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EUGENIUS.

THIS Eugenius at his comming into Albanie was inuested king of the Scots by common
Eugenius is inuested king. consent of all the nation. About the same season, Maximus the Romane lieutenant in Britaine, vnderstanding of the late dissention betwixt the Scotishmen and Picts, deuised which waies he might best subdue both those nations, thereby not onelie to inlarge the bounds of the Romane empire, and to deliuer the Britains from inuasions of those so cruell enimies, but also to haue the south part of the lie more obedient and loiall vnto the same empire than heretofore it had béene. He thought good therefore in the beginning to assaie if he might The practise of Maximus to destroy the Scots. ioine in friendship with the one of the nations, till he had destroied the other: for he considered it would be an hard péece of worke to haue to doo with them both at one instant. Wherevpon directing his letters vnto Heirgust king of the Picts, he required to renew the He sendeth vnto Heirgust king of the Picts. old league with him and his people, promising to aid him against the Scots, common enimies not onelie to the Pictish nation, but also to all such people as loued rest and quietnesse, as might easilie be perceiued by their continuall practise and vsage, euer séeking to disture their neighbors with rodes & forraies, so that it stood with a generail commonwealth to haue them vtterlie destroied and extirped.

Heirgust right ioifull of these newes, gaue hartie thankes vnto almightie God, that had mooued the Romane lieutenant to make such offer vnto him, whereby the furious rage of the Scots might be once repressed, and put away from his people: & therefore willing to confirme a friendship with the same lieutenant, he promised to renew the league betwixt the Heirgust his answere vnto Maximus his message. Maximus and Heirgust ioine in friendship, and the Scots proclamed enimies them both. Romans and Picts, vpon anie reasonable conditions which he should deuise, not onelie requiring an aid at this time against the said Scots, but also at all other, as occasion should demand. Maximus hauing receiued this answere, he found means also to come to a communication with Heirgust neere to Yorke, where the league was confirmed betwixt them, and therein the Scots not onelie adiudged for common enimies, both to the Romans and Britains, but also to the Picts. And further therewith were certeine orders appointed how the war should be pursued with all expedition against them. These things thus finished, and both the princes returned to their homes, Maximus sent an herald vnto Eugenius the Scotish king, An herald sent from Maximus vnto Eugenius. commanding him on the behalfe of the Romane empire, to make restitution for all wrongs and iniures doone vnto the Pictish nation. And further, to deliuer into the hands of Heirgust the K. of the Picts, the authors of the same wrongs and iniuries to be punished at his discretion, or if he would refuse thus to doo, that then he should looke to haue the emperour and the Romane people enimies vnto him and all his nation.

Eugenius for answere herevnto, declared that since he entred into the gouernment of the The answere of Eugenius vnto he herald. Scotish estate, he had doone nothing that might be thought preiudiciall either to the Romans or to the Britains their subiects: and as for the Picts he would be glad to haue peace with them, if there might be amends made for all displeasures doone on either part, according as should be thought to stand with equitie and reason. Neither did he see what cause the Romans should haue to make warres for the Picts against those that had doone them no displeasure: but if it were so that he must needs haue wars, he would doo what in him lay to defend the libertie of the Scotish nation, trusting chieflie in the succours of aimightie God, who vsed to fauour the cause of the iust and innocent, against such as sought to wrong them vpon feined quarrels, without occasion giuen. Maximus receiuing this answere from Maximus raiseth a mightie armie. He inuadeth the Scotish regions. Cruell wars. Eugenius, assembled with all speed a strong & mightie armie of Romans, Britains, and Frenchmen, with the which entring into Westmerland, he spoiled that countrie most miserablie, taking diuers castels and strong holds by force, the which he furnished with garrisons of his people, and then passing into Anandale, burned and harried the same; from thence he entred into Galloway, omitting no kind of tyrannie that might be shewed against the inhabitants, so that the feare was great throughout all the countrie: for of manic yeares before, so great an armie had not béene séene in those parties.

Eugenius notwithstanding, gathering his power togither, determined to trie the fortune Eugenius gathering his power fighteth with his enimies, and is discomfited. The Romans following too forewardlie the chase, receiue damage. of battell, and so ioining with his enimies néere vnto the water of Crée, his people were quicklie put to flight, and chased, by reason that they were much inferior in number. But the Romans pursuing the chase, happened to light amongest them of Argile, which had not béene at the battell, but were comming towards it, and now fiercelie incountring with such as pursued their friends, they caused them to retire backe with some losse, whervpon the other Scots also (which were chased) returned, & gaue a fresh onset, so that if night had not come on the sooner, there had béene a far greater multitude of the Romans slaine in that bickering than they themselues did thinke of. Herevpon the Romans, doubting what their enimies intended to doo, they fortified their campe that night verie stronglie; but Eugenius breaketh vp his armie. Eugenius vnderstanding what a multitude of his folks were slaine in the battell, so that the verie streame of the water of Crée was stopped vp with dead carcases, he thought best (with the aduise of the peeres) to licence his people to depart to their homes, and not to fight with his enimies anie more for that time.

