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ETHODIUS.

AFTER whose deceasse, the nobles and other estates of the realme assembling themselues
Ethodius the nephue of Mogall is chosen king togither, chose one Ethodius, nephue to king Mogall by his sister, to reigne ouer them. But Argadus being highlie rewarded with lands and liuings for his faithfull & diligent paines taken in the aduancement of the publike weale, during the time of his gouernement, was thereto soone after created as it were lord president of the councell, thereby to be chiefest Argadus is created lord president of the councell. in authoritie next to the king, in ordering and ruling of all publike affaires & causes. Shortlie after Ethodius (as the custome of new kings in those dales was) went ouer into the westerne lies, there to take order for the administration of iustice, where immediatlie vpon his arriuall, it was shewed him; that not passing two or thrée daies before, there had beene a great conflict fought betwixt the nobles or clannes of the countrie, by reason of a strife that was stirred amongest their seruants, being a companie of naughtie and vnrulie Ciuill discord amongest the lords of the Iles. Argadus is sent forth to apprehend the rebels. fellowes, to the great disquiet of the inhabitants. Herevpon was Argadus sent forth incontinentlie with a power to appease that businesse, and to bring in the offendors, that they might receiue reward according to their demerits. Argadus forthwith hasted towards the place where he vnderstood the rebels to be remaining, and apprehending the whole number of them, some by force, and some vpon their humble submission, he returned backe with them to the king, who causing the matter to be throughlie heard, such as were the chiefest beginners and most in fault, were punished by death, and the other fined at the kings The Iland rebels are punished. pleasure. The Iland people being thus appeased, the king returned into Albion, where as then lieng at Enuerlochthée, a towne (as is said) in Louchquhaber, word came vnto him that the Romans had broken downe the wall builded by the emperour Adrian, and made a great The Romans inuade the Pictish and Scotish borders. rode into the Scotish and Pictish borders, where méeting with the inhabitants assembled togither in defense of their countrie (after a sore conflict) the victorie remained with the Romans; by reason whereof they led a great bootie of cattell and other goods away with them to the places where they soiourned.

Ethodius being mooued herewith, sent foorth with an hérald vnto Victorine the Romane Ethodius requireth restitution of his subiects goods taken away by the Romans. lieutenant, requiring that his subiects might haue restitution of their goods wrongfullie taken from them, or else to looke for warres within fiftéene dales after. Victorine answered herevnto, that the Scots and Picts had first begun to breake downe the foresaid wall, and Victorines answere to Ethodius request. to build a tower vpon the same, fortifieng it with a number of men of warre, who running dailie into the British confines, fetched preies thence from amongest the Romane subiects and though he had sent diuers times to the Scotish and Pictish wardens for restitution, yet could he neuer haue anie towardlie answer, so that he was constreined to begin the warre in maner and fourme as he had doone alreadie.

Ethodius not a little kindled with this answere, wrote streightwaies to the K. of the Picts, Ethodius exhotteth the king of the Picts to make warre against the Romans. exhorting him in reuenge of such iniuries as his subiects had latelie receiued at the hands of the Romans, to inuade the wall on that side where it diuided his countrie from the Britains, and to breake in vpon the enimies by the same, and for his part he promised shortlie after to come, and to iome with him in such a necessarie enterprise against the common enimies of both their countries. The Pictish king giuing thanks to the messenger for his pains, promised with all spéed to set forward according to the aduise of Ethodius. The Romans in like maner hauing knowledge of the whole intention of the two kings, with all spéed made preparation also for the wars, but the Scots and Picts first breaking in vpon The Scotishmen and the Picts inuade the British borders. them, did much hurt abroad in the countries next adioining. Which when the Romans perceiued, they passed by the enimies campe in the night season, and entred into the Pictish borders, wasting and spoiling all afore them.

When the two kings vnderstood this, they hasted forth towards them, and were no The Romans incountred by the Scotishmen and Picts. sooner come within sight of them, but that they made ech towards other, and so incountring togither, there was fought a sore battell with doubtfull victorie, for the right wings on either side vanquished the left, the breasts of both the battels keéping their ground, the one not once shrinking backe from the other till night seuered them in sunder, but not without Night parted the battell. such slaughter made on both sides, that being once parted, they made no great hast to ioine againe togither; for as well the one part as the other being thus disseuered, drew incontinentlie homewards without abiding for the morning. Neither did they attempt anie further exploit of all that yeare following.

