IAMES THE SIXT.THE ninetéenth of Iulie, Charles Iames the yoong prince of Scotland, after a sermon made by Iohn Knox, was crowned king of the Scots in Sterling church, where were read certeine letters of commission and procuration, with the quéens priuie seale at them for the establishing of the same coronation. The first, for hir resignation of the crowne and gouernement of the yoong prince hir sonne. The second, to authorize the earle of Murreie to be regent during the kings minoritie. The third, to giue authoritie and power to seuen other ioining with the said earle of Murreie, in case he should refuse to exercise the same alone; that is to say, the duke of Chatelerault, the earls of Lennox, Argile, Atholl, Morton, Glencarne, and Mar. The tenors of which letters of commission and procuration doo héere insue, as we find them imprinted at Edenburgh by Robert Lekpreuic printer to the king of Scots, the sixt of Aprill 1568, among the acts of parlement begun and holden at Edenburgh, the fiftéenth of December, in the yeare 1567, by Iames earle of Murreie lord Abernethie, &c: regent vnto the said king.
These commissions being read, the bishop of Argile, with two superintendents, proceeded The kings oth. to the coronation: the earle of Morton, and the lord Hume tooke the oth for the king, that he should rule in the faith, feare, and loue of God, and to mainteine the religion then preached and exercised in Scotland, and to persecute all aduersaries to the same. The whole ceremonie was doone in the Scots English toong, the quéene mother to the king remaining at that time prisoner in Lochleuin. * But before we enter into the augmentation of the historie of Fr. Thin. this kings time, I thinke it notvnmeet to deliuer one thing, which I haue with some woonder obserued in all the kings of Scotland descended of the Stewards: that neuer anie one of them except the first & second king of that name was of the age of man, or of one and twentie yéeres when they put on the kinglie ornaments. A rare thing, and not vnméet to be considered of, although we can not enter into the secret iudgements of God. The proofe of which matter, being after this sort, I haue set downe in a catalog of the orderlie descent of those kings. In the computation of the yéeres of whose age and first comming to the crowne I haue followed Lesleus. Robert Steward the first king of that surname, was 57 yéeres old when he began his reigne, in the yéere of our redemption 1370. Iohn Steward son of the said Robert began his reigne 1390. These two alone were of full age, when the title of the kingdome descended vnto them. Iames Steward, the first of the name of Iames, & the third of the name of Stewards, was within age at the death of his father, when the title and crowne descended unto him: who although he receiued not the crowne at Scone (because he was about eightéene yéeres honorablie kept as a prisoner in England) vntill hée was of mans age: yet being king in right, and the crowne inuested in him when he was within age, I doubt not to make him king from the death of his father, and so within age to haue obteined the kingdome, though not the kinglie vse thereof, beginning his reigne in the yéere of our redemption 1424. Iames the second, and the fourth of the Stewards, was six yéeres old when he was crowned, in the yéere of Christ 1436. Iames the third, and fift of the Stewards, being seuen yeeres old, was crowned king of Scotland in the yéere that the word became flesh 1460. Iames the fourth, and sixt of the Stewards, being sixtéene yeeres of age, was adorned with the ensignes of the kingdome, in the yéere of our saluation 1488. Iames the fift, and the seuenth of the Stewards, being one yéere, fiue moneths, and ten dais old, was crowned king of Scotland, in the yéere from the birth of Christ 1513. Marie the eight of the name of Stewards, being but seuen daies old, was crowned queene of Scots, in the yéere of Christ 1542. Henrie Steward, sonne to Mathew earle of Lennox, and husband to the said Marie Steward, was not one and twentie yéeres old, when he came to be king in the right of his wife Marie: for he was not past one and twentie when he was slaine, as before in the yéere 1567. Charles Iames Steward, the sixt of the name of Iames, and the ninth of the surname of Stewards, sonne of the said Henrie Steward and Marie Steward, being about a yéere old, began his reigne in the yéere that God became man 1567. To whome Andrew Meluine (this yéere 1585 in England) did whilest he was in Scotland dedicate these verses following:
"Dum tu, magne puer, patribus das iura vocatis,There was order taken by the magistrates of the reformed churches, assembled for that Out of the booke printed thereof. purpose, touching the discipline of excommunication, and the excommunicated, diuided into these heads: that is to say, what crimes be woorthie of that seuere censure of the church by excommunication: how the minister shall behaue himselfe in publike audience of the people: of confesssion of the penitent: of the offenses which merit publike repentance: of the order to procéed therein: the forme and the order of publike repentance: an admonition to the church: a thankesgiuing for the conuersion and repentance of the censured: the forme of the excommunication: the praier for the obstinate that will not repent after that censure: the praier before the excommunication: the maner to inuocate the name of Iesus, with the sentence of excommunication: the order to receiue the excommunicate againe into the church: the forme of the absolution: and lastlie the praier for the church. Which booke conteining the discourse of these matters at large, with authoritie of scriptures and reasons, was set foorth by Iohn Knox minister, and commanded to be printed by the generall assemblie, in the yéere of Christ 1569, being séene and allowed by those which follow, appointed to that function by the said assemblie: whose names were Iohn Willike, maister Iohn Crage, Robert Pont, Iohn Row, Dauid Lindseie, William Christison, Iames Greg, &c. On the fiftéenth of December a parlement begun, being holden at Edenburgh before A parlement holden at Edenburgh. the earle of Murreie lord regent, in the which diuers acts and statutes were deuised, made, and ratified: as first concerning the quéenes demission of hir crowne, and resignation thereof made to hir sonne king Iames the sixt. And likewise concerning the instituting of the earle of Murreie in the regencie of the realme, which he tooke vpon him the two and twentith day of August last past, according to hir letters of commission and procuration aboue specified. Also there was an act made for the abolishing of the pope, and his vsurped authoritie. And An act for the abolishing of the popes authoritie in Scotland. an other act for the annulling of former acts made in parlement for maintenance of superstition and idolatrie. And heereto was annexed a confession of the faith and doctrine receiued by the protestants of the realme of Scotland, authorised in the same parlement. There was also an act made for the indemnitie of those that had leuied warre, and apprehended the queene at Carbarrie hill, the fiftéenth of Iulie last past, and concerning the deteining of hir in Lochleuin. Moreouer, it was ordeined by an act passed in this parlement, that the castell of Dunbar, The castell of Dunbar and the fortresse of Insketh to be raced. Fr. Thin. Buchanan. lib. 19. and the fortresse of Insketh, should be demolished and raced downe to the earth. To be briefe, there were one and fortie acts or statutes made and stablished in this parlement, as by the register thereof it maie appéere. *In the first beginning of the spring, the gouernor determined to make a progresse ouer the realme, with the iudges that were appointed to administer law: which he ment to doo, to the end that he might amend and establish such things as were indamaged by the tumults of the yéere before. Which matter woorking diuerse opinions in those of the quéenes faction, did cause that Metallane and Iohn Balfurie sought meanes to deliuer the quéene out of prison. Touching which matter also the Hamiltons labored who (being next to the crowne, if the yoong king were gone, and the quéene made awaie, both which perhaps was no great matter to procure) did ioine with the queenes faction and fauourers. Whose part in like manner the earles of Atholl and Huntleie refused not to take, because the mother of the one, and the wife of the other, were of the familie of the Hamiltons. William Murreie of Tillibartine, for his contrarie opinion in the controuersies of religion, and for priuat quarrels, being estranged and grieued from and with the gouernor, did not onelie now depart from the kings faction (although before he shewed great diligence in taking the quéene) but did also draw with him a great companie of his friends intised therevnto with no small hope of benefit to rise vnto them thereby. And as these were heads and chiefe of such as sought the quéenes deliuerance: so there were a great manie other, whom priuat necessitie, secret grudge, desire of reuenge, hope of aduancement, and néerenesse of aliance to those which are before named, procured to follow, and to further the cause of the quéenes libertie. In the meane time, whilest the regent was at Glascow to minister law to such as required it (and that he had there heard of these things) this determination of setting the quéene at libertie was put in execution, the manner whereof was in this sort. There was in the castell of Lochleuin, wherein the quéene was kept as prisoner, the mother of the regent, and thrée of his brethren by an other father, with a great troope of women: but none were admitted to see the quéene, saue such as were well knowen or sent thither by the regent. Of all this houshold companie, there was none that séemed so meet to the queene to execute anie matter, as was George Dowglas the yoongest brother of the regent, being a man of a pleasant wit, and easilie to be ouertaken with the faire speeches of women. This man had accesse vnto the quéene to plaie at cards, and to vse hir with other courtleie pastimes: who determining to set hir at libertie, did with promises and gifts win the scruants of the castell to fauour him and his enterprises. Wherevpon this Dowglasse (not vnwitting as was thought to his mother) omitteth nothing that might séeme to serue for the queenes libertie: the which although manie there did perceiue & tooke not in verie good part, giuing intelligence therof to the regent; yet he gaue such credit to his owne people there, that he changed (as hath Buchanan) none of the kéepers in that place, but onelie commanded his brother George to depart out of the Iland. This said George, when he passed into the next countrie adioining to the lake, in which the castell stood, did more liberallie than before (by corrupting the kéepers with monie) consult with the quéene of all hir affaires. Wherefore not onelie the Scots (whome the present state of things did mislike) being drawen into that faction; but also the Frenchmen by Iames Hamilton (which had béene regent not manie yéeres before) and Iames archbishop of Glascow sollicited therevnto, the Scots promised their bodilie force, and the French promised their helping purse. Now about the end of Aprill, an ambassador came out of France requiring in the name of his king, that he might haue leaue to go to the quéene: which if he were denied, he made shew that he would presentlie depart. Wherevnto the gouernor answered, that it was