorie to vnderstand into what danger the miserable christians of Britaine were thus fallen, and therefore if nothing else might mooue him to ioine with the Britains against the Saxons, yet that were sufficient cause to inforce him to doo the best he could, to helpe to deliuer the whole Ile from such an ethnike generation, as not onelie vsed the rites and ceremonies of their false religion, and that openlie among the christians, with dooing sacrifice in the honor and worship of their hellish gods, to the great hrror and terrible offense of the beholders consciences; but also sought by all meanes they could deuise, how to destroie and quench vtterlie the faith of our Sauiour Christ in all places where they might get the vpper hand.

He promised therefore to imploie his whole puissance to recouer out of the enimies hands all such countries as laie betwixt the frontiers of his dominion and the riuer of Humber, and further to aid the Britains to driue them quite out of the Ile, if the Britains would Vpon what conditions Congall couenanted to support the Britains. assure him, from thencefoorth neuer to make claime, title nor interest, to any of the countries aforesaid, lieng betwixt the said riuer of Humber and the confines of his realme; but to leaue the same in the hands of the Scotishmen and Picts, to haue hold and inioy for euermore in quiet: which to performe, the ambassadors had (amongest other things) alreadie promised in name of all the British nation, as a recompense or méed to haue the support and succors of the Scots. The like answer the same ambassadors receiued of the Pictish king, and returning therewith vnto Vortimer, declared afore him and his councell how they had sped.

Shortlie after, for the more and better assurance of all promises, couenants and articles passed betwixt the Scotishmen, Picts, and Britains, there was an amitie and bond of peace A league concluded betwixt Scots Picts and Britains. now renewed, ratified and established, according to the tenor of the ancient league, which had béene concluded in times past betwixt them, with some new conditions of agréement included in the same: all old iniuries being ended and quieted clearelie betwixt them, so that no cause of grudge, or displeasure might bée thought to remaine in remembrance. The first enterprise put in execution after the concluding of this league, was made by the Scots against The Scots inuade the borders of Northumberland. Occa and his Saxons, which (as partlie ye haue heard) had nestled themselues betwixt the riuers of Tine and Humber.

Against those Scots, as they were verie earnestlie occupied in ouerthrowing castels and towers, with slaughter of such Saxons as stood at defense, Occa commeth into the field with an armie readie to incounter with them, but perceiuing the multitude of his enimies to be such, as he doubted least he should not be well able to match with them, he staied a while from giuing the onset: but in the end perceiuing he could not retire backe but to his great disaduantage, he boldlie gaue signe to his people to set vpon their enimies: which they The Saxons incounter with the Scots. The Saxons vanquished by the Scots. fiercelie executing, it was hard to tell for a while to whether part the victorie would incline. But at length the Saxons not able to susteine the force of the Scots, ouerpressing them with multitude, began to giue backe: which Occa perceiuing, did what he could to hem them in from running awaie, but yet notwithstanding all that he could doo, feare at length ouercomming regard to their capteins commandement, shame of rebuke was quite set apart, and so they tooke them to their feet, and fled awaie so fast as they might, the Scots pursuing after them amaine.

Occa yet escaped with diuerse of his nobles, and comming to the mouth of Humber, Occa fléeth by sea into Kent. got a ship, and sailed foorth in the same with great danger, till at length he arriued within the Thames. The slaughter of the Saxons vpon the discomfiture was great, speciallie in the chase, for the Scotishmen calling to remembrance that they had to doo with infidels, and with the enimies of the christian faith, were so eger vpon them, that they saued few or none that fell into their hands. About the same time was Vortimer entered into Kent against The Saxons vanquished by Britains and expelled out of Kent. Hengist and his Saxons there, and incountring with them in battell, slue ten thousand of them, and chased the residue foorth of that countrie. Thus Kent returned vnto the Britains, and the countries beyond Humber northwards vnto the Scots and Picts, according to the tenour of the league before mentioned.

Hengist and his sonne Occa (who a little before this battell in Kent was come vnto his father) with the residue of them that escaped, hasted with all spéed toward Northumberland, in purpose to remaine in that countrie till they had recouered their strength by some power to be sent ouer vnto them out of their owne countrie: but being repelled with no small slaughter from thence by the Scots and Picts, they withdrew vnto the mouth of Humber, where getting The Saxons flie out of Britaine. certeine vessels, they passed ouer into Saxonie, leauing a great sort of their nation behind them dispersed abroad here and there in this Ile, as fortune then best serued. Vortimer hauing got Vortimer vseth the victorie modestlie. the victorie, as before is mentioned, vsed not the same verie cruellie, for taking onelie from the Saxons which were taken prisoners their armor and weapon, he suffered them to depart into their countrie: other of the same nation being but husbandmen, and as it were poore laborers of the ground, he permitted to tarie in the countrie with their wiues & children, as seruants vnto the Britains.

