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DUNCANE.

AFTER Malcolme succéeded his nephue Duncane the sonne of his daughter Beatrice: for
Duncan king of Scotland. Malcolme had two daughters, the one which was this Beatrice, being giuen in mariage vnto one Abbanath Crinen, a man of great nobilitie, and thane of the Iles and west parts of Scotland, bare of that mariage the foresaid Duncane; the other called Doada, was maried vnto Sinell the thane of Glammis, by whom she had issue one Makbeth a valiant gentleman, and Makbeth. one that if he had not béene somewhat cruell of nature, might haue béene thought most woorthie the gouernement of a realme. On the other part, Duncane was so soft and gentle Duncan of too soft a nature. of nature, that the people wished the inclinations and maners of these two cousins to haue béene so tempered and interchangeablie bestowed betwixt them, that where the one had too much of clemencie, and the other of crueltie, the meane vertue betwixt these two extremities might haue reigned by indifferent partition in them both, so should Duncane haue proued a woorthie king, and Makbeth an excellent capteine. The beginning of Duncans reigne was verie quiet and peaceable, without anie notable trouble; but after it was perceiued how negligent he was in punishing offendors, manie misruled persons tooke occasion thereof to trouble the peace and quiet state of the common-wealth, by seditious commotions which first had their beginnings in this wise.

Banquho the thane of Lochquhaber, of whom the house of the Stewards is descended, Banquho thane of Lochquhaber. The house of y Stewards. A mutinie amongst the people of Lochquhaber. the which by order of linage hath now for a long time inioicd the crowne of Scotland, euen till these our daies, as he gathered the finances due to the king, and further punished somewhat sharpelie such as were notorious offendors, being assailed by a number of rebels inhabiting in that countrie, and spoiled of the monie and all other things, had much a doo to get awaie with life, after he had receiued sundrie grieuous wounds amongst them. Yet escaping their hands, after hée was somewhat recouered of his hurts, and was able to ride, he repaired to the court, where making his complaint to the king in most earnest wise, he purchased at length that the offendors were sent for by a sergeant at armes, to appeare to make answer vnto such matters as should be laid to their charge: but they augmenting their A sergeant at armes slaine by the rebels. mischiefous act with a more wicked déed, after they had misused the messenger with sundrie kinds of reproches, they finallie slue him also.

Then doubting not but for such contemptuous demeanor against the kings regall authoritie, they should be inuaded with all the power the king could make, Makdowald one of Makdowald offereth himselfe to be capteine of the rebels. great estimation among them, making first a confederacie with his neerest friends and kinsmen, tooke vpon him to be chiefe capteine of all such rebels as would stand against the king, in maintenance of their grieuous offenses latelie committed against him. Manie slanderous words also, and railing tants this Makdowald vttered against his prince, calling him a faint-hearted milkesop, more meet to gouerne a sort of idle moonks in some cloister, than to haue the rule of such valiant and hardie men of warre as the Scots were. He vsed also such subtill persuasions and forged allurements, that in a small time he had gotten togither a mightie power of men: for out of the westerne Iles there came vnto him a great multitude of people, offering themselues to assist him in that rebellious quarell, and out of Ireland in hope of the spoile came no small number of Kernes and Galloglasses, offering gladlie to serue vnder him, whither it should please him to lead them.

Makdowald thus hauing a mightie puissance about him, incountered with such of the Makdowald discomfiteth the kings power. kings people as were sent against him into Lochquhaber, and discomfiting them, by mere force tooke their capteine Malcolme, and after the end of the battell smote off his head. This ouerthrow being notified to the king, did put him in woonderfull feare, by reason of The smal skil of the king in warlike affaires. his small skill in warlike affaires. Calling therefore his nobles to a councell, he asked of them their best aduise for the subduing of Makdowald & other the rebels. Here, in sundrie heads (as euer it happenerh) were sundrie opinions, which they vttered according to euerie man his skill. At length Makbeth speaking much against the kings softnes, and ouermuch slacknesse in punishing offendors, whereby they had such time to assemble togither, he Makbeths offer. promised notwithstanding, if the charge were committed vnto him and vnto Banquho, so to order the matter, that the rebels should be shortly vanquished & quite put downe, and that not so much as one of them should be found to make resistance within the countrie.

And euen so it came to passe: for being sent foorth with a new power, at his entring Makbeth and Banquho are sent against the rebels. The rebels forsake their capteine. into Lochquhaber, the fame of his comming put the enimies in such feare, that a great number of them stale secretlie awaie from their capteine Makdowald, who neuerthelesse inforced thereto, gaue battell vnto Makbeth, with the residue which remained with him: but being ouercome, and fléeing for refuge into a castell (within the which his wife & children were inclosed) at length when he saw how he could neither defend the hold anie longer against his enimies, nor yet vpon surrender be suffered to depart with life saued, hée first slue his Makdowald slaieth his wife and children, & lastlie himselfe. wife and children, and lastlie himselfe, least if he had yeelded simplie, he should haue béene executed in most cruell wise for an example to other. Makbeth entring into the castell by the gates, as then set open, found the carcasse of Makdowald lieng dead there amongst the residue of the slaine bodies, which when he beheld, remitting no peece of his cruell nature with that pitifull sight, he caused the head to be cut off, and set vpon a poles end, and so Makdowalds head sent to the king. Makbeths crueltie. sent it as a present to the king, who as then laie at Bertha. The headlesse trunke he commanded to bée hoong vp vpon an high paire of gallowes.

Them of the westerne Iles suing for pardon, in that they had aided Makdowald in his tratorous enterprise, he fined at great sums of monie: and those whome he tooke in Lochquhaber, being come thither to beare armor against the king, he put to execution. Hervpon the Ilandmen conceiued a deadlie grudge towards him, calling him a couenant-breaker, Makbeth defamed by the Ilandmen. a bloudie tyrant, & a cruell murtherer of them whome the kings mercie had pardoned. With which reprochfull words Makbeth being kindled in wrathfull ire against them, had passed ouer with an armie into the Iles, to haue taken reuenge vpon them for their liberall talke, had he not béene otherwise persuaded by some of his friends, and partlie pacified by gifts presented vnto him on the behalfe of the Ilandmen, séeking to auoid his displeasure. Thus was iustice and law restored againe to the old accustomed course, by the diligent Iustice & law restored. Sueno king of Norway landed in Fife. means of Makbeth. Immediatlie wherevpon woord came that Sueno king of Norway was arriued in Fife with a puissant armie, to subdue the whole realme of Scotland.