not in his power to grant it: that the quéene was not committed to prison by him, and that he could not determine anie thing herein without their knowledge which first restreined hir of libertie, and after by decrée confirmed that deed: but he would not ceasse in pleasuring his sister, and such a fréend as the king (his maister) was, to doo all that he might: and further, that he would take order for an assemblie of the nobilitie the twentith daie of the next moneth. Vntill which time the ambassador séemed somwhat appeased, and the regent applied the administration of the lawes.] On sundaie the second of Maie, in the yeere 1568, at supper time, the quéene escaped out 1568. The quéenes escape out of Lochleuin. of Lochleuin, by the meanes and helpe of George Dowglas brother to the lard of Lochieuin. The lard Seton, the lard of Ricarton, and Iames Hamilton of Oribiston, were readie to receiue hir, and conueied hir ouer the quéenes ferrie, first to Nudrie the lard Seton his house, and from thence to Hamilton castell, where she remained till the thirtéenth daie of Maie being thursdaie, gathering in the meane time such forces as she might from all places. The earle The quéene gathereth a power. of Murreie lord regent was in Glascow, at what time she thus escaped out of Lochleuin; and vpon knowledge had therof, ment at the first to haue withdrawen himselfe to Sterling: but suddenlie changing his purpose in that behalfe, he determined to continue at Glascow, which The regents determination to staie at Gloscow. is not past eight miles from Hamilton, because he was persuaded, that if she should shrinke backe neuer so little, he should incourage his aduersaries, and discourage his friends, and so consequentlie weaken his part greatlie. *Which they also supposed was the more Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 19. weakened, by the departure of Robert Boid (vnto the quéenes part) hauing vntill that time woone a great opinion of his constancie towards the regent. This man, being of a famous familie, was now in the decaie of his house meanelie and sparinglie brought vp vnder his father, a valiant gentleman, and one that followed the frugalitie of the Scots, who (willing to prepare a waie to the readuance of his house, as manie of his other kinred did) was now content to séeke meanes therefore: for which cause both he and his father did first follow the Hamiltons then ruling all things. But after that their gouernement was posted ouer from them to the quéene mother the regent; and that contention was mooued about religion: he ioined himselfe to the lords of the congregation, from whome his father was most estranged: in which this Robert Boid firmelie continued vntill the quéenes returne out of France. By meanes whereof, there was a great opinion of his valure & wisdome, on whose counsell Coline Campbell earle of Atholl did almost wholie depend. But when by chance certeine of the nobilitie had coniured or conspired (to vse Buchanans woord) for no euill act, but for the defense of the king, he subscribed to the same league. But after, with like lightnesse both he and the earle of Argile (which hoong vpon his aduise) wrote vnto the quéene cuerie thing that was doone in the same assemblie, from which time this Boid was partaker of all the queenes secrets against his old friends, who with the queene did yet obteine no greater opinion of constancie, than he did amongest others of lightnesse and inconstancie. But after that the queene was imprisoned, and the earle of Murreie made regent, he went then to the part of the gouernor: with whome he shewed such proofe of his wit and industrie, that he was admitted into the priuie counsels of the regent, contrarie to the opinion of others. But after when the matter should be tried by fight betwéene the regent & the quéene (after hir escape from Lochleuin) he fled againe to the queene.] All which notwithstanding, the thirtéenth daie of Maie afore mentioned, the quéene with hir power marched from Hamilton, by the south side of Clede toward Dunbreton; and out of Glascow on the other part marched the lord regent with his forces: so as at length both the armies met at a place called the Langside, néere to the house of Cathcart within two miles of The armies met at Langside. Glascow. There were on the quéenes part the earles of Argile, Cassiles, Eglinton, and Rothes, Lords on the queenes part. Claud Hamilton sonne to the duke of Chatelerault, the lords Seton, Summeruill, Yester, Borthwike, Leuingston, Herries, Maxwell, Sauquhar, Boid and Rosse, lards and knights, Lochinwar, Bas, Wauchton, Dalhousie, Roslen the shiriffe of Aire, sir Iames Hamilton, and manie others. On the regents part were these accounted as principall, the earles of Morton, Lords on the regents part. Mar, Glencarne, Menteith, the maister of Graham, the lords Hume, Lindsie, Ruthwen, Sempill, Ogiltree and Cathcart, of lairds and knights, Bargawy, Blacquhan, Drumlanrig, Sesford, Lus, Buchanan, Tulibardin, Peteur, Grange, Lochleuin, Lethington, and sir Iames Balfour. At the first ioining there was a verie sharpe incounter: for after they had bestowed They ioine in battell. their shot of harquebuzes and arrows, they fed to it with speares and swoords. But at length, after three quarters of an houres fight, the quéenes part was put to flight. The quéenes part discomfited. The victorie remained with the regent, who suffered none to be slaine but those that were killed in the fight, before they turned their backs: among the which were foureteene of the Fourtéene of the Hamiltons slaine. Prisoners taken. surname of the Hamiltons killed. There were taken prisoners about thrée hundred, of which number the principall were these: the lords Seton and Rosse, sir Iames Hamilton, and manie other of that surname. Of the regents part, the lord Hume was hurt in the leg and face, and the lord Ogiltree in the necke, by the lord Herries: the lord Lindseie, and the lards of Drumlanrig, and of Grange, bare themselues verie valiantlie that day, failing not in anie point that belonged to the dutie of hardie capteins. The quéenes part was thought to be néere at the point of six thousand men, and the regents was reckoned to be foure thousand: so that there were ten thousand men in the field that: daie, what vpon the one side and the other. The earle of Huntleie was comming forwards to haue assisted the queenes part, but the The earle of Huntleie comming forward to aid the quéene. battell was striken, and hir people discomfited (as ye haue heard) yer he could come, and so he returned. In this battell the valiancie of an Hieland gentleman named Macferlane, stood the regents part in great stéed. For in the hottest brunt of the fight, he came in with two Lundred of his friends and countriemen, and so manfullie gaue in vpon the flanke of the quéenes people, that he was a great cause of the disordering of them. This Macferlane had béene latelie before (as I haue heard) condemned to die for some outrage by him committed: and obteining pardon (through sute of the countesse of Murreie) he recompensed that clemencie by this péece of seruice now at this battell, [which was (as saith Fr. Thin. Buchanan) fought the third daie of Maie, and the eleuenth after the quéene had escaped out of prison.] The quéene perceiuing the ouerthrow of hir people, fled from the place where she stood to behold the battell, and withdrew to Crawford towne, and so by the Sauquhar to Dundrenan in Gallowaie: and after she had taried there two or three daies, she tooke ship The quéene of Scots fléeth into England. and passed to Workington in England, where she was staied & conueied to Caerleill, and from thence to Bolton castell, belonging to the lord Scroope, who with sir Rafe Sadler (being sent downe for that purpose) had the custodie of hir, till at length she was committed vnto the earle of Shrewesburie. *The French ambassador, which looked for the good Fr. Thin. Buchanan. lib. 19. successe of this battell, and did promise to himselfe assured victorie on the quéenes part, vnderstanding the contrarie, and being deceiued of his former hope, changed his copie, and with horsse and guides hasted all he could into England, without bidding the regent farwell. In which iournie he was robbed by théeues: but Iames Dowglasse, capteine of the marches of Drumlanrig, did this honor to the ambassador, that he had all his goods restored vnto him.] But now to the dooings in Scotland. The regent sent to summon Hamilton castell, but the answer was respited till the next daie: and then he that had the charge came to Glascow, and offered the keies to the regent. The castell of Draffan was also yéelded at the same time to the regent. The eightéenth of Maie, the regent made proclamation, that the inhabitants of the shires of Merns, Angus, Fife, Mers, Louthian, Kile, and Carricke, should prouide themselues of vittels for fifteene daies, and to méet him at Beggar the tenth of Iune, to ride with him into the southwest parts of Scotland, to chastise certeine théeues, and other The regents iournie into the southwest parts of Scotland. disobedient persons. Héerevpon, the eleuenth of Iune, the regent marched foorth of Edenburgh, and came that night to Beggar. The armie being assembled, conteined foure or fiue thousand horssemen verie well appointed, beside a thousand footmen, gunners and halberdiers: of boies and yoong men that went with the cariage, there were about foure thousand. The castell of Boghaii, perteining to the lord Fleming, was surrendred to them. The The castell of Boghall. Skirling castell. Crawford. twelfth of Iune Skirling castell was raced (a faire house) to the end that other vnderstanding therof, might be put in greter feare. That night they came to Crawford, where the castell was to them surrendred; it belonged vnto sir Iames Hamilton, whom they had in their hands. The thirtéenth of Iune they marched to Saucher, a castell, the which being Saucher. rendred they spared, because the lord Chreichton the owner thereof, promised at a certeine daie to come to the regent to Edenburgh. The fouretéenth of Iune they came to Barbacast, Barbacast. where they laie that night, and the lard Wederborne was sent to speake with the lard of Louchinware. Wednesdaie the fiftéenth of Iune, they marched to a place called saint Iohn Saint Iohn Sclaghan. Sclaghan, staieng there in trust of the lard of Louchinwares comming vnto them, but he came not: wherevpon, the next daie being the sixteenth of Iune, they raced the house of Kenmure, and an other house also, for that the owners were fréends to the said Kenmure. Louchinware. The seuentéenth of Iune they came to a gentlemans house, standing by the water of Ur, The water of Ur. Dunfreis. where diuerse gentlemen came in, and were receiued. The eighteenth of Iune they marched to Dunfieis, and remained there all the next daie. A strong house standing in that towne, & apperteining to the lord Maxwell, was offered vnto them. Diuerse of the Maxwels, Iohnstons, Yrrewins, Grahanms, and Bels, came vnto the regent, and offering themselues to be obedient, were receiued. Two daies before this, the lord Maxwell, the lards of Iohnston, Cowhill, and Louchinwar, had béene at Dunfreis with a thousand men, and spent all the vittels. It was thought that the lord Maxwell would haue come in, if the other had not counselled him to the contrarie. The twentith of Iune they marched to Hoddom, a place Hoddom yéeldeth to the regent. belonging to the lord Herries: a thousand of the broken men were assembled and offered