After this, Vortimer gaue order for the reparing of churches, and restoring of the christian religion into the state of the former puritie thereof, as then sore decaied, partlie through the euill example taken by dailie conuersation amongst the Saxons, and partlie also by the infectiue heresie of the Pelagians, as then mightilie spred ouer the most part of Britaine. At The heresie of the l'elagians. length the said Vortimer through treason of his stepmother Roxena was poisoned, and died. Then was Vortigerne againe restored to the rule of the kingdome, first forced by oth to promise neuer to aid the Saxons, nor to receiue by way of aid anie forreine people into the realme. Vortigerne then restored thus vnto the crowne, shewed such diligence in causing due administration of iustice without rigor to be executed, and prouision made for the resisting of all inuasions that might be attemted by anic forreine power, that his praise was great amongst all his subiects, who to shew their good willes likewise towards him as to their naturall prince, were not slacke in honoring him aswell by gifts and presents, as by all other maner of waies. He found meanes also to renew the league with the Scots and Picts, The league renewed betwixt Britains, Scots and Picts. Hengist returneth. with like conditions and articles, as it was concluded lastlie betwixt them and his sonne Vortimer. But notwithstanding his politike procéeding, thus to auoid all inconuenience that might happen; shortlie after Hengist returned, and what by force and subtill shifts, at length got possession of the more part of Britaine, so that the Britains were constreined to flie into Wales, whither also Vortigerne fled, and remained there a certeine time, till at length Aurelius Ambrosius, and Vter, the sonnes of king Constantine came ouer out of little Britaine, and besieging Vortigerne in a castell, burnt him with the house and all, when they Vortigerne burnt. could not otherwise come by him, according to that which Merline the British soothsaier had prophesied before. It is folishlie supposed that this Merline was got by a spirit of that kind which are called Incubi, that is to vnderstand, such as conueieng mans séed from him (and therewith by illusion taking vpon them the shape and figure of man) doo lie with women, and vse them after the maner of carnall copulation.

¶ In this place Hector Boetius by the way reciteth a like tale or two, of such illusions of Illusions of spirits. spirits, wrought not long before his time in Scotland, which somwhat abridging the same we haue here infarced. In the yéere 1480, saith he, it chanced as a Scotish ship departed out of A tale of a woman abused with a spirit. the Forth towards Flanders, there rose a woonderfull great tempest of wind and weather, so outragious, that the maister of the ship with other the mariners woondered not a little what the matter ment, to sée such weather at that time of the yeere, for it was about the middest of About saint Barnabées day. summer. At length when the furious pirrie & rage of winds still increased, in such wise that all those within the ship looked for present death, there was a woman vnderneath the hatches, called vnto them aboue, and willed them to throw hir into the sea, that all the residue by Gods grace might yet be saued: and therevpon told them, how she had bene hanted a long time with a spirit, dailie comming vnto hir in mans likenesse, and that euen as then he was with hir, vsing his filthie pleasure after the maner of carnall copulation. In the ship there chanced also to be a priest, who by the maisters appointment going downe to this woman, and finding hir like a most wretched and desperate person, lamenting hir great misfortune and miserable estate, vsed such wholsome admonitions and comfortable aduertisements, willing hir to repent and hope for mercie at the hands of God, that at length she séeming right penitent for hir gréeuous offenses committed, and fetching sundrie sighs euen from the bottome of hir heart, being witnesse (as should appeare) of the same, there issued foorth of the pumpe of the ship a foule and euill fauored blacke cloud, with a mightie terrible noise, flame, smoke and stinke, which presentlie fell into the sea. And suddenlie thervpon the tempest ceassed, and the ship passing in great quiet the residue of hir iournie, arriued in safetie at the place whither she was bound.

Not long before the hap héereof, there was in like manner a yoong man dwelling in A young man haunted with a spirit. Gareoth, within a village there, not passing 14 miles from Aberdine, verie faire & comelie of shape, who declared by waie of complaint vnto the bishop of that diocesse, how there was a spirit which haunted him in shape of a woman, so faire and beautifull a thing, that he neuer saw the like, the which would come into his chamber at nights, and with pleasant intisements allure him to haue to doo with hir, & that by no maner of means he could be rid of hir. The bishop like a wise man aduised him to remooue into some other countrie, and to giue himselfe to fasting and praier, so to auoid his hands of that wicked spirit. The yoong man following the bishops counsell, within a few daies was deliuered from further temptation.