Which being doone, he himselfe repaired the same night vnto Carrike, where he remained for a season, making prouision for defense of his realme the best he could deuise. Maximus hauing knowledge in the morning how the Scots were quite gone their waies, he determined to haue followed them; but béeing certified of a rebellion amongest the Britains in Kent, A rebellion in Kent. he changed his purpose, and returned thitherwards, to appease that tumult, leauing in Galloway a good part of his armie to keepe such holds as he had got in that voiage. The yeare following, Maximus was so busied in the south parts of Britaine, that he could not attend vnto the warres against the Scots, otherwise than in mainteining such garrisons as he had placed in their countries, by reason whereof sundrie bickerings happened betwixt them of the same garrisons and the Scots, who laboured not onelie to deliuer their owne countrie out of the hands of all forrainers, but also to inuade and destroie Pictland, so that they The Scots indamage the Picts. harried the countrie of Fife, with part of Menteth and Sterlingshire, burning & wasting townes, castels, and houses most cruellie.

Whereof Maximus being certified, made semblance as though he were sore gréeued Maximus his feined griefe. therewith, but inwardlie he could haue reioised at nothing more than to heare of the iniuries doon by the Scots vnto the Picts, supposing it to make chieflie for his purpose; and herevpon preparing an armie against the next summer, when he had disposed all things in a quiet order amongest the Britains, he set forward with the same towards Galloway, where being Maximus eftsoones inuadeth the Scots. Eugenius prepareth an armie to defend his countrie. arriued, there was no kind of crueltie spared against the poore inhabitants. Eugenius in the meane time vnderstanding the comming of his enimies, mustered his people, and appointed the assemblie to be made in the countrie of Kile, which way he heard that his enimies would trauell. Thither came also not onlie all the able men of the Scotish domninions, but likewise a great number of lustie & strong women apt to beare armour according to the old Women vsed to the warres. The number of the Scotish armie. accustomed guise of their nation, so that there were numbred in this armie fiftie thousand persons right fierce and hardie, desirous either to vanquish the enimie with dint of sword, or else to die presentlie in the place.

Maximus hearing that the Scots were thus incamped in Kile, marched towards them, and The approch of Maximus towards the Scots. lodged the same night not far off from the riuer of Munda, where knowledge was giuen vnto Eugenius, that Maximus was come within fiue miles of him, with a greater armie than he had at his last incountring with him in Galloway. These aduertisements caused no small stir to be raised in the campe, some being striken with present feare: where other contrariwise moued with high indignation, desired nothing so much as to ioine in battell with the Romans, whose cruell tyrannie they much detested. Eugenius himselfe shewed Engenius comforteth his people. no countenance of feare at all, but incouraging his people with comfortable words, he brought them streight in order of battell, diuided into thrée wards, committing one of them to the leading of his brother Ethodius, the second to Doalus the gouernour of Argile, & reseruing the third to himselfe. This doone, he made vnto them a pithie oration, declaring how necessarie it was for them to plaie the men, considering that in victorie consisted the onelie hope of libertie; and in being vanquished, their countrie was indangered to be brought into perpetuall bondage for euer, for the onelie marke which the Romans shot at, was to oppresse the libertie of the whole Iland, and to reduce the same into the forme of a prouince, to be gouerned at the will of the victorers, to the breach of all their old ancient lawes & long continued customs.

With these and manie other like reasons he went about to incourage the minds of his subiects, in such wise, that in maner the most part of them determined rather to die with honor, than to liue in such miserie as they feared would insue, if the victorie shuld rest vpon the Romans side. And as they were in such talke togither, suddenlie commeth in one of The sudden arriuall of Maximus. their scouts with the newes, that Maximus with his armie was euen at hand. This was in the morning, anon after the sunne was vp, where he was not looked for till the euening following, insomuch that the same his sudden arriuall, chancing so farre contrarie to their former expectations, troubled all their heads, and brought them into a great maze, for that hereby they were constreined to change the order of their battels to haue the sunne on their backs, as they had prouided at the first it should haue béene, if the enimies had not come vntill the after none. Yet notwithstanding, they had no sooner changed their place, and gotten themselues into arraie of battell againe, but that with great violence they preassed forward to giue the onset vpon the Romans. Which Maximus perceiuing, made all the The Scots giue the onset. spéed he could to set his men in order of battell, that he might receiue his enimies comming thus to incounter him. So both sides beeing fullie bent to battell, and approched within danger of shot, they let flée the same most egerlie, albeit that through hasting foorth to ioine The battels ioine. at hand-strokes, there was litle hurt doone with bowes or darts.

The Scots crieng vpon the name of their woorthie and famous ancestor king Gald, did laie about them, most fiercelie, after they came once to the ioining: and likewise the Romans, being incouraged with the cheerefull words of the lieutenant Maximus, boldlie incountered them, so that it was doubtfull at the first whether part should haue the woorse end Doubtfull fight. of the staffe. But shortlie there followed variable successe, for on the one part, they of Rosse and Mar, being appointed vnder Ethodius to incounter that wing of the enimies where the Picts were, fought so egerlie and with such fierce wils, that they easilie put the Ethodius onerthroweth the Picts. The Scots hauing vanquished the Picts, are slaine by the Romans. Picts vnto flight, bearing downe a great number of them as they would haue passed the water of Dune, but streightwaies after falling to the spoile, they were slaine downe right, by a legion of such Romans as were sent by Maximus vnto the succours of the Picts.