In which meane time Victorine sent letters to Rome vnto the emperour Marcus Antonius Victorine sendeth letters to Rome. Aurelius, who as then gouerned the empire, signifieng vnto him in what state things stood in Britaine; further declaring, that if conuenient succors were not sent in time, it would be hard to resist the furious rage of the enimies, by reason of the small trust he perceiued was to be had in the Britains, being no lesse readie vpon occasion to make warres in recouerie of their libertie, than the Scots & Picts were to incroch vpon them. The emperour vpon receit of these letters, thought in his mind that Victorine was not so valiant a capteine as the case required, and that therevpon the Scots and Picts became the more imboldened to resist, therefore he sent for him home, appointing one Agricola Calphurnius to succéed Victorine is sent for to returne vnto Rome, and one Calphurnius sent into Britaine to succéed in his roome. Calphurnius entreth into the borders of his enimies. in his roome, who was (as some haue left in writing) the nephue of Iulius Agricola, the most famous capteine of the Romans that euer came into Britaine.

This Calphurnius comming into Britaine with an armie, ioined to the same the power which he found there, as well of the Britains, as of other seruing vnder the Romane ensignes. Which doone, he repaired toward the riuer of fine, where being arriued, he marched foorth into the borders of his enimies, finding all the countrie round about him so clearelie wasted and burned, that there was not a house left standing, nor a graine of corne, nor one hed of cattell to be found therein. Yet notwithstanding all this, foorth he passed thorough Northumberland, and entring into Pictland, wasted all that was before him with fire and sword. And for so much as winter came vpon him, when he had doone his will in that Calphurnius returneth to Yorke. behalfe, he returned vnto Yorke, where he soiourned vntill the spring.

When summer was once come, hauing made his prouision to warre on the Scots and Picts, word came vnto him that the Welshmen were reuolted, and began to raise warre The Welshmen rebell against the Romans. against the Romans, so that taking order for the reparing of the wall made by Adrian, which the enimies in diuers places had broken downe, and leauing a sufficient number of men of warre for defense of the same against all inuasions that might be attempted, he turned the residue of his power against those Welsh rebels, whom in the end, though not The Welshmen brought to their former obedience. The inhabitants of the Ile of Wight reuolting frō the Romans, are constreined againe to be obedient. The name of Agricola dredfull to the Scotishmen and Picts. Calphurnius studieth to reforme the estate of Britaine. Calphurnius returneth vnto Rome. Publius Trebellius sent as lieutenant into Britaine. Publius Trebellius giuen to couetousnese. without much adoo, he reduced to obedience. Immediatlie after this, he heard also how the Brirains of the Ile of Wight were vp in armour against such Romans as ruled there, sundrie noble men of the maine Ile taking their part, but they also were at length brought againe to their former subiection, and the authors of that rebellion punished by death.

In the meane time the Scots and Picts determined not to attempt anie further exploit against the Romans, doubting the verie name and linage of Agricola in the lieutenant Cal phurnius, by calling to remembrance the noble atchiued conquests of his grandfather Iulius Agricola, of whose victorious exploits, besides that which ye haue before heard, the English historie also dooth make a long rehearsall. Calphurnius being thus at quiet on that side, intended wholie to reforme all misorders amongest the Britains, which being brought to indifferent good passe, he was sent for home againe vnto Rome by the emperour Antonius Commõdus, the sonne and successour of the fore-remembred Marcus Aurelius sending one Publius Trebellius into Britaine, there to supplie his charge.

This Trebellius comming into Britaine, at the first vsed himselfe verie vprightlie in his office, shewing all honor and loue towards the Britains, subiects to the Romane empire, and namelie to Lucius, who reigned as king of the land, vnder the name and authoritie of the Romane empire. But after that he had once woone him a péece of credit amongest them, he changed his maners, or rather discouered his naturall inclination, so wholie giuen to couetousnesse, that his onelie studie was set which way to fill his bags, not caring how vntrulie he forged accusations against the rich, so that either by death or banishment their goods might be confiscat, and so come to his hands. By this wicked gouernement, the Britains began so sore to hate him, He is hated of the Britains. that had it not béene for the loue of their king the foresaid Lucius (who holpe to appease them) there had béene some rebellion practised against him in the south part. Now the Scots and The Scots and Picts renew the warre against the Romans. Picts hauing knowledge of this misliking in the Britains towards the Romane lieutenant, thought it a time conuenient for them also to be dooing, to the end they might reuenge their former iniuries; and herevpon leuieng an armie, they came to the oft remembred wall, and ouerthrowing the same in diuers places, they entred into the British confins with great spoile and crueltie. Trebellius being hereof informed, hasted forth with all the power he Trebellius fighteth against his enimies, is forsaken of his owne men, and chased out of the field. could make, to resist their inuasions; but finding the enimies readie in the field, and incountring them sooner than he looked for, he was euen vpon the first ioining abandoned of the most part of his whole armie, which consisted of Britains and Frenchmen, then called Galls, so that the residue being beaten downe, he was glad to saue himselfe as well as he might, by setting the spurs to his horsse and galloping away.