skirmish; two or thrée were taken, they laie within a mile of the regent that night. The one and twentith the house was yéelded, and the custodie thereof committed to the The lard of Drumlanrig. lard of Drumlanrig that was appointed warden of those marches. It was thought verie strong, so that the defendants might haue kept it longer if they had béene disposed. Great hunger began to pinch the armie, a pint of wine was sold at seuen shillings Scotish, and no bread to be had for anie monie. The regent sent foorth the earle of Morton, and the lord Hume with a thousand men, to trie if they might haue drawen the broken men to a chase: but it would not be, for they went their wales, and would not tarrie it. The two and twentith of Iune the campe laie still, but the regent with a thousand men went to Annand, Annand deliuered to the gouernor. Lochmaben. and had it deliuered vnto him. Héere he met with the lord Scroope, and afer returned to the campe. The thrée and twentith of Iune they went to Lochmaben and receiued the castell, the which the regent deliuered to Drumlanrig: but some of the Maxwels being closelie hid within an od corner of the house, after the regent was gone, brake out and seized the house againe into their hands. The same daie, two houses belonging to the lard of Iohnston, the one named Lochwood, Two houses of lard Iohnston taken by the regent. and the other Lowhousie, were taken, but not burnt: because the lard Iohnston had put in suertie to come in by a day vnto the regent. The same daie they tooke great store of cattell, and that night with a shot of the great artillerie, they slue two théeues among thrée score others that came and approched verie néere to the armie, as the maner of the prickers is. The armie laie that night at Milton holms. The foure and twentith of Iune they came to Péeples, and the next day to Edenburgh, so ending that iournie; in the which they had passed through the countries of Clidesdale, Gallowaie, Niddesdale, Annandale, & Twéedale. Much a doo and great trouble arose within Scotland, by reason that the Hamiltons and their Great trouble in Scotland. adherents made parts against the regent, and those other lords that gouerned vnder the king; whereof as I haue no certeine notes, so I must passe the same with silence. *Whilest these things were thus in dooing, letters came to the regent from the queen Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 19. of England: for she was persuaded by such as were fled with the quéene of Scots into England, that there was great iniurie doone vnto the queene of Scots, being burdened with high matters, through the enuie of hir euill subiects, in which chieflie the kinglie authoritie was reuiled, and the regiment of sacred maiestie defaced. A thing which did not alone perteine to the priuat person of the quéene of Scots, but to the example of all other princes. Which euill of expelling kings, was spéedilie and soundlie to be preuented, least it might créepe anie further. By which and other persuasions, the queene of England required of the regent to send sufficient men, that should declare to hir the order of all things as they were doone, and that should answer all such reproches as were laied against him. Touching which matter, although it appeered grieuous and heauie in it selfe, to call things in question which before were by parlement established; and to bring in vre a new kind of iudgement of their causes before forren iudges and kings who were their enimies, and first persuaded against the regent by such as maliced him and his faction; and that after a sort the same séemed dangerous and full of shame: yet on the other side there were manie things that inforced him to accept that request of the queene of England, although it were vniust. Wherefore when he had determined to send ambassadors, and that they could not agrée who they should be, sith the chiefest, and those of the nobilitie refused it: at length the regent professed that he would take that iournie vpon him. For the performance whereof he chose certeine persons to accompanie him into England, contrarie to the mind of William Metellan, which onelie denied and stood against it. Wherefore he caried the said Metellan with him (fauoring the quéene) not doubting in the end by one meanes or other to win him to his part. The rest that went willinglie with him, were Iames Dowglas, Patrike Lindseie, being of the nobilitie; the bishop of Orknie, & the abbat of Fermlindon, churchmen; Iames Macgill, and Henrie Balnaue, lawiers of the college of iudges. To whome as the ninth was ioined George Buchanan author of the Scotish historie: with whome the regent accompanied to the number of 100 horsses, tooke his iournie into England, and came the fourth nones of October to Yorke, to the assemblie appointed there by the quéene of England. On which day, and almost at the same houre, Thomas Howard duke of Northfolke came thither also; to which duke were associat in commission, to heare the controuersie of the Scots, the earle of Sussex, and sir Rafe Sadler knight. After a few daies, came thither such as were sent by the queene of Scots, which did complaine of hir vnkind subiects, and required helpe to restore hir to hir kingdome. These men being heard (sundered from the regent and the earls) did (after they had protested that they came not vnto them as iudges, hauing anie right to make lawes to bind them) with manie words open the iniuries which the Scotish subiects had doone vnto their quéene, and required of the quéene of England, that either she would persuade hir vnkind people to receiue their prince againe; or if they refused the same, that she would giue them an armie, with which they might compell them therevnto. In few hours after this, the regent (calling the matter to the deciding of law, before equall arbitrators) did contend (sith nothing was doone but by right, by law, by the ancient custome of their countrie, by the determination of the assemblie of parlement, and by the subscription of manie such as were there present to accuse them) that he alone by his authoritie could not vndoo the same: but when the English commissioners had denied that they could be satisfied with those things doone at home, & here pronounced by the Scots, except some cause were shewed that inforced them so seuerelie to pronounce against their queene; the regent answered that he did chieflie flee that matter, least he should be driuen to accuse his quéene and sister. Which he denied to doo, not willing to laie abroad to forren nations hir wicked deeds, as Buchanan tearmeth them. To the contrarie whereof he would not be inforced, vnlesse the quéene of England would promise to defend the cause of the now king, and to take him into hir protection: if he did manifestlie prooue, that the quéene of Scots had murthered the king of Scots hir husband. Wherevnto the English answered, that they had authoritie onelie to heare both parts, and to declare their whole request vnto their queene. By reason whereof, in the end they wrote to the queene of England all the state of their dooings; who did write backe, that the earle of Murreie should send one or more to the English court, fullie to informe hir thereof, sith she would doo all therein that belonged vnto hir. Which letters receiued, the earle of Murreie sent Metallan (a man before suspected, and that did after ioine in conference with Iohn Lesle bishop of Rosse) to the court of England, associated with Iames Macgill. Now after these men were come to the quéene at London, it was thought most conuenient by hir and hir councell, that the regent himselfe should be present, when all matters of controuersie were intreated vpon. For which cause, sending part of his companie backe into Scotland, the regent came with a small traine to London: where the same difficultie was obiected against him which was doone at Yorke: to which he answered as before. Whilst these things were dooing at London, the queene of Scots did by Iames Balfure moue warres in Scotland. For the furtherance whereof, she wrote letters to hirs and Bothwels friends, and made manie deputies to execute hir authoritie in Scotland. When the regent saw himselfe thus beset on euerie side, he determined to returne with all spéed into Scotland aswell as he might, without dispatch of that for which he came. Wherefore the English still instantlie vrging him to tell the cause (which being vntold, they could not determine anie thing therein) that mooued them to doo those things in Scotland: the regent (loth to offend the quéene of England) made a long protestation how vnwilling he was to accuse the quéene, and his sister; and therefore requested one thing, that they which were the occasion to lead him into this battell might be present thereat, for because he would vse their witnes in the weightiest matters. Which for manie great reasons being denied by the English, the queene of England required, that the quéene of Scots (by force and armes expelled) might be restored home; & therewithall giuing the regent a day, to shew cause whie the reuengers of the kings death had taken armes against the queene; although the erle of Murreie were none of them: for he was in France at the time of the déed doone. Wherefore the regent shewing all he could against the queene of Scots for the defense of hir aduersaries; in the end, the quéene of England deferring the same to another day, permitted the regent to depart home to appease the troubles there, and that he should leaue some one of his behind him, to answere all such euils as should be obiected against him. But the regent desired them whilest he was there, that his accusors might be brought out. Wherevpon the accusors being present, and saieng that they had not then anie thing to saie; but that they would further shew their accusation where it pleased the queene: the matter with much controuersie ended on both parts, & the councell brake vp without anie finall sentence therin. But whilest the regent remained thus in England (as is a little before touched) there were manie things without successe attempted by the queene of Scots followers. For Iames Hamilton (who a little before had béene gouernor) being grieued with the mishap of things at home, falling out contrarie vnto his mind, did therefore depart into France, where (remoued from all companie, and onelie attended vpon with a man or two) he did secretlie liue to himselfe. But when the quéene of Scots was escaped the prison of Lochleuin, and that she was after subdued in battell, being within a few daies after compelled to land in England; the Frenchmen that could not draw the earle of Murreie (now by his friends called home into his countrie) into their faction, thought it best for manie reasons (sith they might not for the troubles in France send him succor or monie) to raise vp the said Hamilton against the earle of Murreie, and especiallie at that time whilest the regent was in England. Wherefore he comming out of his den abrode into the world, inriched by the French with a few golden crownes, and ouercharged with manie faire promises, was importuned by his friends and kinred, whilest he hastened from England into Scotland, that the quéene of England with the authoritie of the quéene of Scots, would induce the earle of Murreie to deliuer vp his regentship of Scotland vnto him; sith that place was of right due vnto him (by the maners and lawes of all nations, but chiefelie by the custome of his countrie) as néerest in bloud, and next in succession. For the proofe