But here to the intent it maie be the better perceiued, what this Sueno was, I will somwhat touch from whence he descended. That Sueno, who (as ye haue heard) conquered This agréeth not with our English writers. Harold that reigned king of England, was not the son of Sueno but of Canute and was not slaine, but died of naturall disease. Sée more hereof in England. Canute king of Denmarke. Edmund Ironside. the realme of England, being also king of Denmarke and Norwaie, had thrée sonnes, Harold, Sueno, and Canute; the first he made king of England, the second king of Norwaie, and the third king of Denmarke. Harold inioied not the same dominion of England past three yeeres after his fathers deceasse, but was slaine by Etheldred or Egeldred, whom his father Sueno had chased into Normandie. But the same Etheldred kept not long the kingdome in peace, for Canute king of Denmarke, to reuenge his brothers death, landed in England with a mightie host, and sleaing Etheldred, recouered the kingdome to the vse of the Danes: but yet one Edmund sonne to the foresaid Etheldred, surnamed Ironside, mainteined the warre against Canute for a season, till at length by both their consents they agréed to fight a combat singularlie man to man, so to trie the matter betwixt them, who should reigne as king ouer the Englishmen.

In this fight when they had continued a long space, and shewed right notable proofes of their manhood: "Edmund (saith Canute) sith it hath pleased almightie God, that thou Canutes words to Edmund Ironside. shouldest thus trie the force of my hand without hurt or wound, I thinke it bée likewise his pleasure, that thou shouldest inioy part of the realme: go to therefore, I receiue thée as partener with me in the kingdome, so that (if thou be contented let vs diuide the kingdome betwixt vs without anie more contention." Edmund gladlie accepted this condition of agreement, supposing it better to haue halfe the kingdome, than to stand to the doubtfull triall of loosing the whole: for he had receiued a wound at Canutes hands, though Canute vnderstood not so much: againe, he foresaw that occasion hereafter might be offered, whereby he might without all trouble come to inioy the whole. Herevpon either of them The diuision of the realme of England betwixt Canute and Edmund Ironside. Alured & Edward the sons of king Etheldred. lept beside their weried horsses in that fierce & earnest fight, & imbracing each other became good friends, in diuiding the realme according to the aboue mentioned motion of Canute. That part of England that lieth ouer against France was assigned vnto Canute; and the other, that is, the north parts vnto Edmund. In the meane time Emma the wife of Etheldred, with hir two sonnes (which she had by the same Etheldred) Alured and Edward, fled ouer into Normandie, doubting least this concord betwixt Canute and Edmund should rurne smallie to hir aduancement.

But now touching the arriuall of Sueno the Norwegian king in Fife (as before is expressed) ye shall vnderstand, that the pretense of his comming was to reuenge the slaughter of his vncle Camus, and other of the Danish nation slaine at Barre, Crowdane, and Gemmer. The crueltie of this Sueno was such, that he neither spared man, woman, nor child, The crueltie of Sueno king of Norwaie. Duncane bestirreth himselfe in assembling an armie. of what age, condition or degrée soeuer they were. Whereof when K. Duncane was certified, he set all slouthfull and lingering delaies apart, and began to assemble an armie in most spéedie wise, like a verie valiant capteine: for oftentimes it happeneth, that a dull coward and slouthfull person, constreined by necessitie, becommeth verie hardie and actiue. Therefore when his whole power was come togither, he diuided the same into thrée battels. The Scotish armie diuided into thrée battels. The first was led by Makbeth, the second by Banquho, & the king himselfe gouerned in the maine battell or middle ward, wherein were appointed to attend and wait vpon his person the most part of all the residue of the Scotish nobilitie.

The armie of Scotishmen being thus ordered, came vnto Culros, where incountering with the enimies, after a sore and cruell foughten battell, Sueno remained victorious, and Sueno vanquisheth the Scots. Malcolme with his Scots discomfited. Howbeit the Danes were so broken by this battell, that they were not able to make long chase on their enimies, but kept themselues all night in order of battell, for doubt least the Scots assembling togither againe, might haue set vpon them at some aduantage. On the morrow, when the fields were discouered, and that it was perceiued how no enimies were to be found abrode, they gathered the spoile, which they diuided amongst them, according to the law of armes. Then was it ordeined by Suenos commandement to spare fire and swoord. commandement of Sueno, that no souldier should hurt either man, woman, or child, except such as were found with weapon in hand readie to make resistance, for he hoped now to conquer the realme without further bloudshed.

But when knowledge was giuen how Duncane was fled to the castell of Bertha, and that Duncane fled to the castell of Bertha. Sueno besiegeth king Malcolme. Makbeth was gathering a new power to withstand the incursions of the Danes, Sueno raised his tents, & comming to the said castell, laid a strong siege round about it. Duncane séeing himselfe thus enuironed by his enimies, sent a secret message by counsell of Banquho to Makbeth, commanding him to abide at Inchcuthill, till he heard from him some other newes. In the meane time Duncane fell in fained communication with Sueno, as though Fained treatie. he would haue yéelded vp the castell into his hands, vnder certeine conditions, and this did he to driue time, and to put his enimies out of all suspicion of anie enterprise ment against them, till all things were brought to passe that might serue for the purpose. At length, when they were fallen at a point for rendring vp the hold, Duncane offered to send foorth of the castell into the campe great prouision of vittels to refresh the armie, which offer was gladlie accepted of the Danes, for that they had béene in great penurie of sustenance manie daies before.

The Scots héerevpon tooke the iuice of mekilwoort berries, and mixed the same in their Spiced cups prepared for the Danes. ale and bread, sending it thus spiced & confectioned, in great abundance vnto their enimies. They reioising that they had got meate and drinke sufficient to satisfie their bellies, fell to eating and drmking after such greedie wise, that it séemed they stroue who might deuoure and swallow vp most, till the operation of the berries spread in such sort through all the parts of their bodies, that they were in the end brought into a fast dead sleepe, that in The Danes ouercome with drinke, fall asléepe. manner it was vnpossible to awake them. Then foorthwith Duncane sent vnto Makbeth, commanding him with all diligence to come and set vpon the enimies, being in easie point to be ouercome. Makbeth making no delaie, came with his people to the place, where his Makbeth assaileth the campe of the Danes, being ouercome with drinke and sléepe. enimies were lodged, and first killing the watch, afterwards entered the campe, and made such slaughter on all sides without anie resistance, that it was a woonderfull matter to behold, for the Danes were so heauie of sléepe, that the most part of them were slaine and neuer stirred: other that were awakened either by the noise or other waies foorth, were so amazed and dizzie headed vpon their wakening, that they were not able to make anie defense: so that of the whole number there escaped no more but onelie Sueno himselfe and The slaughter of Danes. Sueno with ten other escaped. ten other persons, by whose helpe he got to his ships lieng at rode in the mouth of Taie.

