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THEN Grime nephue to king Duffe, hearing of the slaughter made betwixt king Constantine and Kenneth, gathered togither the residue of Constantines armie, being scattered abroad after the ouerthrow, supposing that by the death of Kenneth, the partie of his brother Malcolme was sore weakened, & therevpon he came vnto the abbeie of Scone, and there caused himselfe to be crowned king, as lawfull successor vnto Constantine, by force of the
Grime vsed liberalitie and gentlenesse towards Constantines friends. old laws and ordinances of the realme. And to establish himselfe the more firmelie in the state, he shewed great gentlenesse towards all them that were friends vnto Constantine, and bestowed vpon them manie bountious gifts. Neither was his liberalitie shut vp from other that had fauored Malcolme, for to the end he might allure them to beare him good will, he rewarded them highlie both in lands and treasure: but other of the same faction, whome he saw by no means could be woone, he caused them to be proclamed traitors, and confiscated their goods as rebels to his person, and enimies to the crowne.

Malcolme prince of Cumberland sore mooued in his mind that Grime had thus taken vpon Malcolme prince of Cumberland is mooued against Grime. A good counsell. Malcolme sendeth priuilie to the lords of Scotland. him the crowne, called his friends togither, requiring to haue their aduise, which way he were best to woorke in this so great a matter. They counselled him in no wise he should despise the force of his enimies, but rather to assaie by all means to draw those nobles vnto his purpose, which were assistant vnto Grime. Wherevpon Malcolme following the counsell of his friends, sent foorth secret messengers vnto those lords that tooke part with Grime, requiring them to remember their promised faith, giuen vnto his father king Kenneth, concerning the obseruance of the law established by their consent for the succession of their kings: which if they would doo in renouncing their obeisance vnto the vsurper Grime, he promised so to gouerne the realme with equall iustice, that no estate in reason should find Malcolme his promise vnto the Scots. Malcolme his messengers are committed to prison. cause to mislike with his dooings. Manie of the nobles by means of this message reuolted from the said Grime soliciting their friends by earnest trauell to doo the like. But other & the greater number tooke those that brought the message, & sent them as prisoners vnto Grime, who presentlie committed them to prison.

Malcolme sore offended therewith, by counsell of his friends, assembled an armie to go Malcolme being offended therewith, gathered an armie. Grime is of greater force than Malcolme. Malcolme would not haue his people to vnderstand the trueth thereof. against them, that (contrarie to the law of all nations, as he seemed to take the matter) had imprisoned his purseuants and messengers: but as he was marching forward on his purposed iournie, he heard by the way, how his aduersarie king Grime had gathered a farre greater power than he had with him, not onelie of all such of the Scotish nation inhabiting beyond the riuers of Forth and Clide, but of them also of the westerne Iles. Malcolme doubting least if the certeintie hereof were once bruted amongest his people, the fame would increase the terror more than néeded; he gaue commandement therfore that no maner of wight should be suffered to come into his armie, vnlesse he were first brought to his presence. But this deuise nothing auailed him: for thereby, that which he desired to His aduise auailed not. be concealed and kept most secret, became the more manifest, by reason that such as had some inkeling of the matter, told it from one to another; making it much more than it was in déed. For there rose a murmuring amongest them, that there was such treason contriued, that if Malcolme with his armie went forward to ioine with his aduersaries, he should A brute spred in Malcolmes armie of treason. not be in danger onelie of them, which he knew to come against him in Grimes host; but also of no small number of them which were in his owne armie, who vpon the ioining had determined to turne their speare points against him in Grimes quarell.

This rumor passing from one to another, put the whole number in great feare. It was Merchantmen authors of the rumor. first raised by certeine merchantmen, of whome there was a great number in Malcolms host, hauing more skill in buieng and selling, than in anie warlike feats or enterprises. These at the first sùing for licence to depart home, and could haue no grant, began to lament their miseries, in such dolefull wise, that all the campe was troubled with the noise; insomuch that euen the old men of warre, and diuerse of the capteins were not a little discomfited and amazed with such wailefull clamors. Malcolme being aduertised hereof, thought not good to match in battell against his fierce enimies with his people thus astonied Malcolme licenceth the most part of his armie to depart hence. Malcolme intendeth to stop his enimie from passing ouer the Forth. The great bishop of Scotland. through dread and terror, and therefore gaue licence to the most part of his host to depart for that time, and aboad onelie with certeine bands of his most faithfull friends néere to the water of Forth, to stop his enimies from passing ouer that riuer.