whereof, it is not necessarie to reckon vp the memorie of histories from the first times, considering it is knowne to all men, that gouernors haue béene giuen to those of yoong yeares (not able to rule the kingdome) of such as haue beene néerest of bloud. For so, after the death of Iames the third, Robert his vncle had the gouernement in the absence of Iames the first; and Murdac the son of the same Robert succéeded him therein. And of late time in our remembrance, Iohn duke of Albanie did gouerne the yoong yeares of Iames the fift; and Hamilton himselfe, in the minoritie of Marie the queene that now is, being as then neither fit for a husband or a kingdome, did a few yeares rule all the affaires of Scotland. Who now by certeine rebels, was through vnlawfull voices excluded thereof with force and violence, and that (which is woorse) a bastard is aduanced therevnto in contempt of lawfull bloud. Which honor, if it were restored vnto him, he would shortlie appease all those ciuill bralles, and restore the queene of Scots vnto hir kingdome, without anie force or tumult of armes. Wherevnto the king of Scots legats did answer, that Hamilton did not onelie demand a thing quite contrarie to the lawes and old customs of Scotland; but also a thing most vniust, if no authoritie of law were against it. For our ancestors (by reason of many murthers committed by those of the kings bloud) almost a thousand thrée hundred yeares past, did change the order in creating of their kings. For whereas before, they which were of the familie of Fergusius, the first king of that name, were in the life of the king chosen after to reigne, not as néerest of bloud; but as persons most woorthie to weild a kingdome: Kenneth the third (to the end to take awaie from the court all treacherie towards the kings familie, and cruell murthers of kinreds amongest themselues) did establish that order which is now obserued in creating of our kings; which was, that the next in bloud should be aduanced to the place of the deceassed king. But afterwards, when men were taught by the successe of things, that it could scarse be chosen; but that in such inconstancie of fortune, the right of the chiefest magistrat must sometime light vpon children and vpon heires also vnfit for gouernement, they did ordeine, that he should be chosen to the administration of the publike wealth; which did excell others in wealth and wisedome. Which course our ancestors haue kept almost these six hundred yeares, leauing the kingdome whole & sound to posteritie. According to the which, when Robert Bruse was dead, there were gouernors chosen by voices: which were Thomas Randolph earle of Murreie, Donald earle of Mar Andrew Murreie, Iohn Randolph, & Robert Steward. For sometime, as manie were chosen gouernors togither; so when Iames the second was a child, Alexander Leuingston, being no kin to the king, no not so much as of the nobilitie, but onelie a knight, was appointed gouernor to the yoong king. Which may not be excused, in saieng that the same was then so doone, because there wanted men of the kings bloud to supplie those places. For at that time were liuing Iohn Kennedie head of the familie, the kings kinsman by the sister of Iames the first; and the vncle by his fathers side: Iames Kennedie also, bishop of saint Andrews, a man of most account in the kingdome for all kinds of vertue, being borne of the kings aunt: and Dowglas also, earle of Angus, with Archembald earle of Dowglas, both of the kings bloud; whereof the last was in riches and power almost equall to the king, but far beyond the wealth and power of all others; of whome, none did euer complaine to the parlement, when they were put besides the gouernement, and others not so neere of bloud appointed therevnto. Not long after, foure tutors were appointed to Iames the third, which were not made in respect of bloud; but chosen by the voices of the nobilitie. And although of late, Iohn duke of Albanie was by the nobilitie called out of France to the gouernment of Scotland, during the tender yéeres of Iames the fift, and confirmed in the same by publike decrée of parlement; yet was it not giuen vnto him in respect of néerenesse of bloud. For he had Alexander his elder brother in life, who although perhaps he was inferior to the duke; yet he was farre aboue Iames Hamilton (in all kind of vertue) which did sometimes reach after that place. But in the absence of Iames the first, Robert his vncle ruled the kingdome. But by what right? Was he admitted therevnto for neerenesse of bloud? No trulie. What then? Was he chosen of the people? No. How then was he made? Marie when king Robert the third was not sufficient to rule the kingdome, either for strength of bodie or mind, he did substitute Robert his brother as his deputie, & commended his children to his gouernment; who in the end famished Dauid the eldest, and also threatened death vnto the yoonger sonne Iames, which he did auoid by fleeing Scotland. Which Robert being in the possession of authoritie by tyrannie (and his brother killed with thought) did leaue the same to Murdac his sonne. So that it cannot be doubted what the mind of the last king Robert was to his brother, for he would neuer (if he had liued and béene in health) haue made him tutor of his children, whom at the houre of his death he curssed as the butcher of his children. That time also, in which this Hamilton gouerned, dooth remember vnto vs manie things (though what soeuer was then doone, is no proofe that it was well doone) which are to be considered of. For when the cardinall Beton did labor by subtiltie to inuade the chiefe gouernement, this Hamilton rather leaning to the hatred which good men did beare towards Beton, than trusting to the fauor of the people towards himselfe, did leape into the emptie place of a gouernor; in which he ruled with much crueltie and couetousnesse, and in few yeeres after, both sold the gouernement (obteined by force) and the quéene, whom he had vnder his authoritie. At what time was shewed the fauor which the people bare vnto him, when they preferred the gouernement of a strange woman, before the bondage which they had vnder him. You sée now (I hope) the request of the Hamiltons to be against our countrie lawes, and decrees of our ancestors, and that so contrarie vnto them, that wanting other sufficient arguments, he is constreined to confirme the same onelie with lies. But if there were anie such custome, I suppose there is none but dooth see how uniust it were. For what can be more vnrightfull, than to commit yoong, weake, and faultlesse yeeres to his faith, which dooth dailie either looke or wish for the death of the pupill? Whose whole familie hath alwaies béene at dailie and deadlie warre with the house of the king that now is? What defense can be here by neerenesse of bloud against old malice, vnmeasurable couetousnesse, and the headie violence of (alreadie tasted) tyrannie? Laodice the queene of Cappadocia is supposed to haue killed hir owne children, as they came to yéers of discretion, and to haue bought the small continuance of hir gouernement with the bloud of hir sonnes. Wherfore, if the mother spared not hir owne flesh, for the gaine of short authoritie; what will old enimies doo, inflamed to crueltie with the brands of couetousnesse (nay rather what is to be thought that they will not doo) against a child, which deferreth effect of their hope of gouernement? If this example séeme ouer old or obscure to anie man, or to be ouer farre set, I will lay downe some néerer home, and those most notable. Who is so ignorant of this latelie doone, that he knoweth not that Galeas Sfortia (growne to descretion, a husband, and sonne in law to a most mightie king) was slaine by his vncle Lodowike? Or to whom are the calamities vnknowne, which followed so cruell a parricide and kin-slaier? For the most beautifull countrie of Italie was almost brought thereby to vtter destruction: the familie of the Sforties, the mother of manie a valiant person cleane destroied, and the barbarous people (from whose crueltie and couetousnesse nothing was safe) brought into the pleasant places about Padus. Who is he that is borne in Britaine, that hath not heard of the crueltie of Richard (the third king of that name in England) against the children of his brother? But with what bloudshed was that in the end purged? Now, sith these did not feare to doo such euils to their neerest bloud, by the onelie inforcing desire to gouerne, being otherwise woorthie persons: what shall we looke for from him, whose inconstancie of mind all the Scots doo know? Whose vnskilfull gouernement they haue tried with manie slaughters? And (which is more) whose familie not content with the murther of this kings great grandfather, did go about to intrap his grandfather by the mothers side, whilest he was in life; and when he could not kill the grandfather by the fathers side, he thrust the poore father out of the kingdome, brought forth the mother to be slaine as a sacrifice, & sold hir kingdome (when they could not inioy it) to strangers: out of which bondage she (by the prouidence of God) being deliuered, they haue throwne themselues into these troubles in which they now are. Whereby we may easilie vnderstand, what the iudgement of the common people was touching that matter, in that those men doo now séeme to be deliuered out of a prison of miserable bondage, and to behold the swéet light of libertie, when they (which knew not how to order it) did sell their gouernment to a strange woman. These things being thus heard on both sides before the councell of England, the quéene thereof by hir said councell declared to Hamilton, that he required an vniust thing, and that he should not hope for anie aid from hir; and that she hath promised the kings ambassador, that Hamilton should not depart England, before that the said ambassador had leaue likewise to go home. After that these things were doone, and that the regent somewhat indifferentlie dispatched his affairs in England, he obteined leaue to depart, and was honorablie conducted home with the English, who sufficientlie garded him: but especiallie the nobilitie and companie of the north parts, sith it was great honor for hir maiestie safelie to returne him home, who (vpon hir letters had) was come out of his owne countrie. Which regent comming to Edenburgh the next day after the kalends of Februarie, hée was there receiued with great pompe. Few daies after this, those of the kings faction assembled at Striueling, where the regent Buchanan lib. 19. Buchanan lib. 19. declared vnto them what he had doone in England; which being well liked, was in the end confirmed by all the nobilitie. Much about that time, Iames Hamilton chiefe of that familie came out of England, being by the quéene of Scots authorised with a new and arrogant letter: in that she called him hir father, and made him hir vicar and deputie of the kingdome. This man at his first comming made proclamation, that no man should obeie anie other than such as were substituted by him. Wherevpon those of the kings part (bestowing summes of monie vpon souldiers, to make them readie, if néed required, to the vttermost conflict) met on a day appointed at Glascow. But when there was a great assemblie of the common people at Hamilton, more than they looked for, a meanes of agréement was attempted, with this condition: that Hamilton, comming to Glascow, should acknowledge the king for chiefest gouernor: which if he did, all other things should easilie be