The most part of the mariners, when they heard what plentie of meate and drinke the Scots had sent vnto the campe, came from the sea thither to be partakers thereof, and so were slaine amongst their fellowes: by meanes whereof when Sueno perceiued how through lacke of mariners he should not be able to conueie awaie his nauie, he furnished one ship Sueno fléeth with one ship, leauing the residue of his nauie behind him. The fléete of the Norwegians sunke by vehement rage of winds. throughlie with such as were left, and in the same sailed backe into Norwaie, cursing the time that he set forward on this infortunate iournie. The other ships which he left behind him, within three daies after his departure from thence, were tossed so togither by violence of an east wind, that beating and rushing one against another, they sunke there, and lie in the same place euen vnto these daies, to the great danger of other such ships as come on that coast: for being couered with the floud when the tide commeth, at the ebbing againe of the same, some part of them appéere aboue water.

The place where the Danish vessels were thus lost, is yet called Drownelow sands. This Drownelow sands. ouerthrow receiued in manner afore said by Sueno, was verie displeasant to him and his people, as should appéere, in that it was a custome manie yeeres after, that no knights were made in Norwaie, except they were first sworne to reuenge the slaughter of their The oth that knights tooke in Norwaie, to reuenge the death of their friends. Solemne processions for victorie gotten. A power of Danes arriue at Kingcorne out of England. The Danes vanquished by Makbeth and Banquho. Danes buried in S. Colmes Inch. countriemen and friends thus slaine in Scotland. The Scots hauing woone so notable a victorie, after they had gathered & diuided the spoile of the field, caused solemne processions to be made in all places of the realme, and thanks to be giuen to almightie God, that had sent them so faire a day ouer their enimies. But whilest the people were thus at their processions, woord was brought that a new fléet of Danes was arriued at Kingcorne, sent thither by Canute king of England, in reuenge of his brother Suenos ouerthrow. To resist these enimies, which were alreadie landed, and busie in spoiling the countrie; Makbeth and Banquho were sent with the kings authoritie, who hauing with them a conuenient power, incountred the enimies, slue part of them, and chased the other to their ships. They that escaped and got once to their ships, obteined of Makbeth for a great summe of gold, that such of their friends as were slaine at this last bickering, might be buried in saint Colmes Inch. In memorie whereof, manie old sepultures are yet in the said Inch, there to be seene grauen with the armes of the Danes, as the maner of burieng noble men still is, and héeretofore hath béene vsed.

A peace was also concluded at the same time betwixt the Danes and Scotishmen, ratified A peace concluded betwixt Scots and Danes. (as some haue written) in this wise: That from thencefoorth the Danes should neuer come into Scotland to make anie warres against the Scots by anie maner of meanes. And these were the warres that Duncane had with forren enimies, in the seuenth yéere of his reigne. Shortlie after happened a strange and vncouth woonder, which afterward was the cause of much trouble in the realme of Scotland, as ye shall after heare. It fortuned as Makbeth and Banquho iournied towards Fores, where the king then laie, they went sporting by the waie togither without other companie, saue onelie themselues, passing thorough the woods and fields, when suddenlie in the middest of a laund, there met them thrée women in strange and wild apparell, resembling creatures of elder world, whome when they attentiuelie beheld, woondering much at the sight, the first of them spake and said; "All haile The prophesie of thrée women supposing to be the weird sisters or feiries. Makbeth, thane of Glammis" (for he had latelie entered into that dignitie and office by the death of his father Sinell.) The second of them said; "Haile Makbeth thane of Cawder." But the third said; "All haile Makbeth that héereafter shalt be king of Scotland."

Then Banquho; "What manner of women (saith he) are you, that séeme so little fauourable vnto me, whereas to my fellow heere, besides high offices, ye assigne also the kingdome, appointing foorth nothing for me at all?" "Yes (saith the first of them) we promise greater benefits vnto thée, than vnto him, for he shall reigne in déed, but with an vnluckie end: neither shall he leaue anie issue behind him to succéed in his place, where contrarilie thou in déed shalt not reigne at all, but of thée those shall be borne which shall gouerne the Scotish kingdome by long order of continuall descent." Herewith the foresaid women vanished immediatlie out of their sight. This was reputed at the first but some vaine A thing to woonder at. fantasticall illusion by Mackbeth and Banquho, insomuch that Banquho would call Mackbeth in iest, king of Scotland; and Mackbeth againe would call him in sport likewise, the father Banquho the father of manie kings. of manie kings. But afterwards the common opinion was, that these women were either the weird sisters, that is (as ye would say) the goddesses of destinie, or else some nymphs or feiries, indued with knowledge of prophesie by their necromanticall science, bicause euerie thing came to passe as they had spoken. For shortlie after, the thane of Cawder The thane of Cawder condemned of treason. Mackbeth made thane of Cawder. being condemned at Fores of treason against the king committed; his lands, liuings, and offices were giuen of the kings liberalitie to Mackbeth.

The same night after, at supper, Banquho iested with him and said; "Now Mackbeth thou hast obteined those things which the two former sisters prophesied, there remaineth onelie for thée to purchase that which the third said should come to passe. Wherevpon Mackbeth Mackbeth deuiseth how he might atteine the kingdome. reuoluing the thing in his mind, began euen then to deuise how he might atteine to the kingdome: but yet he thought with himselfe that he must tarie a time, which should aduance him thereto (by the diuine prouidence) as it had come to passe in his former preferment. But shortlie after it chanced that king Duncane, hauing two sonnes by his wife The daughter of Siward earle of Northumberland, wife to king Duncane. which was the daughter of Siward earle of Northumberland, he made the elder of them called Malcolme prince of Cumberland, as it were thereby to appoint him his successor in the kingdome, immediatlie after his deceasse. Mackbeth sore troubled herewith, for that he saw by this means his hope sore hindered (where, by the old lawes of the realme, the ordinance was, that if he that should succéed were not of able age to take the charge vpon himselfe, he that was next of bloud vnto him should be admitted) he began to take counsell Mackbeth studieth which way he may take the kingdome by force. how he might vsurpe the kingdome by force, hauing a iust quarell so to doo (as he tooke the matter) for that Duncane did what in him lay to defraud him of all maner of title and claime, which he might in time to come, pretend vnto the crowne.