On the other side, in the left wing those of Argile, Cantire, Kile, and Coningham, who were matched with the Britains, Frenchmen, and Germans, after long and cruell fight were there slaine in the place, greatlie to their fame and glorie for euer, so that by this meanes the maine battell of the Scotishmen, wherein Euganius himselfe stood amongst his people, was left bare & naked on both the sides. Which Maximus perceiuing, he caused the same to be assailed on each part with such violence, that in the end longer resistance preuailed not, The Scotish battell is ouerthrowne. Eugenius is slaine. but that their maine battell must néedes be opened perforce, by meanes whereof Eugenius choosing rather to die in the place, than either to saue his life by flight, or by rendering himself into his enimies hands to liue in miserie, &c: was there slaine, togither with a great number of his nobles and gentlemen, hauing determined by the example of their maister to die rather spéedilie with honor, than longer to liue with shame and reproch. Thus Eugenius lost his life with his kingdome, in the third yéere after his first entering to the rule, hauing inioied few good daies in rest during the said time.

Such of the Scots also as were appointed to kéepe the cariage and trusse of the field, The furious rage of the Scotish carters. séeing their lords and maisters thus slaine, rushed foorth with such weapons as they had at hand, in purpose to slea some number of their enimies, not passing though it should cost them also their owne liues, so that they might die reuenged. The slaughter was great which at the first was made, more through an obstinate desire of reuenge, than by anie valiant actiuitie: but this companie being anon broken in sunder, and driuen backe, they were finallie slaine & beaten downe. Moreouer, the Romans that pursued in chase after their enimies, when the battell was doone, encountered with great numbers of such women and aged persons as followed a farre off, to vnderstand the successe of the field, doubting what hap might fall to their children and kinsfolks, whose slaughter when they perceiued, like people enraged they flue vpon such Romans as they met with; but being easilie vanquished, and refusing to flée, they were also slaine and cut in péeces in a most miserable maner.

The Romans hauing thus rid the fields of all kind of enimies, lodged that night abroad here and there at their pleasure, where they might heare the dolefull gronings, and lamentable complaints of them that lay wounded, and as yet not dead, cursing most bitterlie the cruell tyrannie and couetous ambition of the Romans, with that most detestable disloialtie of the Picts, procuring this murther and destruction of those people that had deserued farre otherwise at their hands. When the morning was come, & the light appeared, Maximus the lieutenant caused the spoile of the dead bodies to be gathered, & equallie diuided The spoile diuided amongst the souldiers. amongst his men of warre. And such as were found sore wounded and not dead, to shew some token of clemencie, according to the old accustomed maner of the ancient Romans, he commanded surgeans to sée to the cure of them. The other being dead, he suffered to The buriall of the dead bodies by appointment of Maximus. be buried, causing the corps of Eugenius himselfe to be interred in most solemne and pompous sort, after the vasage of the Romane princes.

His brother Ethodius being found mangled in most pitifull wise, and in maner halfe dead, Ethodius sore wounded, is committed to the cure of surgeans. was also taken vp by commandement of the same Maximus, and surgeans charged to haue the ordering of him, and to shew their diligence for the cure of his hurts in most speedie and gentle wise. The victorie thus atchiued, Maximus surueieth the countries of Kile, Carrike, and Coningham, with that also of Calidone, and seizeth the same into his hands, suffering the inhabitants to inioy both goods and lands in peace and quietnesse vpon their othes of allegiance, without anie further molestation. Heirgust king of the Picts with other Heirgust desireth the vtter destruction of the Scots. the nobles of that nation, were nothing contented ther with, desirous to sée the vtter destruction of all the Scotish race. Wherevnto Maximus at the first would not agree, alledging the ancient custome of the Romans, who sought rather to vanquish by benefits, than by the sword, ouer vsing to spare such as submitted themselues, and in no wise to spot the honour or maiestie of their empire with crueltie.

But the Picts not satisfied herewith, went about earnestlie to persuade him in no condition The earnest sute of the Picts to haue the Scotishmen banished and expelled out of the countrie. to suffer the Scots to haue anie abiding within the confines of Britaine, if he wished anie quietnes in the estate thereof, for their delight (said the Picts) was onelie set to seeke occasion how to disturbe the peace, to liue by the pillage and spoile of their neighbours, and namelie of the Picts, vnto whose confusion (as the prophesies spake) they were begotten and borne. Finallie when all their earnest sute missed the wished effect, they fell to and assaied if they might bring that to passe by wicked méed and thorough corrupting bribes, the which they could not doo by other meanes. And euen as it oftentimes chanceth in such cases, where words are but spent in wast, gifts yet preuaile: so also came it to passe euen Where words faile, gifts preuaile. The proclamation for the auoidinig of all Scotishmen foorth of the whole Iland of Britaine. The Scots plagued for their beastlie crueltie. here, for at length a proclamation came foorth by procurement of the Picts, that all such as were naturall Scotishmen, should by a certeine dale auoid out of those countries that they possessed in Britain, vpon paine of losing life and goods, & to deliuer vp their houses and lands vnto such Britains and Picts as were appointed by the Romans for to inioy the same.