agreed; but if he denied that, he shuld come in vaine: all which he promised to doo, and the kings armie was dismissed. When he came to Glascow, they obteined their former goods and honors the same day, in which he and his friends professed themselues subiects to the king: but yet so, that in the meane time they should remaine in prison, or else giue pledges of their next kin; with further notice, that if anie of the said part would so doo, they should also be receiued on the same couenánts, wherevnto the earle of Argile and the earle Huntleie refused to subscribe. Hamilton comming at the day appointed to Edenburgh, did deferre the performance of his promises, deuising manie delaies; vntill the other principall of the factions were come, whereby the couenants might be established by all their consents, for which he praied day till the tenth of Maie: and that in the meane time he might vnderstand the mind of the imprisoned quéene of Scots: all which in the end was denied vnto him. Wherevpon Hamilton (confessing the truth) said, that he consented to those conditions by compulsion; and that (if he were frée) hée would not allow of anie of them. For which answer, Hamilton & Maxwell were committed prisoners to the castell of Edenburgh. The earle of Argile was suffered to be quiet at home, but the earle Huntleie was more hardie dealt withall, bicause that in the absence of the gouernor he had taken manie, and had made deputies about Crawford and Ogiluie. Wherevpon there was day giuen vnto them both to meet at the assemblie at saint Andrews, whither the earle of Argile first came: with whom there was no extreme dealing, bicause he ceased to trouble the realme anie more, was of kinred to the gouernor, and they two were of great friendship togither euen from their yoong yéers. But when the cause of Huntleie (long before his comming) was well debated, the gouernor pronounced, that he would pardon all priuate faults doone to him, or to the king: but that hee neither could nor would pardon anie iniuries doone to any other. And if Huntleie, or his friends that folowed his faction, could passe away with those spoils, he would willinglie labor that arbitrators chosen by both parts, should temper the value of the damage. At what time also there grew a further mischiefe, whether all they which tooke part with Huntleie shuld also be pardoned; but in the end, vpon deliberation, all things séemed indifferentlie well pacified. During these things, the queene of England sent letters into Scotland in the behalfe of the Buchanan. lib. 19. imprisoned queene; either that she might wholie be restored, or iointlie rule with hir sonne; or admitted to liue priuatlie in hir owne countrie. All which being denied to be granted, the Scots sent Robert Petcarne, a man of great wisedome and fidelitie, to deliuer their answer vnto the quéene of England. Whilest these things were in dooing, the gouernor fearing the power of the imprisoned quéene, which now waxed great, did call William Mettellan before him, from Perth to Striueling; who requested the earle of Argile to go with him for his better suertie. Afterwards, this William sitting in the councell, was accused by Thomas Crawford of the kings death, wherevpon he was commanded prisoner to a chamber in the castell, and others were sent to apprehend Iames Balfurie. But in the end, the gouernors mildnesse suffered no great hurt to fall vpon them; for Balfurie by his friends soone obteined pardon; and Mettellan being led to Edenburgh, was left in a house there not farre from the castell: to whome certeine horssemen were appointed kéepers, vnder the charge of Alexander Hume a noble yoong man, appointed chiefe ouer them. But William Kircadie, capteine of the castell of Edenburgh, about ten of the clocke at night, did counterfeit letters signed with the hand of the earle of Murreie, and brought them to Alexander, willing him to deliuer William Mettellan, which he did accordinglie. Wherevpon Mettellan was caried by Kircadie into the castell, to the great mislike of the nobilitie, being almost vncerteine whether they should impute the déed to Kircandie, or to the gouernor, not being vnacquainted with the boldnesse of Kircadie: in such sort, that the same was like to grow to a commotion, if the innocencie of the gouernour had not before béene sufficientlie knowne. In the yeere 1569, the earles of Northumberland and Westmerland raised a rebellion 1569. Rebellion in the north of England, by the earles of Northumberland & Westmerland. against the queenes maiestie of England; but by the good diligence and prouident circumspection of the earle of Sussex, then lieutenant of the north parts, and by such direction as was giuen by hir maiestie and hir councell, for the leuieng of an armie vnder the leading of the earle of Warwike, and the lord admerall Clinton, the said two earles were kept so in feare, that they durst not aduance farre forward in their wicked begun enterprise, but were constreined to retire backe towards Durham. Whervpon the earle of Sussex, supposing that their meaning was for their last refuge and safegard to take the castels of Alnewike and Warkeworth, he wrote vnto sir Iohn Forster lord warden of the middle marches, either by force, policie, or some other means, to get into his hands the possession of those two castes, and the same to fortifie with such number and garisons of men, as to his discretion should be thought conuenient, for the safe custodie and gard thereof. Sir Iohn Forster, being at his house neere to Alnewike, when he receiued these letters, accompanied with his seruants, friends, and tenants, & some souldiers that were come to him from Berwike, marched vp to the castell on foot, where finding the house garded with a great number of the earle of Northumberlands seruants, reteiners, and tenants, be made proclamation before the castell gate, that eucrie of them within the castell should come foorth, Proclamation made at Alnewike by sir Io. Forster. and withdraw to their owne houses, vpon paine to be reputed rebels to the quéenes maiestie: and that which of them soeuer did refuse to obeie this proclamation, staieng either in the castell or elsewhere in anie vnlawfull assemblie, it should be lawfull for euerie man to spoile his goods, and him to kill if he made resistance. This proclamation notwithstanding, they within the castell, at the first refused to yéeld it vp. And therevpon sir Iohn Forster marched through the towne into the market place, and there made the like proclamation in behalfe of all the inhabitants that were the earle of Northumberlands tenants, for their repairing home to their houses. And comming herewith The castell of Alnewike and Warkeworth fortified by sir Io. Forster. backe towards the castell, they within perceiuing themselues destitute of succor, and sir Iohn Forster to increase in power, did vpon better aduise yeeld themselues vnto him, who saued all their liues. After the same maner he got also the castell of Warkewoorth, and fortified them both with sufficient number of men. This doone, he assembled such forces as he was able to make, so that he got togither to the number of eleuen hundred horssemen, and tooke order to forlaie and stop the passages, so as the earles friends and tenants in Northumberland should not go vnto him. After this, hauing in his companie the lord Ogle, and Thomas Forster his brother, and Sir Iohn Forster kéepeth Newcastell against the rebels. Sir Henrie Persie against his brother the earle of Northumberland. other gentlemen, he went to Newcastell, where with Thomas Gower esquire, that had the principall rule therof at that time, he tooke order for the defense of that towne against the rebels. Hither came to him sir Henrie Persie, offering his seruice against his brother, and other the rebels, to the vttermost of his power. Herevpon diuerse excursions were made foorth of Newcastell into the bishoprike, where the two earles were incamped, and sundrie skirmishes chanced betwixt the two parties, though no great hurt followed thereof. The erles yet on a day came from Durham, and with their armie marched towards Newcastell. Sir Iohn Forster, and sir Henrie Persie, hauing intelligence thereof, issued foorth of Newcastell with all their forces, and certeine péeces of great ordinance. They had also with them certeine bands of the souldiers of Berwike, meaning verelie to haue ioined battell with the earles: sir Henrie Persie shewing himselfe as willing and forward thereto as anie other in all the companies. At Chester deane, midwaie betwixt Durham and Newcastell, the armies approched the Chester dean. one néere to the other, a small brooke running in a hollow diuiding them asunder, so that there was no passage for them to conueie their ordinance ouer, the bankes on either side being so stéepe and cumbersome. Wherevpon the eries, perceiuing that they were disappointed of their purpose, after some skirmishes betwixt the horssemen, they returned vnto Durham: and from thence the next day they went to Hexham, and after being in vtter despaire, fled into Scotland: where the erle of Westmerland lighted among those that The earles of Northumberland & Westmerland flée into Scotland. shifted him awaie so from place to place, that he escaped out of that realme, when he could no longer remaine there in suertie. But the earle of Northumberland fell into their hands, which deliuered him vnto the regent, who thought he could doo no lesse than put him in safe kéeping, considering the amitie that was betwixt the two princes, the queenes maiestie of England, and the king of Scots. But shortlie after, the regent (as he was riding through Lithquo) was wickedlie shot in 1571. Buch. 1570. The earle of Murreie lord regent slaine. Fr. Thin. with an harquebuse, by one Iames Hamilton, and so wounded, that the next day he died of the hurt [as saith Buchanan out of a wood gallerie, in which were clothes hanged as it were to an other vse.] *But the night before the slaughter of the regent, Walter Scot, and Thomas Kar also of Fernihirst entered into England to spoile the borders, which they did more cruellie than euer was doone before, rather for desire of reuenge of some iniurie, than for the gaine of anie booties. Besides which, the capteine of the castell where Mettellan was prisoner, was now commanded to set the same Mettellan at libertie: who upon oth before the nobilitie (which allowed and confirmed the same) did purge himselfe of the death of the king, and of the ciuill warres mooued in England (wherewith he was charged) adding Buchan. lib. 20. that he would proue the same at anie time when day should be appointed to him therefore. After which, there was an assemblie made for the election of a new gouernour. At what time Thomas Randolph, being sent thither ambassador for the queene of England in the life of the regent, had audience granted vnto him; whose message was to demand, the deliuerie of such rebels of England as had fled thither: which ambassador the deceassed gouernour had before refused to heare at Striueling. Wherevpon, sith all things were then in a turmoile by his death, they departed. But now, when there was a parlement for the choosing of a new regent, Randolph which had béene in Scotland some yéeres before, because he seemed best to know the men and their conditions of Scotland, and bicause he had before dispatched some other ambassages for the benefit of the realme, was held déere and well estéemed of the nobilitie, and therfore was brought into the councell. Who, after that he had