The woords of the thrée weird sisters also (of whom before ye haue heard) greatlie Prophesies mooue men to vnlawfull attempts. Women desirous of high estate. Mackbeth sleaeth king Duncane. Mackbeth vsurpeth the crowne. incouraged him herevnto, but speciallie his wife lay sore vpon him to attempt the thing, as she that was verie ambitious, burning in vnquenchable desire to beare the name of a queene. At length therefore, communicating his purposed intent with his trustie friends, amongst whome Banquho was the chiefest, vpon confidence of their promised aid, he slue the king at Enuerns, or (as some say) at Botgosuane, in the sixt yeare of his reigne. Then hauing a companie about him of such as he had made priuie to his enterprise, he caused himselfe to be proclamed king, and foorthwith went vnto Scone, where (by common consent) he receiued the inuesture of the kingdome according to the accustomed maner. The bodie of Duncane was first conueied vnto Elgine, & there buried in kinglie wise; but afterwards it Duncanes buriall. 1046. H.B. was remoued and conueied vnto Colmekill, and there laid in a sepulture amongst his predecessors, in the yeare after the birth of our Sauiour, 1046.

Malcolme Cammore and Donald Bane the sons of king Duncane, for feare of their liues Malcolme Cammore and Donald Bane flée into Cumberland. Malcolme Cammore receiued by Edward king of England. Mackbeths liberalitie. Mackbeth studieth to aduance iustice. Mackbeths policie. (which they might well know that Mackbeth would séeke to bring to end for his more sure confirmation in the estate) fled into Cumberland, where Malcolme remained, till time that saint Edward the sonne of Ethelred recouered the dominion of England from the Danish power, the which Edward receiued Malcolme by way of most friendlie enterteinment: but Donald passed ouer into Ireland, where he was tenderlie cherished by the king of that land. Mackbeth, after the departure thus of Duncanes sonnes, vsed great liberalitie towards the nobles of the realme, thereby to win their fauour, and when he saw that no man went about to trouble him, he set his whole intention to mainteine iustice, and to punish all enormities and abuses, which had chanced through the féeble and slouthfull administration of Duncane. And to bring his purpose the better to passe without anie trouble or great businesse, he deuised a subtill wile to bring all offendors and misdooers vnto iustice, soliciting sundrie of his liege people with high rewards, to challenge and appeale such as most oppressed the commons, to come at a day and place appointed, to fight singular combats within barriers, in triall of their accusations. When these théeues, barrettors, and other oppressors of the innocent people were come to darren battell in this wise (as is said) they were streight waies apprehended by armed men, and trussed vp in halters on gibbets, Streict iustice. according as they had iustlie deserued. The residue of misdooers that were left, were punished and tamed in such sort, that manie yeares after all theft and reiffings were little heard of, the people inioieng the blissefull benefit of good peace and tranquillitie. Mackbeth shewing himselfe thus a most diligent punisher of all iniuries and wrongs attempted by anie disordered persons within his realme, was accounted the sure defense and buckler of innocent people; and hereto he also applied his whole indeuor, to cause yoong men to A kinglie endeuour. exercise themselues in vertuous maners, and men of the church to attend their diuine seruice according to their vocations.

He caused to be slaine sundrie thanes, as of Cathnes, Sutherland, Stranauerne, and Ros, Iustice ministred without respect of persons. because through them and their seditious attempts, much trouble dailie rose in the realme. He appeased the troublesome state of Galloway, and slue one Makgill a tyrant, who had manie yeares before passed nothing of the regall authoritie or power. To be briefe, such were the woorthie dooings and princelie acts of this Mackbeth in the administration of the realme, that if he had atteined therevnto by rightfull means, and continued in vprightnesse of iustice as he began, till the end of his reigne, he might well haue béene numbred amongest the most noble princes that anie where had reigned. He made manie holesome laws and statutes for the publike weale of his subiects.

LAWES MADE BY KING MAKBETH SET FOORTH ACCORDING TO HECTOR BOETIUS.

"HE that is within orders of the church, shall not be compelled to answere before a Liberties of them that haue taken orders. Tithes to be paid to the church. Persons accursed. temporall iudge, but be remitted to his ordinarie.

"The tenth part of all fruits that increase on the ground, shall be giuen to the church, that God may be woorshipped with oblations and praiers.

"He that conttinueth obstinatlie in the cursse of the church by the space of one whole yeare, contemning to be reconciled, shall be reputed enimie to the common-wealth: and if he perseuere with indurat mind the space of two yeares, all his goods shall be forfeited.

"He that taketh the order of knighthood, shall take an oth to defend ladies, virgins, The order of knighthood. widows, orphans, and the communaltie. And he that is made king, shall be sworne in semblable maner.

"The eldest daughter shall inherit hir fathers lands, as well as the eldest sonne should, Eldest daughters. if the father leaue no sonne behind him. And if anie woman marie with the lord of the soile, she shall lose hir heritage.

"No man shall inioy anie lands, rents, offices, or other possessions, but onelie by gift and The kings gift. grant of the king.

"No office shall go by inheritance, but shall still remaine at the kings free disposition, as No offices to go by inheritance. shall stand with his pleasure to assigne it.

"No man shall sit as iudge in anie temporall court without the kings commission Iudges. authorizing him thereto.

"All conuentions, offices, and acts of iustice, shall passe in the kings name.

"He that is reteined or becommeth a sworne man to anie other person saue onelie to Reteiners. the king, shall lose his life for it; and euerie man shall be bound to defend the king against all other creatures.

"He that raiseth the kings liege people, shall lose life, goods, and lands, and so shall Raisers of the kings people, or vnlawfull assemblies. Waiters vpon other men. they doo that assemble togither by his procurement.

"He that attendeth anie man to the church, market, or to anie other publike assemblie, as a reteiner, shall suffer death, except he haue liuing at his hands, on whome he so attendeth.

"A horsse kept by anie of the commons or husbandmen to anie other vse than for tillage Kéeping of horsses. and laboring of the earth, shall be forfeited to the king by escheat.

"Counterfeit fooles, minstrels, iesters, and these kind of iuglers, with such like idle Counterfet fooles, with minstrels and such like. persons, that range abroad in the countrie, hauing no speciall licence of the king, shall be compelled to learne some science or craft to get their liuing; if they refuse so to doo, they shall be drawen like horsses in the plough and harrows.

"Though the sonne chance to be put in possessiō of his fathers lands by the kings Possession of lands. licence, during the life of his father; yet shall the same lands be forfeited to the king if his father be afterwards conuicted of treason committed against the kings person.

"All such women, that are maried to anie lord or baron (though she haue no issue by Dowrie of wiues. him) shall yet haue the third part of his lands after his deceasse, and the remanent shall go to his heires.

"All maner of lords and great barons, shall not contract matrimonie with other, vnder Mariage of lords and barons. paine of death, speciallie it their lands and roomes lie neere togither.