The Scots perceiuing themselues not able to make anie resistance, obeied this commandement, some of them passing ouer into Ireland, some into the westerne lies; and some of them got ouer also into Norwaie, and Denmarke, and manic there were that got interteinment amongst the Romane souldiers, and went ouer with them into France, as yet Gallia, to serue in the warres there, and in other places vnder the emperors ensigns. The Picts The cruell dealing of the Picts. were so cruell and diligent to sée all the Scotish linage confined, that they would not consent that a certeine number of gentlewomen should remaine behind, who had their husbands slaine in the last warres, and made intercession in most lamentable wise vnto Maximus, that they might be permitted to abide in their natiue countrie all the residue of their liues, though in seruile estate, to the end that they might be buried after the same were once ended in graues with their slaine husbands.

Moreouer, where Cartandis quéene of the Scots, late wife vnto Eugenius, was brought Cartandis quéene of Scots. vnto Maximus, with two gentlewomen and a groome from the toome of hir husband, where she had remained euer sith his buriall in continuall mourning, forsomuch as she was a Britain, and descended by linage from the princes of Wales; Maximus lamenting hir miserable case, assigned the citie of Carrike vnto hir, with certeine other reuenues for the maintenance of hir estate. But after she had taken leaue of such as had the conduction of hir, and was come into a village not farre from Carrike aforesaid, it chanced that a sort of Pictish riders, or (as I may call them) robbers, met with hir, small to hir profit, and lesse to their owne ease, for they did not onelie slea hir groome, but also beat hir gentlewomen, and stripped both them and hir of all that they had, whereof Maximus being informed, caused them that had doone so vile a deed to be apprehended & executed by death, according as they had deserued. The quéene hirselfe being brought backe vnto Maximus, and honorablie intreated, had all hir substance restored vnto hir againe, so néere as it was possible.

But the Picts being offended herewith, and speciallie for putting to death of their men, The Picts of fended with Maximus. sundrie of their nobilitie came vnto Maximus, and began to make a sore complaint in that behalfe, declaring that the deserts of their nation had not beene such toward the Romane empire, as to haue their people put to execution for a womans sake, being both an enimie and a prisoner, therefore they required that she might be confined into Britaine, and according to the tenor of the proscription, spoiled of all hir goods. Here Cartandis being present Cartandis lamenteth hir infortunate estate. hir selfe, began to make pitifull lamentation, bewailing hir most vnhappie state, in that contrarie to the order of hir wretched case and present miserable fortune,' she should now be forced to turne againe into hir countrie: wishing rather than she should be inforced so to doo, that she might offer vp hir life as a sacrifice in the place of hir husbands buriall: and therefore holding vp hir hands vnto Maximus in most pitifull wise, she besought him instantlie, that it might please him, either to suffer hir to passe the residue of hir life after such sort as she thought best agréed with hir widowlike estate, or else to take the same from hir presentlie by some violent meanes of execution.

There was not a man other than the Picts, that saw and heard hir at that instant, but lamented hir wofull distresse, so that in the end the request of the Picts was disallowed, & Cartandis hauing lining assigned hir for the maintenance of hir degrée, was licenced to depart into what place she thought expedient, there to liue as she thought best without let or disturbance. The same time the Scotish bishops and préests, being banished as well as the other sort of the Scorish people, a number of their moonks got them into the Ile of lona, The monasterie of lona builded by banished Scotish moonks. now called Colmekill, where they erected a monasterie for their owne habitation, the worthinesse whereof hath béene right famous, euen vnto these our daies, as that which was afterward indowed with manie faire reuenues by diuers of the Scotish kings, who had their burials there after the returne of the Scots into Aibanie as shall be hereafter expressed.

The yéere in the which the Scotishmen were thus vanquished by the Romans and Picts, The time that the Scots were thus confined. 5547. H. B. 379. H. B. 710. H. B. The second yeare of Iulian the Apostata. H. B. Strange visions. Swords and weapons séen in the aire. It raineth birds. and finallie confined out of their seats, was from the ereation of the world 4319, after the birth of our sauior 352, from the beginning of the Scotish kingdome 679, and the third yéere of Magnentius. The same yéere before Eugenius gaue battell vnto Maximus, manie strange sights were séene in the furthest part of Albion, striking a woonderfull dread in manie mens harts. In the night season in the airo were séene fietie swords and other weapons moouing in a long ranke, after comming togither on a heape, and being changed into an huge flame as it had béen a firebrand, it then vanished awaie. The waters of the riuer of Dune ran with blood, the banks of the same riuer flashed oft times as they had béene all on a fire. There were seene also a number of small birds fall out of the aire so thicke, that it séemed it had rained birds, and incontinentlie came a great number of rauens that deuoured vp the same.