declared what the mind of his prince had béene vnto the Scots, he shewed that she would not now abbate the same vnto them in these troublesome times, no more than she had defore doone. After which he remembred the inuasions made into England, with the slaughters, spoiles, and burnings committed a little before: all which he well knew was not doone by the counsell or labor of the publike state: and therefore his queenes fauor was not diminished to them, but that the same good will did remaine to them now, as ample as euer it was. And where she was grieuouslie offended (and that without hir desert) yet she was not now determined (although by right she iustlie might) to demand publike restitution and recompense for such euils: nor to exact punishment of the whole nation for the misdooing of a few. For she was not ignorant what tumults and troubles of all things was of late raised amongest them. Notwithstanding this euill, she did not yet anie whit doubt of the fauor of the good and vertuous men vnto hir: and that she would not onlie for their cause separate the offense from the publike consent: but also (if they themselues for the domesticall seditions could not inforce the disturbers of the quiet to make restitution of such spoiles) that she would ioine hir power with them, to the end by common counsell they might take iust punishment vpon the truce-breakers. Which if they could not then doo by that meanes, that yet she would prosecute those iniuries with hir owne people, whose armie should without anie damage to them passe through such places as would be quiet, and take no reuenge vpon anie that were not guiltie of that iniurie. The rest of the parts of his ambassage did conteine admonitions alwaies profitable in all lawfull assemblies, but most necessarie for the present state of Scotland. Whereof the first aduise was for the defense of religion, with an especiall care of diligence therein: sith the same alone dooth teach vs the forme of our dutie, and peace towards God, our prince, our equall & christian neighbors. For no common-wealth diuided in it selfe can long continue: for which cause they must chieflie labor with all their power, with might and maine, with saile and ores, that peace and quiet maie be holilie and vertuouslie nourished at home amongest their people. For sith God the creator of all things, hath imparted a kinglie gouernement ouer this nation, it is iust and méet that they obeie their princes; and in dutifull sort bestow all honor, reuerence, and obedience vpon them; sith peace, concord, amitie, and loue, with all men (as much as in vs lieth to vse) is most acceptable to God, and dooth take awaie (or at the least hinder) the thirst and shedding of mens bloud, a fault which God of all others dooth most hate. Which vnitie increasing the wealth of euerie one, maketh all nations more fearefull to their enimies, and is the preseruer of iustice: whose chiefe part consisting in punishing the euill, is especiallie to be imbraced: when contrarilie dissention and treason is a thing most ditestable to all lawfull gouernement: sith such kind of people are to be pursued with all extremitie, and not be succored with anie fauor, with anie mercie, or with anie pardon, into what countrie soeuer they flée for refuge of their hated wickednesse. All these things did Randolph both godlie and wiselie admonish vs of, and iustlie and modestlie require from vs. But because there was no regent chosen for the supreme gouernement, there could no certeine answer be giuen therevnto: for which cause he was for that time put backe to the kalends of Maie. At last, William and Iames Dowglasse, brothers of the slaine regent by one mother, were heard in this parlement, who required that the vnwoorthie death of their brother might be reuenged, sith the same was taken awaie not for anie priuat grudge, but for the common-wealths cause. Vpon the opening whereof men were of diuerse opinions about his death, though they all agreed that the offendors should be punished: for some would haue a day giuen to such as were suspected of the murther: for the names of manie persons were there shewed to answer the same. But it better pleased other not to wait for anie appointed day of law to be giuen to them, who had alreadie taken armes with violence to defend that déed which they had alreadie doone; and that they should not onelie raise their weapons against them, but also against all such as were condemned in that assemblie of the nobilitie. To which opinion all the knights and souldiors did soone agree, who yet could not hold their determination, especiallie sith the earle of Atholl and Morton did dissuade them from it: whereof the first would haue them tarrie, vntill there were a greater assemblie of the nobilitie: and the other supposed that it would come to passe, that if they ioined manie faults in one, that the reuenge of the regent would perish and come to nothing, and the matter would burst out to ciuill wars, wherby al they that feared peace, would flee to the part of such as were guiltie of the murther. Wherefore their faults were to be diuided, and (if it were possible) to treat of them by law, and that nothing should be doone or changed vntill the kalends of Maie, on which there was an assemblie or parlement appointed. Vpon which persuasion the companie was dissolued, though the greatest part of the nobilitie did condemne this delaie, as mooued thervnto: because that the other would saie that all things were doone at the becke of the kings enimies, who had thus protracted the time, to the end that the malice of the death of this regent might by little and little vanish in the meane time, and the aduerse faction gather greater power togither. Which opinion of the common people was confirmed by manie things that went before, and manie things which followed. For presentlie (before the death of the regent was fullie spread abroad) Iames Hamilton) morgaging his lands to Iohn Summeruill of Caninethame) borowed monie thereof: with which, and with other monie taken vp of the rest of his friends, he sent to his fauorers (to hire souldiors) being warned before, that they should alwaies be readie at all times, and for all causes which should happen by the taking awaie of their deadlie enimie, the earle of Murreie: neither after that time did the queenes faction ceasse from méeting in diuerse distant places. On the fiftéenth kalends of March, there did assemble the chiefe of the rebellious raction (for by that name and epitheton dooth Buchanan alwaies terme those that tooke the quéenes part) to deuise of their affaires. At what time the earle of Argile, and the lord Boid did write vnto earle Morton, that they would willinglie (sith they did not yet know who killed the regent, and who were consenting therevnto) consult with the other nobilitie about the same matter, both to search out and to punish the same: and that they would not come to Edenburgh about that matter. But if the kings faction would be so persuaded, they would willinglie come to Lithquo, to Faukirke, or to Striueling, there to méet with them. Wherevpon, the earle of Morton, consulting with Metellan about the same (for so it was desired in the letters) in the end it came to no effect. At the same time, Thomas Kar wrote to Limuch (to vse Buchanans woord) to the gardian of the castell, to see if he could obteine of the quéene of England to staie hir armie: which if he brought to passe, that then he would take such order, that be would easilie pacifie the borders without anie further trouble, and that they should remaine in that dutie which they were woont: but if she did refuse this condition, he would continue in his attempt, not doubting but the good subiects would shew their obedience towards their imprisoned quéene, & would ioine themselues togither, because aid would shortlie come out of France vnto them. On the fift nones of March, the Hamiltons, the earle of Argile, and Boid came to Lithquo; but the murther of one hired souldior did trouble all their deuise by a sudden tumult that was raised therevpon. Wherefore the next day after the archbishop of saint Andrewes did bring the Hamiltons home, the rest of the quéenes faction, especiallie the earles of Huntleie, Atholl, Crawford, and the lords Ogiluie, Hume, Seton, and Metellan, met at Edenburgh: in which the earle Morton was accompanied with a small traine, vntill the earles of Glencarne and Mar were come with their retinue. The fourth nones of March the chiefe of the factions met togither to consult of the estate of things: but the same did procéed verie slowlie, by reason of the absence of the earle of Argile, whose power and authoritie was then verie great. This man did Huntleie séeke to persuade to ioine with the rest of the faction, but he returned without dooing anie thing (as it was supposed by most men) through the subtiltie of Metellan, which would haue things long deferred, that more conuenient meane might be had in that troublesome state of the kingdome, for the innouation of things. The greatest thing doone in this assembling, was the argument for the choise of a new gouernor, which (as it séemeth) came to no effect. Now when all these assemblies tended to little purpose, those of the quéenes faction returned to sowe sedition by procuring English warres, thereby to draw the common-people to assist their part. Wherefore they send the capteine (that before had doone the like) afresh at this time to execute the same, who left nothing vndoone that might tend to extreme crueltie. During which, the heads of the faction doo reproch the quéene of England, and slander the nobilitie of Scotland, as though they were the clients and followers of the English; further threatning abroad in euerie place, that they would vse the aid of the French and Spanish, if the lord of the congregation praied in aid of the English. Much about that time, (as it were by chance) landed (out of France) at Dunbreton, Veriacke, one of the chamber to the French king, which aduanced the mindes of the quéenes faction, with manie large promises: by meanes whereof the Hamiltons appointed an assemblie of their people at Lithquo the first ides of Aprill. At which day, when a great assemblie was made of the quéenes faction, they began there openlie to treat of those things which before were whispered in secret: which was, that the death of the king and regent might be either forgotten, or at least wax cold in the publike turmoile of the realme, by making warre vpon the English. After which consultation, they determined to go to Edenburgh the third ides of Aprill, there (besides manie other commodities which might grow to them by that place) to ioine vnto them the citizens, by whom there was great helpe of good successe to be receiued. Which they thought they might easille bring about, by reason that William Kircadie was gouernor both of the castell and towne, against which deuise the citizens did yet contend. But in the end, with hard conditions, the quéenes part was admitted into the towne. After which, not thus contented, they persuadeo the citizens to deliuer vp the keies of their towne, which they most wiselie refused. All this while there was a great resort to Metellan then lieng of the gowt, for which cause his house was commonlie called the schoolehouse, and himselfe the schoolemaister. In which meane time, the earle of Atholl did not spare to trauell hither and thither, to draw those of the other faction to that assemblie at Edenburgh. But they would not come thither at all, vntill