"All armour and weapon borne to other effect than in defense of the king & realme in Bearing of armour. time of wars, shall be confiscated to the kings vse, with all other mooueable goods of the partie that herein offendeth.

"Such as be appointed gouernors, or (as I may call them) capteins, that buy within Capteins. Buieng of lands. those limits, where their charges lie, anie lands or possessions, shall lose both lands, & possessions, and the monie which they haue paid for the same.

"And if anie of the said capteins or gouernors marie their sonnes or daughters vnto anie maner of person that dwelleth within the bounds of their roomes, they shall lose their office: neither shall it be lawfull for anie of their sonnes or coperteners to occupie the same office."

These and the like commendable lawes Makbeth caused to be put as then in vse, Makbeths counterfeit zeale and equitie. gouerning the realme for the space of ten yeares in equall iustice. But this was but a counterfet zeale of equitie shewed by him, partlie against his naturall inclination to purchase thereby the fauour of the people. Shortlie after, he began to shew what he was, in stead of equitie practising crueltie. For the pricke of conscience (as it chanceth euer in tyrants, Makbeths guiltie conscience. and such as atteine to anie estate by vnrighteous means) caused him euer to feare, least he should be serued of the same cup, as he had ministred to his predecessor. The woords also of the three weird sisters, would not out of his mind, which as they promised him the kingdome, so likewise did they promise it at the same time vnto the posteritie of Banquho. He willed therefore the same Banquho with his sonne named Fleance, to come to a supper Makbeths deuise to slea Banquho and his sonne. that he had prepared for them, which was in déed, as he had deuised, present death at the hands of certeine murderers, whom he hired to execute that déed, appointing them to meete with the same Banquho and his sonne without the palace, as they returned to their lodgings, and there to slea them, so that he would not haue his house slandered, but that in time to come he might cleare himselfe, if anie thing were laid to his charge vpon anie suspicion that might arise.

It chanced yet by the benefit of the darke night, that though the father were slaine, the Banquho is slaine, but his sonne escapeth. sonne yet by the helpe of almightie God reseruing him to better fortune, escaped that danger: and afterwards hauing some inkeling (by the admonition of some friends which he had in the court) how his life was sought no lesse than his fathers, who was slaine not by Fleance Banquhos sonne fléeth into Wales. chance medlie (as by the handling of the matter Makbeth would haue had it to appeare) but euen upon a prepensed deuise: wherevpon to auoid further perill he fled into Wales ¶ But here I thinke it shall not much make against my purpose, if (according to th' order The line of the Scotish kings. which I find obserued in the Scotish historie) I shall in few words rehearse the originall line of those kings, which haue descended from the foresaid Banquho, that they which haue inioied the kingdome by so long continuance of descent, from one to another, and that euen vnto these our daies, may be knowen from whence they had their first beginning.

Fleance therefore (as before is said) fled into Wales, where shortlie after by his courteous and amiable behauiour, he grew into such fauor and estimation with the prince of that countrie, that he might vnneath haue wished anie greater; at length also he came into such familiar acquaintance with the said princes daughter, that she of courtesie in the end suffered him to get hir with child; which being once vnderstood, hir father the prince Fleance defloureth the prince of Wales his daughter. Fleance is slaine. Walter the sonne of Fleance. His bringing vp. The stout stomach appearing in Walter from his childhood. conceiued such hatefull displeasure towards Fleance, that he finallie slue him, & held his daughter in most vile estate of seruitude, for that she had consented to be on this wise defloured by a stranger. At the last yet, she was deliuered of a sonne named Walter, who within few yeares prooued a man of greater courage and valiancie, than anie other had commonlie béene found, although he had no better bringing vp than (by his grandfathers appointment) among the baser sort of people. Howbeit he shewed euer euen from his in. fancie, that there reigned in him a certeine stoutnesse of stomach, readie to attempt high enterprises.

It chanced that falling out with one of his companions, after manie tawnting words which passed betwixt them, the other to his reproch obiected that he was a bastard, and begotten in vnlawfull bed; wherewith being sore kindled, in his raging furie he ran vpon him and slue him out of hand. Then was he glad to flée out of Wales, and comming into Scotland Walter fléeth into Scotland. to séeke some friendship there, he happened into the companie of such Englishmen, as were come thither with quéene Margaret, and behaued himselfe so soberlie in all his demeanours, Saint Margaret. that within a while he was highlie esteemed amongest them. Not long after by such means Walter sent with an armie to daunt rebels. atteining to the degrée of high reputation, he was sent with a great power of men into the westerne Iles, into Galloway, & other parts of the realme, to deliuer the same from the tyrannie and iniurious oppression there exercised by diuers misgouerned persons; which enterprise according to his commission he atchiued, with such prudent policie and manhood, Walter made lord steward of Scotland. that immediatlie vpon his returne to the court, he was made lord steward of Scotland, with assignement to receiue the kings rents and duties out of the parts of the realme.

This Walter Steward had a sonne named Alane Steward, who went after with Godfreie Alane Steward. of Bullogne duke of Loraine, & Robert duke of Normandie sonne to king William the bastard that conquered England, into the holie land, at what time they with other westerne The iournie into the holie land. Alexander Steward. Walter Steward. Alexander Steward the sonne of Walter. Robert Steward. Iohn Steward and Iames Steward. princes made the great iournie thither, in the yeare 1099. Alane had issue Alexander Steward, that founded the abbeie of Pasleie of saint Benedicts order. Walter Steward, whose valiancie was well notified at the battell of Largis, as hereafter shall be shewed, was the sonne of the said Alexander. The same Walter had issue two sons, the one named Alexander, fought right valiantlie in defense of his father at the foresaid battell; and the other named Robert Steward got the lands of Terbowtoune, and maried the heire of Crukeistoune, from whom descended the earles of Leuenox and Dernlie. Moreouer, the aboue mentioned Alexander Steward that founded Pasleie, had diuerse mo sonnes, as Iohn and Iames, with sundrie other. Howbeit they tooke new surnames by the name of those lands, vnto the which they succéeded. The afore recited Iohn Steward, after the death of his brother Iames, maried the heire of Bonkill a virgine of great beautie, and had by hir Walter Steward Walter inheritor of Bonkill, &c. that inherited the lands of Bonkill, Ranfrew, Rothessaie, Bute, and Stewatoune, after that his father the forenamed Iohn was slaine at Falkirke.