About the same time also, there was in the countrie of Mar, a yoong gentlewoman of excellent beautie, and daughter vnto a noble man there, refusing sundrie wealthie mariages offered to hir by hir father, and other friends. At length she prooued with child, and being rigorouslie compelled by hir parents to tell who was the father, she confessed that a certeine yoong man vsed nightlie to come vnto hir, and kept hir companie, and sometimes in the day also, but how or from whence he came, or by what meanes he went awaie, she was not able to declare. Hir parents not greatlie crediting hir woords, laid diligent watch, to vnderstand what he was that had defiled their house: and within thrée daies after, vpon signification giuen by one of the maidens, that the fornicator was at that verie instant with their daughter, incontinentlie therevpon, making fast the doores, they enter the chamber with a great manie of torches and lights, where they find in their daughters armes a foule monstrous thing, verie horrible to behold. Héere a number comming hastilie in, to behold this euill fauored sight, amongst other there was a priest of verie honest life, not ignorant (as was thought) in knowledge of holie scripture.

This priest (all other being afraid) and some of them running their waies, began to recite the beginning of Saint Johns gospell, and comming to these woords, "Verbum caro factum est," suddenlie the wicked spirit making a verie sore and terrible roaring noise, flue his waies, taking the roofe of the chamber awaie with him, the hangings and couerings of the bed being also burnt therewith. The gentlewoman was yet preserued, and within thrée or foure daies after was deliuered of such a mishapen thing, as the like before had not béene seene, which the midwiues and women, such as were present at hir labor, to auoid the dishonor of hir house, immediatlie burnt in a great fire, made in the chamber for the same intent. ¶ Thus much out of Hector Boetius, which, with more, he hath written to prooue that all is not feined which is written of the illusions of diuels and euill spirits, the credit whereof I leaue with the author.

Now to returne where I left touching Aurelius Ambrose. Ye shall vnderstand, that he Aurelius Ambrose purposeth to make warres against the Saxons. hauing once subdued and dispatched his aduersarie Vortigerne, determined to make warres against Hengist and his Saxons, to prooue if his chance might be to recouer the realme out of their hands, and so to restore againe the christian religion. But first yer he attempted anie exploit against the enimies, he sent ambassadors both vnto Congall the Scotish king, and also Ambassadors sent vnto the Scots and Picts to require their aid against the Saxons. vnto one Loth a towardlie yoong gentleman, and of verie comelie personage, as then reigning among the Picts, requiring them both to aid him in so necessarie an enterprise as he had in hand against the enimies of Christ and his religion. Wherevpon both these kings, weieng with themselues the dutie of all christian princes, in respect of the aduancement of the cause of faith, and suppressing of ethnike idolatrie, promised their helpe to the vttermost of their powers The Scots and Picts promise to aid the Britains against the Saxons. The league renewed betwixt Britains, Picts, and Scots. against the Saxons, who had in such tyranlike sort subuerted and abolished the christian profession within the British confines. And therefore the old league, according to the articles and couenants aforetime concluded betwixt the thrée nations, was once againe renewed, and an armie prepared by euerie of them, to meet at a place and day appointed, for the better expedition of this their attempted voiage.

First Aurelius Ambrose, with such power as he brought with him foorth of France, & ioining therevnto a great multitude of those Britains which had escaped the Saxons hands, either by withdrawing themselues into Wales, or else by conueieng themselues into the countries of the Scots and Picts, setteth forward toward the Scotish armie. But first calling together those Britains that he had about him, and going vp to a little hill, where he might be heard of them all, he made a long oration by waie of complaint, of the great iniuries and cruell practises vsed Aurelius Ambrose maketh an oration. by Hengist, against the linage of king Constantine, and the whole estate of the British common-wealth: also of the horrible persecution made by him and his people the Saxons, against the professors of the christian religion. All which matter he handled in woords so pithilie, his talke yet sauoring of the Romane eloquence, that the minds of the souldiers being kindled therewith, required nothing but battell, as men not doubting but by his wise and politike conduct to atchiue some glorious victorie. And to the end all thing might be doone in better order, according to his appointment, immediatlie they proclamed him king. Which was by Aurelius Ambrose proclamed king of Britaine. account of the Scotish chronicles, in the yéere 498, after that Vortigerne with his sonne Vortimer had reigned 17 yéeres in the whole.

Aurelius in this wise being established king of Britaine passeth foorth with his people, and within six daies after met with the armies of the Scots and Picts. Generall of the Scots at Conranus generall of the Scots. that time was one Conranus brother to king Congall, who was troubled with the gout, so that he could not come himselfe in person. Loth the Pictish king was there himselfe amongst Loth king of the Picts. his people, verie desirous to shew some proofe of his manlie prowesse and manhood. Aurelius Ambrose shewed all the honor that might be deuised, as well to the one as to the other of those two nations, promising to requite them with as much friendship when time and occasion should craue the like assistance. These three mightie armies therefore being thus assembled, marched foorth towards a place called Mahesbell, where they vnderstood that Hengist with Mahesbell. his power as then did soiorne. Where when both the camps were pitched, and one lieng not farre from the other: at the first certeine light skirmishes were procured by both parts betwixt the light horssemen, wherewith at length being the more prouoked to displeasure, they come into the field with their whole maine battels, verie fiercelie incountring ech other, so that The Albions and Saxons incounter in battell. (as it appéered) their force was not so great, but their mortall hate was euen as much, or rather more, if the histories saie right.