the kalends of Maie (which was a day appointed for the parlement) vnlesse they knew some iust necessitie which might preuent that day: and then if there happened anie thing of moment, which might not suffer anie delaie, they would communicate the same to the earle Morton, whose house was but foure mile from thence, & he should giue other knowledge thereof. In the end, a day was appointed by the earle of Atholl, in which a few of both factions should méet at the towne of the earle Morton, called Dalketh, which place did not like the quéenes faction, whose strength was much holpen by such prisoners as Kircadie had set at libertie out of the castell of Edenburgh. But all the deuises and helps of the quéens faction were quailed, by the rumor of the English armie comming to Berwike. Wherevpon, Alexander Hume, and Iohn Maxwell latelie deliuered out of prison, without anie publike authoritie, or leaue to set them frée, went home to defend their owne possessions; and a portion of that monie, which they had gathered to hire souldiers, was giuen to the said lord Hume, to strengthen his castell of Hume. Thomas Kar, and Walter Scot (who were iudged to haue made some roads into England by the persuasion of the bishop of saint Andrews, whereby wars should rise in England) being forsaken of those which inhabited neere these places, & fearing their owne estate, sent vnto the chiefe of the faction, requesting helpe of them: or if they would not doo so, that at least they should come to Lowther the next towne; and from thence shew or make warre vpon England. Which when they could not obteine (nor anie of the publike monie) they foorthwith departed to their owne lands in great anger. After this, whilest manie other things passed, as that the quéens faction sent an ambassador to the earle of Sussex, to staie his iournie into Scotland; that they also sent letters to the quéene of England concerning their cause; and that a seruant of monsieur Lausac in France, had brought letters to the quéens factions (with thanks for their fidelitie) directed also vnto other that were indifferent, to ioine with the imprisoned quéene; and that he promised them aid out of France; and that the queens people were assured, that the kings part would come to Edenburgh at the kalends of Maie: after all these things (I say) they of the quéens side departed to Lithquo, supposing that place most commodious to assemble their confederats. Whither when the Hamiltons and their clients were come, they beset all the way to Edenburgh: for when they vnderstood that Iohn Areskin earle of Mar was comming thither, they laid ambushes vnder the next hils to intrap him. But he knowing the iniurie of the place, passed the riuer two miles aboue, and came to Edenburgh the third day of Maie about euening. Shortlie after, the kings part remaining at Edenburgh, and the quéens at Lithquo, the threé earls, Arran, Argile, and Huntleie appoint a parlement at Lithquo, the thrée nones of August. The other faction sent Robert Petcarne ambassador to the quéene of England, to intreat with hir about the suppression of the common enimie; and further to let hir vnderstand, that such were the good minds of the Scots vnto hir, that they would choose a regent by hir appointment. Besides which, the said lords of the kings part with generall consent wrote letters vnto the erle of Lennox, then remaining in England, to repaire home with all conuenient spéed into Scotland. ¶ Ye maie read in the historie of England, in what sort the erle of Sussex lord lieutenant of the north parts, entring into Tiuidale the seuen & twentith of Aprill, burnt the Mosse tower, the towne of Crawling, the castell of Ferniherst, the towne of Howike, and the castell of Brauxton, that belonged to the laird of Buclewgh, with diuerse other castels, piles, towns, villages, and hamlets belonging to the lairds of Ferniherst, Buclewgh, and others in those parts: also how the lord Scroope inuaded the west borders of Scotland at the same time: and likewise how the said earle of Sussex wan the castell of Hume, with diuerse other matters which here I passe ouer, referring you to the said The earle of Lennox sent forward to returne into Scotland. historie. But now about the same time, the earle of Lennox, hauing got licence of the queene of England to make his returne into Scotland, was set forward, and came to Berwike towards the latter end of Aprill, where being visited with sickenesse, he remained by the space of fourtéene daies or more. In the meane time the duke of Chatelerault, the earles of The duke of Chatelerault gathereth a power. Huntleie, and Cassils, the lord Fleming, and sundrie others of that faction, séeing the time serued well for their purpose, now that the regent was slaine and dispatched out of the waie, gathered a power, to the number of three thousand men, and came downe to Edenburgh. But after that they had knowledge that the erle of Lennox was comming out of England with a power of Englishmen, by the quéens maiesties appointment; aswell for the safegard of the yoong king, as also for the safe conduct of the earle of Lennox home into Scotland: the duke and earles aforesaid retired themselues from Edenburgh to Glascow, where they The duke retireth to Glascow. besieged the castell by the space of fiue or six daies, vntill the earle of Lennox approched thitherwards. For ye haue to vnderstand, that after the earle of Lennox was recouered of his sickenesse, there was appointed a power of horssemen and footmen, to go with him into Scotland, vnder the leading of sir William Drurie; as in the English storie ye may read more at large. There were diuerse valiant capteins and gentlemen that went with him in that iournie, aswell such as had charge, as those that went with him of their owne good wils, to sée the order of things, and to helpe to aduance their princes seruice. With charge there were Capteins and gentlemen that went with the earle of Lennox into Scotland. these; sir George Carie capteine of an hundred lances, Henrie Austell capteine of fiftie lances, William Gurleie capteine of fiftie lances, maister Henrie Carie capteine of two hundred light horssemen, capteine Case lieutenant of the generals band of light horssemen, being also two hundred: sir Robert Constable sergeant maior of the footbands, sir Thomas Maners, capteine Brikwell, capteine Caruill, capteine Game, capteine Lambard, capteine Erington, Iohn Constable, and Humfreie Berwike leaders of the footmen. Capteine Erington was also lieutenant to sir George Caries companie of lances. Other gentlemen that went of their owne good wils, there were diuers; as maister George Deuereux, sir Ierome Bowes, maister William Knolles, maister Robert Knolles, maister Michaell Carie, maister Gawdie, maister William Drurie of Suffolke cousine to the generall, maister Greuill, brother to sir Fulke Greuill, maister Conweie, brother to sir Iohn Conweie, maister Edmund Verneie, and manie others, whose names I could not learne. The footmen laie the first night at Coldingham. The next day the earle of Lennox himselfe with sir William Drurie and the horssemen ouertooke the footmen, and lodged that night at Dunbar. The next day they made such spéed in their march, that they came The earle of Lennox with the Englishmen come to Edenburgh. through to Edenburgh, where they found the earles of Morton, Murreie, Glencarne, the lords Ruthwen, Lindseie, Sempill, Glamis, Methuen, Ogiltrée, and Cathcart, with diuerse gentlemen of the kings side: who receiued the said earle of Lennox, and the Englishmen verie courteouslie. From Edenburgh they passed to Lithquho, as in the English historie it maie appeare: and from thence the footmen passed to Faukirke, and there lodged. But the Faulkirke. earle of Lennox, and the Scotish lords, with sir William Drurie and the horssemen rode to The earle of Lennox and sir William Drurie ride to Striueling. The castell of Glascow besieged by the duke of Chatelerault. Sterling, where the king laie, then being in the custodie of the earle of Mar. From thence they went to Glascow, where the duke had besieged the castell, which was valiantlie defended by the lard of Minto and his brethren, with their seruants, being not past eightéene persons in all; and yet they kept it fiue or six daies against the duke and his whole power, slaieng (as hath béene reported) aboue fortie or fiftie of his men; but in the end they were in great danger to haue béene taken, if they had not béene the more spéedilie relieued. But the duke and his adherents, vnderstanding of the comming forward of the erle of Lennox with the English forces, brake vp his siege and fled awaie, with losse and dishonor, He breaketh vp his siege. as in the English historie we haue likewise noted. After that the earle of Lennox and his friends were thus come vnto Glascow, finding the siege raised, he remained there by the space of fiue or six daies. During which time, there came to him of his kinred and friends, which owght him their seruice, according to the vse of the countrie, the number of foure thousand men, verie well appointed after their A muster of foure thousand Scots. Sée more hereof in England. maner; the more part out of the countries of Lennox and Darneleie, which mustered before the said earle, and sir William Drurie, generall of the English there. This doone, the earle of Lennox, accompanied with the earles and lords before mentioned, & likewise with the Englishmen, marched to Hamilton, where they entred into the palace belonging to the duke, and lodged therein that night. The next day they besieged the castell, whereof Andrew Hamilton of Merinton was The castell of Hamilton besieged. capteine, hauing vnder him fiftie souldiers to defend it; and would not therefore deliuer it, till that two péeces of great ordinance being brought from Sterling, were planted in batterie. For then perceiuing themselues in danger to be taken by force, the capteine offered to yeeld the house to the Englishmen; but not to the lords of Scotland, with condition, to haue the liues of all them within saued. Which was granted, vpon promise, that they should neuer It is deliuered to the Englishmen. after beare arms against their king, and to depart the realme within a certeine terme, and herevnto they were sworne. But they kept not long their oth, for the night next insuing, they did beset the lord Sempill that was lodged at that present in a house not far off, and The lord Sempill taken. not able to keepe it till rescue came, yeelded it and himselfe prisoner, so that he was kept by the Hamiltons in safe custodie by the space of twelue moneths after. The castell of The castell of Hamilton blowen vp and raced. Hamilton being yeelded (as ye haue heard) was blowen vp with powder. Diners other houses there in the countrie about were burnt also, as Roplocke, the abbat of Kilwinnings house, with diuerse other of the Hamiltons houses in Cliddesdale. After the castell of Hamilton was thus woone and ouerthrowen, the lords returned to the palace, and lodged there againe that night; and on the morrow, they set fire both vpon the The towne and palace of Hamilton burnt. same palace, and also vpon the towne of Hamilton: and therewith the Englishmen taking leaue of the lords in Scotland, departed homewards; as in the English historie ye may reade more at large. The erle of Morton went with them; but the earle of Lennox and the other earles and lords with their companies tooke their way towards Glascow, and from thence euerie of the noble men departed home to their