Certeine witches and soothsaiers, declaring that these things berokened the destruction of the Scotish kingdome, were commanded by the préests to hold their peace on paine of death, as they that told nothing but lies & fables, though afterwards their tales prooued most true. But to returne to our historie, Ethodius the brother of Eugenius being cured (as is said) by Ethodius confined into Denmarke. commandement of Maximus, was yet banished amongst the residue, and constreined to take an oth, that he should immediatlie repaire into Denmarke, and hereafter not to approch neerer vnto the coasts of Albion, for doubt of some new attempt that might be made by the Scots thorough his meanes, thereby to returne into their countrie againe, & to recouer their former state. But this staied not them of the westerne lies, but that assembling themselues togither, and choosing one Gillo to their capteine, they passed ouer into Argile, where in the end Gillo chosen capteine of the banished Scots in the western Iles comming into Argile is vanquished by the Picts. The Scots repaire into Ireland. they were incountred by such Picts as were set there to defend that countrie, and slaine each mothers sonne. Their vessels were also taken and brought into sundrie hauens of the countrie, to serue for defense of the coasts vpon anie new enterprise which the Scots should chance to make: but the other Scots, perceiuing they were not able to furnish forth a new armie in the Iles by any aid they might purchase there, sailed ouer into Ireland, where presenting themselues vnto the king of that region, they declared vnto him from point to point all their infortunate chances and lamentable calamities, which were happened vnto them of late through the tyrannicall puissance of the Romans, and malicious enuie of the Picts, in such sort as nothing could be more miserable than their present estate, considering the ruine of so mightie a kingdome, and the finall banishment of the inhabitants from their houses and lands, which had béene in possession of them and their elders, by the space almost of seuen hundred yéeres.

The Irish king with his nobles mooued with pitie to heare and vnderstand so dolefull The king of Ireland with his nobles lament the Scotishmens case. The Irishmen conclude to aid the Scotismen. calamities to haue chanced vnto that nation, whose good or bad hap could not but touch them verie neere, considering they were descended both of one progenie, comforted these Scotishmen to the best of their power, and in the end concluded to aid them with ten thousand men, and to furnish them foorth with ships, vittels, and munitions to passe into Albanie for recouerie of their countrie. This aid being put in a readiness, and the ships rigged and decked as was The Scots and Irishmen land in Cantire. The Picts incounter with the Scots and Irishmen and are discomfited. requisite for such an enterprise, they tooke the sea, and landing in Cantire, chanced to meet with Hcirdorstane brother to Heirgust king of the Picts, accompanied with a great number of Picts and Britains assembled to defend the countrie, but being sharpelie assailed of the Scots and Irishmen, they were quicklie put to flight, & such as were ouertaken died on the sword, to the great terror of all the new inhabitants that were planted on their parts.

This victorie thus atchiued, there were that gaue counsell not to attempt fortune ouer farre, but to take such booties of goods and prisoners as they had got in the countrie, and to returne therewith into Ireland. Other were of a contrarie opinion, supposing it best to follow the victorie, and either to recouer againe their ancient seats, or else to die in the valiant attempt thereof. Which aduise was followed as the best, though it prooued otherwise: for before they could come to any conclusion of that enterprise, the Romans, Picts, and Britains gathered themselues togither, and gaue battell againe to the Scotish and Irish companie, wherein The Scots and Irishmen are ouerthrowne. The king of Ireland séeketh for peace. Maximus granteth peace to the Irishmen. Maximus séeketh by his bountious liberalitie to win the peoples fauour. they ouerthrew them, to their vtter ruine and destruction.

The newes of this infortunate incounter being brought into Ireland, put the king and his nobles there in such feare of the Romans, that they thought it best with all spéed to send ambassadors vnto Maximus to sue vnto him for peace. They that were sent at the first were sore blamed and checked by Maximus, for that they had aided the Scotishmen in the last inuasion made into Albion: but at length accepting their excuse, he granted a peace vpon certeine conditions, whereof the most princiall article was, that in no wise they should receiue aid or succor any enimie to the Romane empire. This Maximus, hauing got a quiet peace on each side, vsed all means possible how to procure the loue of his souldiors and men of war, shewing himselfe not onelie gentle, courteous and mecke towards them, but also so liberall and frée, that his bounteous gifts passed all vnderstanding : insomuch that (as is reported by writers) he bestowed in one daie neere hand as much in rewards, as the reuenues of Britaine yeelded to the empire in a whole yéere.