The Armorike Britains with a new kind of order in their fight, sore troubled the Saxons, The Armorike Britains. in persing their battels, with their men arraied in certeine wards, broad behind and narrow before, wedgewise. The Scots also & Picts bare downe both the wings of the Saxons, in such manner, that the standards of all the three nations, Scots, Picts, and Britains, were at point almost to méet, hauing made waie therevnto through the middest of their enimies. Wherewith the Saxons (being sore discouraged) began to giue backe; and finallie, notwithstanding all The Saxons discomfited. that Hengist could saie or doo to haue staied them, they fell to running awaie, and fled amaine, which when he throughlie saw, & perceiued that there was no recouerie, he himselfe (in Sée more hereof in England. manner the last man that abode) fled likewise his waies out of the field, with an ambushment of horssemen about him, but being pursued by Aurelius verie fiercelie, he was run through the Hengist is slaine by Aurelius, as the Scotish chronicles sav. bodie by him with a speare, and so was there slaine out of hand, in the 488 yéere of Christ, and 40 after his comming into this Ile. Howbeit the other of the Saxons conueied his sonne Occa (being also sore wounded) awaie with them vp into the next mounteins, whither they fled for their refuge, leauing the dead bodie of his father Hengist in the field, to their high reproch, there to be spoiled and abused of his enimies.

Aurelius Ambrose hauing thus got the vpper hand of his enimies, hasted foorth with all spéed Aurelius hasteth fcorth to London. vnto London, where hauing both the citie and tower deliuered into his hands, he recouered the whole Iland from the possession of the Saxons: and such of them as were apt men, able to beare armor, and to serue in the warres, he commanded to depart foorth of the land. The other that were minded to tarrie behind their fellowes that were thus forced to depart, became subiects to the Britains, and couenanted to become christians. ¶ Thus much haue I written touching Aurelius Ambrose, according to the report of the Scotish writers, but more héereof ye may read in the historie of England, where ye shall find this matter set foorth more at large. For that which we write héere, is but to shew in what sort the Scotish writers make relation of the warres which their nation had with the Saxons, when they began first to set foot héere in this land.

To our purpose then. In the meane time Aurelius hauing thus recouered the land out of the Saxons hands, and now remaining at London, did all the honor he could imagine, both vnto Loth the Pictsh king, and also vnto Conranus generall of the Scotishmen, By support of Scots and Picts Aurelius confesseth he got the victorie of the Saxons. The league betwixt Scots, Picts, and Britains is renewed. acknowledging how that by their aid chieflie he had got the vpper hand of his enimies, and so he willed to haue it notified amongst his subiects. Héereto he caused the league to be renewed betwixt the Scots, Picts, & Britains, the ancient ordinance for the countries beyond Humber, being appointed to remaine vnto the Scotishmen and Picts: also that the Saxons should be reputed common enimies to all the thrée nations, and that vpon inuasion made by anie forren power, the Scots, Picts, and Britains, should aid one another as occasion serued.

This league being concluded with these articles of couenants, was the more stronglie confirmed, by reason of such affinitie and aliance as then also insued. For whereas Aurelius had two sisters, the one named Anne, and the other Ada, virgins both; Anne being the Anne the daughter of Aurelius giuen in mariage vnto Loth king of Picts. Ada maried vnto Conranus. elder, was giuen in mariage vnto king Loth, by whome certeine yeares after he had issue two sonnes, Mordred, and Walwan or Calwan, with a daughter called Thametes: Ada being the yoonger sister was maried vnto Conranus, generall (as is said) of the Scotish armie. Howbeit she liued not past two yeares after, but died in trauell of child, which also died with the mother: and so ended the aliance of Aurelius and Conranus. The Britains being deliuered through the victorie and means afore rehearsed from the cruell hands of the Saxons, inioied ioifull peace certeine yeares after, but in the meane time diuers of those Saxons which were licenced to remaine in Britaine, counterfeiting to become christians, vsed neuerthelesse to make sacrifice vnto idols, according to the maner of the gentiles, whereof Diuers Saxons idolaters are burned. The death of Congall. their priests being accused and condemned, suffered death by fire for that offense, according lie as the law did then appoint them. Whilest these things were thus in hand, Congall king of the Scots being worne with long sicknesse, departed this life, and was buried in the Ile of Iona, otherwise called Colmekill, with all king lie pompe and accustomed ceremonies. He reigned ouer the Scotishmen about 20 yeares in great fame and glorie.

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