After this, gathering togither his people againe as they fled from the discomfiture, he retired backe with them vnto Yorke, hauing lost in this bickering a great number of his best souldiors, and men of warre: for the Scots and Picts, missing no small number of their friends in that battell, were not satisfied with those whome they had likewise slaine in the fight, but also fell vpon their prisoners which they had taken, and slue them also in reuenge of their fellowes whome they had lost. Afterwards they harried the countries of Westmerland and Kendall in Westmerland and Kendall spoiled by the Scotishmen and Picts. The British commons rise against Trebellius, one Caldorus a Pict béeing their capteine. The same commons are vanquished. Caldorus reioiseth at the slaughter as well of the one part as of the other. most cruell wise, Trebellius not being so hardie to fight with them againe for doubt of some traine that might be practised by the Britains. Neither was his suspicion grounded vpon the credit of any light information, as may appeare by that which followed: for immediatlie after, the commons of the countrie rose against the Romans, in purpose to haue driuen them all out of the land.

Their capteine was one Caldorus a Pict borne. There were also diuerse of the British nobilitie amongst them not knowne, for they were disguised in strange apparell, counterfeting themselues to be of the vulgar sort. The furie of these people was great, but yet in the end the politike order of the Romans vanquished them, howbeit not without great slaughter on both sides. Caldorus escaping the hands of his enimies, fled into his natiue countrie of Pictland, not a little reioising that he had procured such slaughter amongst the Romans and Britains, both being enimies to him and his countrie. Such prisoners also of the Britains as fell into the hands of the Romans, were hanged vp vpon sundrie trées and gibets: whereat other The spite of the Britains shewed towards the Romans. Trebellius writeth to the emperor Commodus for aid. of the Britains being offended, in the night season tooke down those dead bodies, and hanged vp as manie of the Romans in their places, the truth being neuer knowne who were the dooers of that act.

The lieutenant Trebellius perceiuing thus what danger he stood in on euerie part, wrote vnto the emperour Commodus, that without some reformation were had, the Romans were not like to keepe foot anie long season in Britaine, and therefore required to haue some aid sent ouer vnto him in time. But the emperour doubting least the fault rested most in the lieutenant himselfe, appointed that one Pertinax an ancient gentleman, and one for his high and Pertinax sent as lieutenant into Britaine. notable vertues greatlie esteemed both amongst the men of warre, and also in the senat, should go into Britaine, to be legat there in place of Trebellius. This Pertinax comming into Britaine, according to the emperors appointment, tooke vpon him the office: and first setting a staie among the Britains, by right prudent and well aduised gouernement, he afterwards made a iourneie against the Scots and Picts, driuing them by great slaughter beyond Adrians wall, and Pertinax driueth back both the Scots and Picts. Pertinax is chosen emperour. so constreined them to remaine wishin their owne confines, pursuing them no further, for that he was sent for home to Rome, where the emperour Commodus being murthered amongst his owne men, he was against his will preferred to his place.

About the same time the state of the Scotish common wealth was brought into great danger through an other incident, as by reason of a rebellion stirred by them of the western Iles, who not quieted in their stomachs for the death of their friends executed by Argadus (as before ye haue heard) assembled themselues togither, and comming ouer into Argile, spoiled and harried Argile infested by the Ilandmen. the countrie in pitious wise. For redresse whereof, Argadus was sent thither againe with an armie, and in the meane time Ethodius the king with a great host of Scotishmen and Picts lay in campe néere vnto Adrians wall, to resist the inuasion of the enimies on that side, if happilie they shuld attempt any new exploit against him in those parts. The Iland-men hearing of Argadus his approch, drew themselues togither to receiue him by battell, if he minded to offer it.