This franke liberalitie and courteous behauior he vsed not onelie towards the Romans, and his other men of warre, but also towards the Britains and Picts, conforming himselfe so néere vnto their maners & fashions, that at his comming into Pictland, he laid awaie his Romane apparell, and araied himselfe in garments after the Pictish guise. By this maner of meanes therefore he wan him such loue and fauor, as well amongst his souldiors, as also amongst the Picts and Britains, that in the end by common consent they chose him for emperor, in the Maximus is chosen emperor in Britaine. 383 yeere after Christ, protesting generallie, that they would owe onelie their obeisance vnto him as to their supreme gouernor. ¶ Here the Scotish chronicles somwhat varie from other writers, who affirme that Maximus was thus aduanced to the imperiall dignitie, rather by constraint of his men of warre, than by anie meanes which he of himselfe vsed to atteine vnto the same. Where the said chronicles neuerthelesse shew, that it came chieflie to passe by his owne seeking, procuring certeine persons to woorke for him as instruments to frame other to this his purposed intent. He held the dominion of the empire being thus preferred to the Maximus ruled the estate of Britaine 17 yéeres. imperiall state, the space of fiue yéeres, all the countries and people of Albion being at his commandement without contradiction: which had not chanced vnto anie one man before his time, since the Ile was first inhabited. At length desirous of more empire, he passed ouer into France with a great armie, in purpose to subdue all France and Italie, with such other countries as were obedient vnto Gratian as then emperor of Rome. But how prosperouslie he The emperor Gratian is slaine by Maximus. sped in the beginning, and how at length he was slaine at Aquilia in Italie, ye shall find in the historie of England a great deale more at large.

By reason of such trouble in the estate of the Romane empire, Octauius the sonne of Octauius late king of the Britains, the which (as before is said) fled into the Ile of Man, & after departing from thence, got ouer into France, returned now into Britaine, and did so much there, that the Britains receiued him to their king: but shortlie after he was constreined to agrée with the Romane emperor Theodosius, so that the Britains should paie their woonted tribute, and liue vnder such lawes as by the emperor should be to them prescribed. In all other respects, Octauius should be reputed during his life for king. Immediatlie héerevpon two lieutenants were sent from Theodosius, of whome the one named Martius soiorned at London, and the other called Victorine at Yorke. And with all expedition they began to put the Romane lawes in practise, abolishing the old British lawes, to the great offense of manie that could not well brooke strange ordinances; & namelie the Picts repined sore therat, and vsed most an end their owne lawes and constitutions, greatlie to the contempt of the Romane estate. Whereof Victorine, the one of the Romane lieutenants hauing knowledge, gaue streight commandement vnto Heirgust the Pictish king, that in no wise he should suffer the old lawes and rude ordinances of his countrie, to be vsed anie longer amongst his subiects, vpon paine that might insue for disobedience shewed towards the maiestie of the Romane empire.

Heirgust now perceiuing into what thraidome and miserie his countrie was brought, by meanes of the warres which he had procured against his neighbours the Scotishmen, as a man sore repenting his passed follie, and séeing no readie meane present how to reforme the same, being aged and sore broken with continuall sicknesse, he got himselfe secretlie into his priuie chamber, where immediatlie he slue himselfe, to be rid of the sight of that present seruile estate, into the Heirgust slaieth himselfe. which he saw both him and his whole countrie reduced. Whose death being once knowne, Victorine commanded that the Picts should not choose anie other from thencefoorth to reigne The Picts are forbidden to create a king. as king ouer them, nor to obeie anie other magistrates but onlie such as should be appointed to haue the gouernment of them, by commandement and commission of the Romane emperor. For it was agréed, as he alledged, by the tenor of the league, concluded betwixt Heirgust and Maximus, that after the deceasse of the same Heirgust, all his dominions should be gouerned by Romane officers in forme of a prouince. Howbeit the Picts nothing regarded the woords of Victorine, but by common agreement did choose one Durstus the second sonne of Heirgust to Durstus is chosen king of the Picts. be their king.

Wherevpon Victorine being informed of their dooings, raised a power, and made such spéed towards them, that he was gotten so neere vnto the citie of Cameion, yer they had anie knowledge of his approch, that Durstus with other of the nobles, being as then within the same, could not Durstus is besieged of the Romans. haue space to escape their waies, but being foorthwith besieged within it, at length they were taken by force of assalt, and the citie sacked, to the great inriching of the Romane armie, and vtter vndooing of the poore inhabitants. Durstus with other the chiefest prisoners were first Durstus is brought prisoner to London. had vnto London, and from thence conueied to Rome, there to haue iudgement by decrée of the senat. The residue of the nobles that were taken there, suffered in the market place at Camelon. Thus was that tumult appeased, and the Picts commanded to paie yearlie vnto the The Picts become tributaries. They are put to their base seruices. emperors procurator the fourth part of all their reuenues growing of their corne and cattell. Beside this tribute he charged them also with diuerse base seruices, as to labor in mettall mines, to dig stones foorth of the quarries, and to make bricke to be sent into Britaine, or into other places whither it pleased him to command it.

The cause why he burdened them in such sort, was (as he said) to teach them to know themselues. For they were become so loftie, since the departure of the Scotishmen out of the lie, that if they were not restreined in time by authoritie of the Romane puissance, the whole British nation were like to be shordie disquieted by their willfull meanes and insolent presumptions. Neither was it thought sufficient vnto Victorine, to charge the Picts in maner The Picts are commanded to dwell beyond the water of Forth. as is before specified; but to their further gréeuance he deuised an other waie, whereby to bring them in the end vnto vtter destruction, which was this: he constreined them togither with their wines, children, & whole families, to remooue beyond the water of Forth, and to leaue all the countries on this side the same water, as well those which they ancientlie had inhabited, as the other which of late apperteined to the Scots, and were assigned to them by Maximus to possesse after that the Scots were expelled.