Whilest the realme of Scotland was thus disquieted and troubled with ciuill discord, Fothadus the great bishop of Scotland, a man of right approued vertue and clemencie, sore lamenting to sée his countrie thus diuided and rent as it were in péeces, got him into his pontificall vestures, with a multitude of other reuerend priests and ecclesiasticall ministers, in humble wise comming and presenting themselues before king Grime, who with great reuerence receiuing them, willed to vnderstand the cause of their comming. Then Fothadus Fothadus séeketh to take vp the matter. answered, that he was come as the seruant of Christ, the author of all peace and concord, beséeching him by way of humble supplication to take ruth and pitie of the great trouble and miserie fallen to the realme, since the time he had taken the gouernance vpon him, the state of things being such, as if some redresse were not found in all speedie wise, the vtter ruine of the common-wealth must needs insue, by reason of the sundrie debats and factions dailie rising among the people of all sorts and degrees, so that murthers, robberies, The fruits of ciuill warre. rapes, with all other kinds of iniuries & mischiefe were still put in practise without restreint or punishment, in such licentious sort that no man could assure himselfe of his owne; for whether it were within doores, or without, the robber was as redie to laie hands on it as the owner. Neither was there anie hope of reformation so long as the ciuill wars lasted. Therefore if it might stand with the pleasure of king Grime in reliefe of the poore commons of Scotland, to condescend vnto some necessarie agreement with Malcolme, Fothadus Fothadus vndertaketh to conclude a peace betwixt the parties. offered to vndertake to conclude a peace betwixt them, in such wise as should in no maner of behalfe be preiudiciall to his honor and roiall maiestie.

Grime mooued with the words of the bishop (who most instantlie besought him, although the calamitie and great affliction of his people did but little mollifie his heart; yet in respect of his owne suertie, which might not continue if his people were once destroied, to remit part of his high displeasure) answered, that peace he could be contented to haue, Grimes answere to Fothadus. so the same might be concluded with his honor saued: for suerlie wars he neuer desired but onelie in defense of his good title and right, which he had to the crowne descended vnto him by the old lawes and ancient ordinances of the realme, and therefore he purposed not to leaue the same with life, but to fight for it against Malcolme, and all his partakers, euen vnto death. But if it were so, that Malcoime would content himselfe with the principalitie of Cumberland, and so therevpon breake vp his campe, and depart foorth of the lands perteining vnto the crowne, he would gladlie come to a communication with him for peace; but if Malcolme refused thus to doo, he assured him that he would not leaue off to pursue him to the vttermost of his power, as his most cruell and fierce enimie.

Fothadus hauing heard Grimes words, besought him to staie a time, till he might go vnto Malcolme, to vnderstand what his full mind was in this behalfe, not doubting but to find him conformable vnto anie reasonable motion, for relieuing of the poore afflicted state of the land. Grime granting vnto this request, Fothadus in like sort and habit as he Fothadus goeth vnto Malcolme. came vnto Grime, went vnto Malcolme, whome he found at Sterling; where comming before his presence with a long oration, he greatlie bewailed the dolorous calamities of the Scotish common-wealth, into the which it was fallen through ciuill sedition onlie, and herewith declared also by great likeliehood of substantiall reasons, how infortunat and miserable the end should be of the warres, if the same were pursued to the vttermost. His tale being throughlie heard and well digested, wrought so with Malcolme, that he promised to Malcolms offer. withdraw into Cumberland without anie further attempt, if Grime would in like case breake vp his campe, and agrée to haue a truce for three moneths space, in which meane time they might by certeine commissioners appointed and authorised thereto, talke and common for concluding of a finall peace and concord betwixt them.