He maried Margerie Bruce daughter to king Robert Bruce, by whome he had issue king Robert the second of that name. This Robert the second tooke to wife one Isabell Mure, King Robert the second. a damsell of right excellent beautie, she was daughter to sir Adham Mure knight, and brought foorth issue, thrée sonnes and thrée daughters. The eldest sonne hight Iohn Iohn Steward otherwise named Robert. Steward otherwise named Robert, who succéeded immediatlie after his fathers deceasse in gouernance of the crowne. The second called Robert was made earle of Fife and Menteith, also he was created duke of Albanie, and ruled the realme of Scotland vnder the name of Duke of Albanie. Alexander Steward, sonne to king Robert the second. Iohn Dunbar. gouernour, for the space of fiftéene yeares. The third sonne named Alexander was earle of Buchquhane and lord of Bandzenot. The eldest daughter was maried to Iames that was the sonne and heire of William earle of Dowglas. The second daughter was maried to Iohn Dunbar, brother to George of Dunbar earle of March, and was made to the aduancement of his further fame earle of Murrey. He begot on hir one onelie daughter, that was maried to the Dowglas, and so Dowglas came to the earledome of Murrey. The third daughter was maried vnto Iohn Lioun, that was after made lord of Glammis.

Moreouer, the foresaid Robert that was the first of the Stewards which ware the crowne in Scotland, maried Ewfame daughter to the earle of Rosse, and got on hir two sonnes, Ewfame. Walter earle of Atholl, and Dauid earle of Stratherne. This Walter sollicited Robert duke Walter and Dauid sonnes to king Robert. Robert duke of Albanie. Iames the first. of Albanie, to slea Dauid Steward duke of Rothsaie. And after that Iames the first was returned home foorth of England, hée did what he could to mooue him to slea all the linage of the said duke, still being in hope after the dispatch of his kinsmen to come to the crowne himselfe, which hope mooued him to procure his nephue Robert Steward, and Robert Graham his daughters son, to slea king Iames the first also, for the which crime Graime or Graham. the same Walter was after conuicted and destroied with all his sonnes. His brother Dauid earle of Buchquhane died without issue, and so the lands of both these brethren returned againe to the crowne, without anie memorie of their bloud. Of Robert Steward duke of Albanie, came duke Murdo, who maried the earle of Lennox daughter, and got on hir thrée Duke Murdo. sonnes, Walter, Alexander, and Iames.

Duke Murdo himselfe with his two first sonnes were slaine at Striueling by king Iames the first, & the third brother Iames in reuenge thereof burnt Dunbertane, and was after chased into Ireland, where he deceassed without issue. Robert the third of that name maried King Robert the third. Annabill Drommond, daughter to sir Iohn Drommond of Strobhall knight, and got on hir Dauid and Iames. The first died in Falkland, and the other atteined the crowne, and was Dauid and Iames, sons to king Robert the third. Iohn Beauford earle of Summerset. Iames the first and his issue. called Iames the first, and maried the ladie lane daughter to Iohn Beauford erle of Summerset in England. He had by hir two sonnes borne at one birth, Alexander and Iames. The first died yoong, the second atteined the crowne, named Iames the second. Iames the first had also six daughters, of the which the eldest was giuen in mariage to the Dolphine of France, the second to the duke of Britaine, the third to the lord of Feir, the fourth to the lord of Dalkeith, the fift to the earle of Huntley, and the sixt had no succession. Iames the second maried Margaret daughter to the duke of Gelderland, and begot on hir thrée The duke of Gelders daughter. sonnes, and two daughters.

The first succéeded him in the kingdome, and was called Iames the third: the second Iames and Alexander. named Alexander was duke of Albanie, and maried first the earle of Orkenies daughter, and got on hir Alexander, that was afterward bishop of Murrey, and then parting with hir went into France, where he maried the countesse of Bullogne, and begot on hir Iohn Steward duke of Albanie, that was gouernor of Scotland manie yéeres in the minoritie of Iames the Duke of Albanie the gouernor of Scotland. fift. The third sonne, Iohn Steward, was earle of Mar, whose chance was to be slaine in the Cannogat in a bathfat. The first daughter of Iames the second, was maried to the lord Boid, who begot on hir a sonne that was slaine by the lord Mongumrie, and a daughter that The lord Boid. was maried to the earle of Cassels. After the death of the lord Boid, the husband of this first daughter of Iames the second, she was eftsoones maried to the lord Hammilton, and by The lord Hammilton. that means was the house of the Hammiltons honored with the kings bloud. The other sister was maried to the lord Creichton, of whom came small succession woorthie to be Lord Creichton. Iames the third and his issue. mentioned. Iames the third maried Margaret daughter to the king of Denmarke. Of the which mariage was borne Iames the fourth, Alexander that was bishop of saint Andrews & duke of Albanie, and Iohn Steward earle of Mar, but these two died without issue.

Iames the fourth maried Margaret daughter to king Henrie the seuenth of England, and Iames the fourth. begot on hir Iames the fift, who marieng first the ladie Magdalen daughter to Francis the French king, had no issue by hir, for that she died in the yéere next after hir comming into Scotland, and then shortlie after the said Iames the fift maried the ladie Marie de Lorrein, duchesse of Lonuile, a widow, and by hir had he issue Marie quéene of Scotland, that tooke to husband Henrie Steward lord Dernlie, by whome she had issue Charles Iames, now king of Scotland. But to returne vnto Makbeth, in continuing the historie, and to begin where I left, ye shall vnderstand that after the contriued slaughter of Banquho, nothing prospered with the foresaid Makbeth: for in maner euerie man began to doubt his owne life, and durst Makbeths dread. His crueltie caused throgh feare. vnneth appeare in the kings presence; and euen as there were manie that stood in feare of him, so likewise stood he in feare of manie, in such sort that he began to make those awaie by one surmized cauillation or other, whome he thought most able to worke him anie dis. pleasure.

At length he found such swéetnesse by putting his nobles thus to death, that his earnest thirst after bloud in this behalfe might in no wise be satisfied: for ye must consider he wan double profit (as hée thought) hereby: for first they were rid out of the way whome he feared, and then againe his coffers were inriched by their goods which were forfeited to his vse, whereby he might better mainteine a gard of armed men about him to defend his person from iniurie of them whom he had in anie suspicion. Further, to the end he might the more cruellie oppresse his subiects with all tyrantlike wrongs, he builded a strong casteli on the top of an hie hill called Dunsinane, situate in Gowrie, ten miles from Perth, on such The castell of Dunsinane builded. a proud height, that standing there aloft, a man might behold well neere all the countries of Angus, Fife, Stermond, and Ernedale, as it were lieng vnderneath him. This castell then being founded on the top of that high hill, put the realme to great charges before it was finished, for all the stuffe necessarie to the building, could not be brought vp without much toile and businesse. But Makbeth being once determined to haue the worke go forward, caused the thanes of each shire within the realme, to come and helpe towards that building, each man his course about.