All which countries thus by the Picts now left void, were appointed by Victorine to the Britains, as subiects to the empire, to be inhabited. And for a perfect diuision betwixt thePicts and the same Britains, he commanded a wall to be made, & a trench to be cast alongst by the A wall made to diuide the Britains from the Picts. The Picts forbidden to passe ouer beyond that wall. The Scots liue in other countries. same, from Abircorne, through the territorie of Glascow vnto Alcluth, or Aldcluch, now called Dunbreton, so running from the east sea to the west. Héereto proclamation was made, that if anie of the Pictish nation did enterprise to passe this wall, and to enter into the British confines without licence of the magistrats, he should die for it. Whilest the Picts through their owne fault are thus brought into most miserable subiection of the Romans, the Scotishmen (as is said) being banished the land, liued in other countries by shifting out the time so well as they might, some continuing with their wiues and children, got a poore liuing with their hands, exercising some science or occupation. Other there were that followed the warres, and serued vnder sundrie woorthie capteins here and there, as occasion serued.

But Ethodius the brother of Eugenius commanded (as is said) to go into Denmarke, was Ethodius brother vnto Eugenius, late king of Scotland. Erthus the son of Ethodius begot Ferguse. ioifullie receiued of the king there; who also gaue him an office, therewith to mainteine his degrée, so that he liued there certeine yéeres in right honorable estate, and begat of his wife whome he brought thither with him foorth of Albanie, a sonne named Erthus, who after his fathers deceasse had issue by his wife called Rocha (a ladie of high parentage amongst the nobles of Denmarke, as daughter to one Rorichus, second person of the realme) a sonne named Ferguse, whose chance was afterwards to restore the Scotish nation againe to their former estate and kingdome. In his yoong yéeres he was appointed to serue vnder Alarike the Gottish king in that famous voiage which he tooke in hand against the Romane empire. The Gotthes make an expedition against the empire of Rome. For such was the hate as then of all the northerne regions & kingdoms towards the Romane name, that by generall agréement they conspired together to the vtter ruine and finall destruction thereof. And so ech of them sent foorth a power in aid of the said Alarike, chosen by common consent as generall of the whole enterprise.

Ferguse being set foorth by the king of Denmarke with a power of Danes, and with a Ferguse was sent to aid the Gotthes. chosen number of such Scotishmen as were withdrawne into those parties, went with the better will, for that beside the common quarell, he bare a priuate grudge towards the Romans for the vsing of his ancestors so cruellie in expelling them out of their owne homes and natiue countrie. This Ferguse was present with the Gotthes at the winning of Rome, in the sacking whereof, amongst other spoiles, he got (as is reported) a certeine chest full of bookes, the Rome sacked. which some hold opinion he brought afterwards into the westerne lies, and caused them to be kept in Iona, now Colmekill, within a librarie there builded for the same intent. Which bookes (as is to be supposed) were certeine histories or monuments of old antiquities. But the same were so defaced in the daies of Hector Boetius (who, as he himselfe writeth, caused them to be brought ouer to him to Aberdine) that it could not be vnderstood of what matter they intreated.

It is written moreouer of Ferguse, that he continued with Alarike in all his enterprises, so Ferguse was a capteine vnder Alarike and Athaulfe kings of the Gotthes. Ferguse with leaue returned againe from Italie into Denmarke. long as he liued, and afterwards serued vnder his successor Athaulrus, to his great fame, and in such honorable estimation, as few were found comparable vnto him in those daies. At length requiring a safe conduct to returne into Denmarke, he was licenced to depart with high and right bountifull rewards, as in part of recompense of his good and faithfull seruice shewed, during the time of the warres, as well in the life time of the said Athaulfus, as also in the daies of his predecessor the foresaid Alarike. ¶ About the same season, the bishops sée of Candida casa, otherwise called Quhitterne, was first instituted by one Ninian a preacher, that S. Ninian. tooke great paines (as the report hath gone) to instruct the Picts and Britains in the christian faith. He was afterwards reputed a saint, and the place of his buriall had in such veneration, that manie vsed to resort thither for deuotion sake as the manner in times past was when pilgrimage-goings were vsed.

But now to returne where we left touching the Picts, and to shew the maner how the Scots returned againe into Albanie; ye shall vnderstand, that the Picts being brought into seruile bondage (as before we haue partlie declared) and doubting dailie of woorse to insue, they sent secret messsengers vnto such Scots as remained in exile in the westerne lies, in Norwaie, and in The Picts sent into forren conntries to call home the Scots. other parts of the world, promising them, if they would giue the attempt for recouerie of their ancient dwelling places in Albanie, they should be sure of all the aid that in them laie, being readie to spend their liues to reuenge the iniuries which they dailie susteined at the Romans hands, whose continuall practise euer was, how to oppresse the ancient liberties of all such nations as came vnder their subiection. The experience whereof they now felt to their vnsufferable gréeuance, looking for nothing else but shortlie to be expelled out of their countrie, and driuen to go séeke them other places to inhabit in strange countries after the maner of outlawes, as it had chanced alreadie to the Scots by commandement of Maximus, as before is expressed.