Grime refused not this offer, and so therevpon licenced his people to depart to their Grime is contented with Malcolms motion. homes, repairing himselfe with certeine of his nobles into Angus vnto the castell of Forfair, there to take further aduise what was to be doone touching the appointed communication of peace. But Fothadus would in no wise rest, till the commissioners were met and assembled Fothadus his diligence to procure the parties to agréement. The conditions of the peace betwixt Grime and Malcolme. togither in communication at Scone, where within few daies after (chieflie through his earnest diligence) peace was concluded with these conditions. First, that Grime during his life time should inioy the crowne, and after his deceasse the same to remaine to Malcolme & his heirs by lineall descent for euer, according to the ordinance & decrée made & established by K. Kenneth. And whosoeuer should go about either by word or déed to impeach or hinder the said ordinance and decrée, should be reputed for a traitor to the common-wealth & realme. Furthermore all the lands lieng betwixt Louthian & Northumberland, and betwixt Clide and Westmerland, euen from the Almaine seas to the Irish seas, should presentlie remaine & be transported vnto the dominion & gouernement of Malcolme, with the which contenting himselfe, during the naturall life of Grime, he should continue in friendship with the said Grime, & so in no wise stirre or moue anie warre or debate, either against him or anie of his friends: for if he did, and went about to breake anie of the articles of this peace, he should not onelie lose those lands which he now held, but also be depriued of all the right, title, claime, and interest which either he or his posteritie might make or pretend vnto the crowne at anie time hereafter.

When both the princes had bound themselues by solemne othes to performe euerie point The warres being ceassed, the princes applie their studies to reforme misdemeanors. and points in these articles comprised, they laid armor aside, and began to take order for reforming of all misdemeanours, which had happened within the land, by reason of the ciuill contention mooued betwixt them and their partakers. Howbeit, commandement was giuen by either of these princes, that their subiects should be still in á readinesse with armour and weapons (if need required) to defend themselues against all sudden inuasions of their neighbours, whereby it may be gathered, that the one had the other still in some mistrust, what countenance soeuer they shewed outwardlie. Yet notwithstanding, for the space of 8 yeares togither, the peace continued without breach, or any notable trouble betwixt them.

But Grime at length of a chast & liberall prince, through long slouth and increase of King Grime his alteration from noble qualities vnto detestable vices. riches, became a most couetous tyrant, and so corrupted in maners and conditions, that it passed the bounds of all reason and equitie: insomuch that when he had put vnto death diuerse of his nobles, to the end he might haue their lands and goods as forfeited by atteindor, he oppressed the people by continuall exactions also each day more than other. His subiects being thus brought into extreame miserie through his wicked and vniust The common peoples praier. gouernement, not knowing where to séeke for redresse, saue onelie at the hands of almightie God, the punisher of all sinne, besought him to haue pitie of their afflictions and miseries, and to change the gouernment of the realme into some better state. The lords also hauing The lords require Grime to reforme the misdemeanor of his officers. great indignation of the trouble fallen to the realme, by the kings misgouernance and auaricious crueltie, appointed a certeine number of gentlemen to go vnto him as ambassadors from them, to require him to put awaie from him such naughtie persons as by euill counsell had peruerted his mind, & mooued him to doo things contrarie to his honor, and the wealth of his realme.

One of these ambassadors (to whome the charge was giuen) had the words in name of them all, who comming before the kings presence, declared to him that they were sent from the residue of the nobles and péeres of his realme, to admonish him of things perteining to the suertie of his estate, and common wealth of his dominions: which was, that whereas through persuasion of euill councellors he suffered manie enormities to be committed by his ministers and officers against his subiects, to their vtter impouerishment and vndooing, the rebuke whereof did redound vnto his dishonour; if it would please him to remooue out of his presence and seruice all such disloiall persons as sought the hinderance of the commonwealth, he should win therby the loue of all his liege subiects, which now could not but grudge and repine at this his gouernement, as men by the same brought into such calamitie, that better it were for them in their iudgements to be dead than aliue, if reformation were not the sooner had against such extortions as his seruants and officers did dailie practise, and for the which no doubt he must néeds answer, sith the sword was committed vnto him, not The office of the sword. to inrich couetous persons, nor to oppresse innocent and true dealing people, but contrarilie to punish and correct guiltie and vniust dealers.

When king Grime had heard what message these ambassadors had brought, he answered to the same with fained words, and willed them vnder the pretext of courtesie to a banket, in purpose to haue put them all in prison: but they being aduertised thereof got them in King Grime purposed to haue slaine the messengers. all hast to their horsses, and fled forthwith vnto Bertha, where the residue of the nobles at the same time were assembled. Grime hauing thus no regard to the wholesome aduertisement of his nobles, thought that all things would come forward with such felicitie and hap as he wished, not ceassing from raising new paiments and exactions still of his subiects, till at length he was aduertised how his nobles had raised open warre against him, at The lords of Scotland arrere warre against Grime their king. What mischief insued. which newes being sore kindled with displeasure, he got togither a great number of men, and marched foorth towards them that had so rebelled against him. Then followed more mischeef and trouble than euer had béene séene afore that time in Scotland: for by reason of this ciuill dissention, castels were raced and ouerthrowne, townes burned vp, corne destroied, fields wasted, and the people slaine in all places, yea as well in churches as elsewhere.