At the last, when the turne fell vnto Makduffe thane of Fife to build his part, he sent Makduffe thane of Fife. workemen with all néedfull prouision, and commanded them to shew such diligence in euerie behalfe, that no occasion might bée giuen for the king to find fault with him, in that he came not himselfe as other had doone, which he refused to doo, for doubt least the king bearing him (as he partlie vnderstood) no great good will, would laie violent hands vpon him, as he had doone vpon diuerse other. Shortlie after, Makbeth comming to behold how the worke went forward, and bicause he found not Makduffe there, he was sore Makbeth is offended with Makduffe. offended, and said; I perceiue this man will neuer obeie my commandements, till he be ridden with a snaffle: but I shall prouide well inough for him. Neither could he afterwards abide to looke vpon the said Makduffe, either for that he thought his puissance ouer great; either else for that he had learned of certeine wizzards, in whose words he put great Makbeths confidence in wizzards. confidence (for that the prophesie had happened so right, which the thrée faries or weird sisters had declared vnto him) how that he ought to take héed of Makduffe, who in time to come should seeke to destroie him.

And suerlie herevpon had he put Makduffe to death, but that a certeine witch, whome hee had in great trust, had told that he should neuer be slaine with man borne of anie woman, not vanquished till the wood of Bernane came to the castell of Dunsinane. By this prophesie Makbeth put all feare out of his heart, supposing he might doo what he would, without anie feare to be punished for the same, for by the one prophesie he beléeued it was vnpossible for anie man to vanquish him, and by the other vnpossible to slea him. This vaine hope caused him to doo manie outragious things, to the gréeuous oppression of his subiects. At length Makduffe, to auoid perill of life, purposed with himselfe to passe into England, to procure Malcolme Cammore to claime the crowne of Scotland. But this was not so secretlie deuised by Makduffe, but that Makbeth had knowledge giuen him thereof: for kings (as is said) haue sharpe sight like vnto Lynx, and long ears like vnto Midas. For Makbeth had in euerie Lynxs eies and Midas eares. noble mans house, one slie fellow or other in fée with him, to reueale all that was said or doone within the same, by which slight he oppressed the most part of the nobles of his realme.

Immediatlie then, being aduertised whereabout Makduffe went, he came hastily with a great power into Fife, and foorthwith besieged the castell where Makduffe dwelled, trusting to haue found him therein. They that kept the house, without anie resistance opened the gates, and suffered him to enter, mistrusting none euill. But neuerthelesse Makbeth most Makbeths crueltie vsed against Makduffs familie. cruellie caused the wife and children of Makduffe, with all other whom he found in that castell, to be slaine. Also he confiscated the goods of Makduffe, proclamed him traitor, and confined him out of all the parts of his realme; but Makduffe was alreadie escaped out of danger, and gotten into England vnto Malcolme Cammore, to trie what purchase hée might make by means of his support, to reuenge the slaughter so cruellie executed on his wife, his Makduffe escapeth into England vnto Malcolme Commore. Makduffes words vnto Malcolme. children, and other friends. At his comming vnto Malcolme, he declared into what great miserie the estate of Scotland was brought, by the detestable cruelties exercised by the tyrant Makbeth, hauing committed manie horrible slaughters and murders, both as well of the nobles as commons, for the which he was hated right mortallie of all his liege people, desiring nothing more than to be deliuered of that intollerable and most heauie yoke of thraldome, which they susteined at such a caitifes hands.

Malcolme hearing Makduffes woords, which he vttered in verie lamentable sort, for méere compassion and verie ruth that pearsed his sorowfull hart, bewailing the miserable state of his countrie, he fetched a deepe sigh; which Makduffe perceiuing, began to fall most Malcolme sigheth. earnestlie in hand with him, to enterprise the deliuering of the Scotish people out of the hands of so cruell and bloudie a tyrant, as Makbeth by too manie plaine experiments did shew himselfe to be: which was an easie matter for him to bring to passe, considering not onelie the good title he had, but also the earnest desire of the people to haue some occasion ministred, whereby they might be reuenged of those notable iniuries, which they dailie susteined by the outragious crueltie of Makbeths misgouernance. Though Malcolme was verie sorowfull for the oppression of his countriemen the Scots, in maner as Makduffe had declared; yet doubting whether he were come as one that ment vnfeinedlie as he spake, or else as sent from Makbeth to betraie him, he thought to haue some further triall, and therevpon dissembling his mind at the first, he answered as followeth.

"I am trulie verie sorie for the miserie chanced to my countrie of Scotland, but though Malcolme Cammore his answer. I haue neuer so great affection to relieue the same, yet by reason of certeine incurable vices, which reigne in me, I am nothing méet thereto. First, such immoderate lust and voluptuous sensualitie (the abhominable founteine of all vices) followeth me, that if I were made king of Scots, I should séeke to defloure your maids and matrones, in such wise that mine intemperancie should be more importable vnto you, than the bloudie tyrannie of Makbeth now is." Héerevnto Makduffe answered: "This suerlie is a verie euill fault, for manie noble princes and Makduffes answer. kings haue lost both liues and kingdomes for the same; neuerthelesse there are women enow in Scotland, and therefore follow my counsell. Make thy selfe king, and I shall conueie the matter so wiselie, that thou shalt be so satisfied at thy pleasure in such secret wise, that no man shall be aware thereof."

Then said Malcolme, "I am also the most auaritious creature on the earth, so that if I were king, I should séke so manie waies to get lands and goods, that I would slea the most part of all the nobles of Scotland by surmized accusations, to the end I might inioy their lands, goods, and possessions; and therefore to shew you what mischiefe may insue on you through mine vnsatiable couetousnes, I will rehearse vnto you a fable. There was a fox hauing a sore place A fable of a fox. on him ouerset with a swarme of flies, that continuallie sucked out hir bloud: and when one that came by and saw this manner, demanded whether she would haue the flies driuen beside hir, she answered no: for if these flies that are alreadie full, and by reason thereof sucke not verie egerlie, should be chased awaie, other that are emptie and fellie an hungred, should light in their places, and sucke out the residue of my bloud farre more to my greeuance than these, which now being satisfied doo not much annoie me. Therefore saith Malcolme, suffer me to remaine where I am, least if I atteine to the regiment of your realme, mine vnquenchable auarice may prooue such; that ye would thinke the displeasures which now grieue you, should séeme easie in respect of the vnmeasurable outrage, which might insue through my comming amongst you."