Ferguse, vnto whom amongest other this message was chieflie directed, reioised greatlie of the Ferguse sent vnto the Scots dispersed. newes; and first conferrring with the king of Denmarke, of whose aid he knew himselfe assured, by his aduise he sent letters abroad forthwith into Norwaie, Orknie, the westerne lies, and into Ireland, vnto such of the Scotishmen as dwelt in those places, to vnderstand their minds herein. And being certified that they were vniuersallie agréed, not onelie to trie their chance Ferguse prepared himselfe to warre. for recouerie of their former state and kingdome; but also had chosen him to be gouernour and generall capteine in that enterprise; he prepared partlie at his owne costs, and partlie at the charges of the king of Denmarke and other of his friends and alies there, a great multitude both of men of warre and ships, in purpose to passe ouer into Albanie to recouer his grandfathers estate, which as it was thought might now be the more easilie brought to passe, sith the Picts would aid him thereto, vpon an earnest desire which they had to reuenge their owne iniuries receiued at the Romans hands, and to deliuer themselues from such thraldome as they dailie felt themselues oppressed with, doubting withall shortlie to be quite expelled out of their whole countrie, as they had béene forced to forgo a great and the better part thereof alreadie.

In this meane time, one Gratian descended of the British bloud, by consent of the Romane Gratianvsurped the gouernance of Britaine. legat Martius (both of them going against their allegiance) vsurped the gouernance of Britaine by his owne priuat authoritie; but shortlie after, they two falling at variance togither, the one of them slue the other. And then the souldiers not staieng till they vnderstood the pleasure Marius slaine. of Honorius the emperour, chose one Constantine to succéed in the place of Martius, who Constantine succéedeth Marius. Constantine is slaine. The lieutenant of the north commeth to London. passing ouer into France, was slaine there by Constantius one of the capteins of the said Honorius. Victorine the other of the Romane legats hearing of the death both of Martius and Gonstantine, remooued from Yorke vnto London, the better to prouide for the safe kéeping of the land to the emperour Honorius his vse; for that he doubted sundrie dangers which might chance, by reason the countrie was as then vnprouided of men of warre, the most part of them being transported ouer into France with the fornamed Constantine, and not againe returned.

The Picts informed of these things, sent word with all spéed vnto Ferguse, requiring him to The Picts send spéedilie vnto Ferguse. make hast, sith if he should haue wished for a conuenient time, a better could not be deuised; considering the present state of things as well in Britaine, as in other parts of the Romane empire, the people euerie where being readie to moue rebellion. Ferguse vnderstanding the whole, by such messengers as still came one after another vnto him from the Picts, he hasted to depart with all diligence; and when all things were readie, he tooke the sea with his armie, and within eight daies after, he arriued in safetie within the firth of Murrey land with all his Ferguse arriued with his ships in Murrey firth. vessels and people; where taking land, & word thereof being brought into Ireland, into Orkenie, and into the westerne Iles, all such of the Scotish linage as liued in those parties in exile, came with their wiues, children, and whole families in most spéedie wise vnto him, as though the countrie had béene alreadie recouered out of the enimies hands, without all doubts of further perill or businesse.

The Picts also reioising greatlie at the newes of his comming, repaired vnto him, and The Picts ioifullie receiue Ferguse. shewed him all the honor that might be deuised, beseeching him to pardon and forget all iniuries and displeasures by them wrought and contriued in times past against the Scotish nation, sith now they were readie for the aduancement thereof to spend their liues against such as were enimies to the same. Neither was the fault theirs, in that Heirgust had consented with the The Picts craue pardon excusing themselues. Romans to banish the Scotish people, but in their ancestors, who being blinded through the faire words and sweete promises of the Romans, saw not the mischiefe which they brought vpon their owne heads and their posterities. Therefore they desired him to renew againe the league betwixt the Pictish and Scotish nations, with such conditions of appointment as it should please him to prescribe.

Ferguse by consent of his nobles answered, that he was content to establish the league with Ferguse. them, euen according to the tenor of the ancient agréement, and to ioine his power with theirs to helpe to restore them vnto their former estate and liberties, so that they would be contented to surrender vp into the Scotishmens hands, all such townes and countries, from the which they had béene expelled by great fraud and iniurie. And as for the displeasures doone to the Scotishmen in times past by aiding the Romans against them (as he thought) the Picts had The Picts punished for their vntruthes. felt punishment inough for the same alreadie, being reduced into most seruile & miserable bondage, as iustlie rewarded by almightie God for their great vntruthes, vsed and shewed towards their neighbors, faithfull friends and alies. The Picts were throughlie pleased and satisfied with Ferguse his words, so that within few daies after, their king (whome they had latelie chosen since the time that the Scotishmen were thus returned) came vnto Ferguse, and ratified the The ancient league renued againe betwixt the Scots and Picts. The Scots restored to their countries. league with him, according to the articles of that other which in time past had béene obserued on the behalfe of the Scotish and Pictish nations, with such solemne othes and assurance, as betwixt princes in semblable cases of custome is requisit and necessarie. Then were those countries restored to the Scotishmen againe, out of the which they had beene expelled by the Romane power.

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