Malcolme prince of Cumberland hearing of such cruell wars as were thus raised in Scotland betwixt the king and the nobles of the realme, to the danger of the vtter euersion of the whole common-wealth, returned with all spéed foorth of England (where he was with an armie as then in aid of king Egeldred against the Danes) into his owne countrie for defense of his subiects, if anie attempt should happilie be made against them in that troublesome season. Howbeit, he was no sooner returned home, but the nobles of Louthian came Malcolme is required to relieue the Scotish estate. vnto him, beseeching him to take pitie vpon his miserable and torne countrie, & to imploie his whole force to remooue away from the people such imminent destruction as dailie hasted towards them, which to doo they thought it was partlie euen his dutie, sith God had bestowed vpon him such gifts, both of bodie, mind, and fortune, as most plentiouslie appeared in him, not onelie for the weale of himselfe, but also of his friends & countrie, & therefore his part was to shew his earnest diligence to deliuer the common-wealth of such tyrannie as was practised by the misgouernement of Grime and his vnhappie councellors. Which being done, he might order all things as should like him best.

Malcolme mooued with these and the like persuasions of the Scotish lords, which dailie Malcolme consenteth to make warres against Grime. resorted vnto him, resolued with promise of their support to leuie warre against Grime in this so necessarie a quarell, and so assembling a great puissance togither, he did set foorth towards his aduersarie. By the way also there came still vnto him great numbers of men from each side to aid him in this enterprise, offering by solemne othes to become his liegemen and subiects. Grime likewise being aduertised of those newes, with all spéed got Grime assembleth an armie to incounter Malcolme. The camps néere the one to the other. Grimes policie. togither such people as hee might assemble for the time, and comming forward with the same at the towne of Auchnabart, both the armies pitched downe their tents, the one fast by the other, on the Ascension daie. Here Grime supposing that he might take his enimies at some aduantage, if he came vpon them on the sudden, for that being giuen to deuotion, they would looke for nothing lesse than for battell on that daie, he got foorth of his campe in the dawning of that morning, in purpose foorthwith to assaile them.

Notwithstanding, Malcolme being aduertised thereof, sent vnto Grime, requesting him Malcolmes request. to desist from battell for reuerence of that blessed feast, but Grime would in no wise assent thereto, but néedes would come on without stop or staie; whervpon both the armies rushing togither met right fiercelie, so that in the beginning there was great slaughter made on The battell betwixt Grime and Malcolme. Grimes part discomfited. The end of king Grime. both sides, but within a while king Grimes side was put to the woorsse, and in the end clearelie discomfited. In the chase were manie slaine, but yet no such number as so notable a victorie required. It is said that Grime was taken aliue standing at defense, & most fiercelie fighting, who being sore wounded in the head, had both his eies put out, and afterwards continuing so in great miserie and languor certeine daies, at length departed out of this life, in the 9 yéere of his reigne, and was buried in Colmekill, after the incarnation 1010 1010. H.B. 1004. Io.M. yeeres.

After this victorie thus obteined by Malcolme, he called such noble men as were taken Malcolmes words to them that were taken prisoners. prisoners in this battell before him, vsing manie gentle woords toward them, declaring that the right of the crowne apperteined vnto him, and that the warres which hée had made, were not attempted against the common wealth of the Scotish estate, but rather in reliefe thereof, to the end the people might be deliuered of the tyrannie exercised by Grime and his councellors. When he had thus vttered his mind vnto them, he appointed a publike A parlement at Scone. assembly to be kept at Scone (for the election of a new king) there to be holden within 15 daies after. Whither the Scotish nobilitie comming togither at the time & place appointed, and consenting to crowne Malcolme king, he vtterlie refused to receiue the crowne, except Malcolme refuseth the crowne but vpon cōdition. The ordināce of king Kenneth for the succession of the crowne is confirmed. the law established by his father Kenneth for the succession thereof were first confirmed and approoued, wherevpon the lords bound themselues by solemne othes to performe the same, and neuer to breake and violate it in anie condition. His request herein being granted with generall consent both of the nobles and commons, the crowne was set vpon his head, he being placed in the chaire of marble, to the great reioising of all the people present.

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