Makduffe to this made answer, "how it was a far woorse fault than the other: for Couetousnesse the root of all mischiefe. auarice is the root of all mischiefe, and for that crime the most part of our kings haue béene slaine and brought to their finall end. Yet notwithstanding follow my counsell, and take vpon thée the crowne. There is gold and riches inough in Scotland to satisfie thy gréedie desire." Then said Malcolme againe, "I am furthermore inclined to dissimuiation, telling of Dissimulation and deliting in lies. leasings, and all other kinds of deceit, so that I naturallie reioise in nothing so much, as to betraie & deceiue such as put anie trust or confidence in my woords. Then sith there is nothing that more becommeth a prince than constancie, veritie, truth, and iustice, with the other laudable fellowship of those faire and noble vertues which are comprehended onelie in soothfastnesse, and that lieng vtterlie ouerthroweth the same; you sée how vnable I am to gouerne anie prouince or region: and therefore sith you haue remedies to cloke and hide all the rest of my other vices, I praie you find shift to cloke this vice amongst the residue."

Then said Makduffe; "This yet is the woorst of all, and there Lleaue thee, and therefore saie; Oh ye vnhappie and miserable Scotishmen, which are thus scourged with so manie and Makduffes exclamation. sundrie calamities, ech one aboue other! Ye haue one curssed and wicked tyrant that now reigneth ouer you, without anie right or title, oppressing you with his most bloudiecrueltie. This other that hath the right to the crowne, is so replet with the inconstant behauiour and manifest vices of Englishmen, that he is nothing woorthie to inioy it: for by his owne confession he is not onelie auaritious, and giuen to vnsatiable lust, but so false a traitor withall, that no trust is to be had vnto anie woord he speaketh. Adieu Scotland, for now I account my selfe a banished man for euer, without comfort or consolation." and with those woords the Makduffe wéepeth. brackish teares trickled downe his chéekes verie abundantlie.

At the last, when he was readie to depart, Malcolme tooke him by the sléeue, and said: "Be of good comfort Makduffe, for I haue none of these vices before remembred, but haue Malcolme comforteth Makduffe. iested with thée in this manner, onelie to prooue thy mind: for diuerse times héeretofore hath Makbeth sought by this manner of meanes to bring me into his hands, but the more slow I haue shewed my selfe to condescend to thy motion and request, the more Makduffe & Malcolme imbrace ech other. diligence shall I vse in accomplishing the same." Incontinentlie héerevpon they imbraced ech other, and promising to be faithfull the one to the other, they fell in consultation how they might best prouide for all their businesse, to bring the same to good effect. Soone after, Makduffe repairing to the borders of Scotland, addressed his letters with secret dispatch vnto Makduffe writeth letters to his friends in Scotland. thenobles of the realme, declaring how Malcolme was confederat with him, to come hastilie vnto Scotland to claime the crowne, and therefore he required them, sith he was right inheritor thereto, to assist him with their powers to recouer the same out of the hands of the wrongfull vsurper.

In the meane time, Malcolme purchased such fauor at king Edwards hands, that old Siward earle of Northumberland. Siward earle of Northumberland was appointed with ten thousand men to go with him into Scotland, to support him in this enterprise, for recouerie of his right. After these newes were spread abroad in Scotland, the nobles drew into two seuerall factions, the one taking part with The nobles of Scotland diuided. Makbeth, and the other with Malcolme. Héerevpon insued oftentimes sundrie bickerings, & diuerse light skirmishes: for those that were of Malcolmes side, would not ieopard to ioine with their enimies in a pight field, till his comming out of England to their support. But after that Makbeth perceiued his enimies power to increase, by such aid as came to them foorth of England with his aduersarie Malcolme, he recoiled backe into Fife, there purposing to Makbeth recoileth. abide in campe fortified, at the castell of Dunsinane, and to fight with his enimies, if they ment to pursue him; howbeit some of his friends aduised him, that it should be best for him, either to make some agréement with Malcolme, or else to flée with all spéed into the Iles, and Makbeth is counselled to flée into the Iles. to take his treasure with him, to the end he might wage sundrie great princes of the realme to take his part, & reteine strangers, in whome he might better trust than in his owne subiects, which stale dailie from him: but he had such confidence in his prophesies, that he beléeued he Makbeths trust in prophesies. should neuer be vanquished, till Birnane wood were brought to Dunsinane; nor yet to be slaine with anie man, that should be or was borne of anie woman.

Malcolme following hastilie after Makbeth, came the night before the battell vnto Birrane wood, and when his armie had rested a while there to refresh them, he commanded euerie man to get a bough of some trée or other of that wood in his hand, as big as he might beare, Branches of trées. and to march foorth therewith in such wise, that on the next morrow they might come closelie and without sight in this manner within view of his enimies. On the morrow when Makbeth beheld them comming in this sort, he first maruelled what the matter ment, but in the end remembred himselfe that the prophesie which he had heard long before that time, of be comming of Binane wood to Dunsinane castell, was likelie to be now fulfilled. Makbeth setteth his men in order of battell. Makbeth fleeth, & is pursued of Makduffe. Neuerthelesse, he brought his men in order of battell, and exhorted them to doo valiantlie, howbeit his enimies had scarselie cast from them their boughs, when Makbeth perceiuing their numbers, betooke him streict to flight, whom Makduffe pursued with great hatred euen till he came vnto Lunfannaine, where Makbeth perceiuing that Makduffe was hard at his backe, leapt beside his horsse, sieng; "Thou traitor, what meaneth it that thou shouldest thus in vaine follow me that am not appointed to be slaine by anie creature that is borne of a woman, come on therefore, and receiue thy reward which thou hast deserued for thy paines," and tnerwithall he lifted vp his swoord thinking to haue slaine him.

But Makduffe quicklie auoiding from his horsse, yer he came at him, answered (with his naked swoord in his hand) saieng: "It is true Makbeth, and row shall thine insatiable crueltie haue an end, for I am euen he that thy wizzards haue told thée of, who was neuer borne of my mother, but ripped out of her wombe:" therewithall he stept vnto him, and slue him Makbeth is slaine. in the place. Then cutting his head from his shoulders, he set it vpon a pole, and brought it vnto Malcolme. This was the end of Makbeth, after he had reigned 17 yeeres ouer the Scotishmen. In the beginning of his reigne he accomplished manie woorthie acts, verie profitable to the common-wealth (as ye haue heard) but afterward by illusion of the diuell, he defamed the same with most terrible crueltie. He was slaine in the yéere of the incarnation, 1057, and in the 16 yeere of king Edwards reigne ouer the Englishmen.

1057. Io.M. 1061. H.B. 8. H.B.

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