In which meane time two thousand Irishmen were landed in that countrie, in hope of spoile, The Irish men land in Argile. The Irish men lay an ambush to intrap Argadus. Argadus is slaine. and hearing that Argadus was comming that waies forth to fight with his enimies, they laid themselues secretlie in ambush by the waie where hée should passe, and when he was passed by them, they brake foorth vpon his rereward suddenlie, putting his people in such disorder by their violent impression at the first brunt, that though he did what in him laie to bring them againe into araie of battell, yet in the end he was there slaine with two thousand of his armie, the residue escaping by flight out of the hands of their wild and cruell enimies. Ethodius hauing knowledge hereof, with an armie of twentie thousand men hasted foorth towards Argile, to reuenge the death of his valiant capteine Argadus vpon the rebels. Who hearing of his comming, made towards the sea, and would gladlie haue béene gone, but by reason of a contrarie wind they were forced to stay against their wils, so that he finding them still in the countrie, wrought so warilie by closing them vp among the hils and mounteins, that finallie constreined through famine, they submitted themselues vpon these conditions, that their head The Ilandmen yéeld themselues. capteine with two hundred others of the chiefest, should yéeld themselues simplie to the kings mercie, and the residue to be licenced to depart againe into their countries.

Those that were appointed to be deliuered to the king with their capteine, suffered death Execution. by sentence of the nobles and péeres of the realme. Whereat the other taking indignation, though they had alreadie yéelded vp their weapons, yet began they to fall vpon the Scots with hurling of stones, and other such things as came to hand, till finallie they were beaten downe by the armed soldiers, and a great number of them slaine: the residue escaping as well as they might, fled into the mounteins. The Ilandmen being thus vanquished, and the Romans attempting nothing against the Scotishmen or Picts, Ethodius visited all the parts of Ethodius visiteth his countries, to sée iustice mainteined. his realme, taking order for the due execution of iustice amongest his subiects.

And for that he would not spend his time in idlenesse, being now at rest from warres, he began to exercise himselfe in hunting, and for the better nourishing of game, he tooke order that all such ordinances as had béene deuised by his elders, should streictlie be obserued and He giueth him selfe to hunting & causeth the lawes for the maintenance of game to be wel kept & looked vnto. kept: as that no man should be so hardie to go about to destroie anie hares with nets, grens or hare-pipes: neither to kill them in their formes by anie meanes: nor after that they had béene once coursed and escaped, to follow the sute, to the intent to start them againe. Also that none should go about to kill anie hart or hind, during all the winter season, at what time they were accustomed for hunger to leaue the mounteins, forrests and woods, and to come downe into the fields and couerts néere vnto the townes & houses.

He ordeined moreouer therevnto, that no man should presume to kill anie hind-calues, detesting nothing more than to haue such game destroied, as serued for the exercise and solace of him and his nobles. The other vacant time, whilest he rested from hunting, he spent for the most part in hearing of musike, hauing diuerse cunning plaiers of sundrie kinds of instruments attending in his court. At length setting all his pleasure in hearing of a musician being borne in one of the west Iles, he was murthered by him in the night time within his owne Ethodius murthered by a musician. 194 H. B. chamber. The murtherer being apprehended, and examined vpon what occasion he did that heinous fact, for the which he had deserued the most extreme kind of punishment that might be deuised, he answered: that in reuenge of the death of such his kinsmén and friends as the king had caused to be executed in Argile, he purposed long before to doo that deed, and now that he had accomplished his purpose, he was readie to receiue what kind of death they would adjudge him vnto. For sure I am of this, saith he, that how terrible soeuer my execution shall be, yet can it not bée so painfull, but that I shall reioise euen in the verre instant of my death, for that I haue in such notable sort reuenged the deaths of all my kinsmen & friends. Finallie by commandement of the magistrates he was drawne in peeces with wild horsses in most violent wise.

Ethodius reigned 33 yéeres, vntill the latter daies of Caracalla the emperor. He was Septimus Seuerus. H. B. buried at Dunstafage, with all such pompous ceremonies as was accustomed about the interrement of kings in that age. In his daies Lucius the king of Britaine receiued the faith with a great Britaine receiued the christian faith in the yéere 187. part of his people, being the yeere after the birth of our Sauior, as the Scots chronicles haue 187, but after the British 177.

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