houses. Shortlie after, there was A conuention of the lords. The earle of Lennox made regent. a conuention of the lords at Striueling, where the earle of Lennox was made lord lieutenant of Scotland: and afterwards in August following, there was an other conuention at Edenburgh, where, by the consent of the three estates of the realme, the said earle was made regent of Scotland. And about the same time, the earle of Huntleie tooke vpon him to be lieutenant of The earle of Huntleie. Scotland for the quéene of Scots that remained still in England, and therevpon in hir name summoned a parlement to be holden at Lithquho the one and twentith of September then A parlement proclamed by both the factions at one day and place. next following. Vnto the which parlement, aswell the earle of Lennox then regent, as all the residue of the lords of both parties were summoned. Whereof the regent being aduertised, caused a parlement to be summoned in the kings name to be kept at Lithquho, at the selfe same day which was appointed by the earle Huntleie. At which day there appeared the lords of the kings partie, & also sundrie great lards, knights, and gentlemen, The earle of Huntleie commeth no néerer than Brechine. to the number of eight thousand, verie well furnished, looking for the earle of Huntleis comming, according to his appointed order; but he came no néerer than Brechine. Wherevpon it was decréed by the regent and nobilitie there, to pursue him: and to that end, Iames Dowglas earle of Morton was sent before with a thousand horssemen to haue taken him vpon the sudden in the towne of Brechine, before he should haue anie warning of their comming, the regent following after with an armie. But Huntlie hauing warning The earle of Huntleie escapeth. of their approch, escaped their hands, although verie narrowlie; in somuch that some of his footmen were so put to their shifts, that they were driuen for their refuge (being so beset on the sudden) to take the castell of Brechine: the earle of Huntleie promising before he went from them, to succour them within eight daies; but they being streictlie besieged, and the eale not kéeping promise with them, after those eight daies were expired, they yéelded themselues and the castell vnto the regents mercie. They were in all about thrée hundred, of which number one and thirtie of the chiefest were executed. Some of them had borne arms against the king before that time, and had Execution. beene pardoned, and therefore were now thought by the regent and his friends the more worthie to die. After this, the regent returned to Striueling, and from thence passed to the castell of Downe, and besieged it; being kept by the seruants of the lord of saint Colmes The castell of Downe yéelded. Inch, who yéelded it to the regent after thrée daies siege. During the time of the regents being there, he sent one of his seruants called Iohn Moone, with letters into England, directed to the quéene of Englands councell: who (for his secret practising and conference had with such as were enimies to the king and regent before his departure out of Scotland, and for receiuing of their letters to be conueied also, and herewith discouering sundrie secrets to them, the which were committed vnto his credit and trust) was apprehended, and the same letters which he had secretlie receiued being found vpon him, and the matters aforesaid proued against him, he was by law executed. About the same time the earle of Morton, the abbat of Dunfermeling, and Iames Macgili, Commissioners sent into England. clearke of the register, were sent into England commissioners vpon the kings partie; the bishop of Rosse, the abbat of Kilwinning, & the lord Leuingston, appointed for the quéene then being in England. In Ianuarie following, the regent then being at Edenburgh, Claud Hamilton, one of the duke of Chateleraults sonnes, entred the house of Pasleie, then being Pasleie taken and kept by Claud Hamilton. kept by the seruants of the lord Sempill: and seizing vpon all things which they found as stood with his pleasure, he fortified the house with men, munition, and vittels, such as he could get either in the towne of Pasleie, or neere thereabouts. The regent aduertised thereof, repaired thither with a power in all spéedie wise, and laid siege to the house. They The regent besiegeth Pasleie. within sued for a truce, which was granted to them for the space of six daies, the better to aduise of their owne estate: which terme being expired, proclamation was made by the regent, that if they would yeeld the house, so manie of them as had not borne armes before that time against the king and regent, should haue their liues saued, the rest to remaine at the regents pleasure. Herevpon contention rose among them within the house: for whereas the more part of them hauing not serued in anie iournie or exploit against the king before that time, would néeds yéeld; the other, being the lesse number, were not able to defend it of themselues. Wherevpon they were readie to draw their weapons one against another; but yet in the end they agréed to surrender the house, and yéelded themselues, vpon such condition as the Pasleie is surrendred to the regent. regent had prescribed: wherevpon fiue of them were executed, & all the rest were pardoned of their liues. The capteine Iohn Hamilton, lard of Coughnall, and his two brethren excepted, who were sent to the castell of Glascow, there to remaine in prison, and shortlie after the said Iohn Hamilton was executed. In March following, the regent returned to Glascow, and for that Gilbert Kennedie 1571. with the erles of Cassils & Eglenton refused to shew themselues obedient to the king, and would not come to the regent, who had sent for them by letters at sundrie times, the regent gathered his power at Glascow, and with the same marched towards Vrwin and Air, and so forward to the earle of Cassils countrie, who hearing of the regents comming, sent foorth The regent goeth against the earle of Cassils. his brother to offer his submission. Wherevpon it was concluded, that the messenger should remaine with the regent as pledge for his brother, by the space of twentie daies: and then the said earle to make his appearance before the regent at Striueling, to answere such matters as should be laid to his charge. The same time also Hugh Montgomerie earle of Eglenton, and Robert Boid leuied their bands also to appeare and answer in like sort: and as well the one as the other (according to their assurance giuen) appeared at the day appointed; but yet not agréeing to such articles as were required of them, they were both committed to prison, the one in the castell The earles of Cassils and Eglenton committed to ward. of Dunbreton, & the other in the castell of Downe. Afterwards there was a truce taken betwéene the regent, the Hamiltons, and their adherents for twentie daies, to wit, vntill the A truce for twentie daies. last of March. Which truce once ended, the regent determined with himselfe to giue an attempt to the castell of Dunbreton, which had beene long kept by the lord Fleming against the king, and the earle of Murreie late regent, who had besieged it for the space of halfe a yéere or more, but could not by anie meanes compasse to win it. But now on the first of Aprill, the truce being then expired, the regent going forward with his purpose, caused all the passages round about the countrie to be stopped, as well by land as by water; and the same night sent thitherward captein Thomas Crawford, and capteine Hume, with an hundred souldiers, chosen out for the purpose: who the second of Aprill, about foure of the clocke in the morning, came to the castell, where the souldiers with ladders, ropes, and other deuises, found meanes to clime vp the rocke, which is of an exceeding great heigth, and so with great paine, and more danger, at length got vp to the wall of the castell, standing vpon the heigth of the rocke, to the which wall they reared vp a ladder, by the which entered first one Alexander Ramsie, ensigne bearer to capteine The castell of Dunbreton taken by a policie. Crawford, & leaping ouer the wall, was streightwaies assailed by three of the watchmen, of the which he slue one: and a souldier named Wederborne that followed him, being the second that entered, slue another of them: the third of those watchmen was also slaine, as he was about to flée from them. Herewith capteine Crawford & capteine Hume got ouer the wall, and entering the castell Capteine Crawford & capteine Hume. with the rest of their souldiers, stroke vp the drum, & cried; A Derneleie, being their watchword; and seizing vpon the ordinance, manned the same. The lord Fleming capteine of the castell, hearing that sudden fright and tumult within the house, fled out by the The lord Fleming escapeth. posterne gate at the neither baile, and so escaping, got a fishers boat, and passed into Argile. The souldiers of the castell, perceiuing their captein fled, and the castell possessed by the enimies, yéelded themselues, and were pardoned. There were taken within the castell Iohn Hamilton, the archbishop of saint Andrews, monsieur de Veriacke a Frenchman, sent thither by the French, king, also the ladie Fleming, wife to the lord Fleming, and Iohn Fleming lard of Boghall Alexander the sonne of William Leuingston, and Iohn Hall an Iohn Hall. Englishman, being partener of a new intended conspiracie, as was after prooued against him, for the which he was arreigned, condemned, and executed at London; as in the English historie appeareth. The third of April, being the morrow after that Dunbreton was thus strangelie woone, the regent came thither, and entered the same, where he calling the capteins and souldiers togither, caused them with him to knéele downe vpon their knées, and to giue God humble thanks for their good successe in that enterprise, brought to passe rather by the prouidence of God than otherwise, sith the castell seemed to all those that knew it, impossible in maner The strong situation of the castell of Dunbreton. to be woone, by reason of the great heigth of the rocke, and the strange siuation, being inuironed almost round about with the water of Clide on the one side, and the water of Leuin on the other. The report of the winning of this castell was ioifull to the townes and countries about, which before had béene a continuall scourge to them, by reason that the souldiers that kept it, would issue out at sundrie times, robbing, spoiling, and carieng awaie the commodities of the inhabitants there abouts, as well by land as by water. The regent deait verie honorablie with the ladie Fleming, suffering hir to depart away The ladie Fleming honorablie intreated. with all such plate and iewes, as apperteined either to hir or hir husband. He granted also a safe conduct to monsieur de Veriacke, to passe homewards through the countrie, but the archbishop of saint Andrews was sent prisoner to Striueling. The spoile of the goods found in the castell was giuen to the souldiers that ventured so dangerouslie to atchiue so high an enterprise, bringing it to the wished effect by policie with so little bloudshed as deserueth perpetuall remembrance. The day next insuing, being the fourth of Aprill, the regent appointed Iohn Cuningham lard of Drumwhassell, a man of good seruice, and seruant to the regent, to be capteine of that castell, and leauing him therein, departed to Striueling, where he caused the archbishop of saint Andrews to be examined vpon certeine articles, as well touching the murther of the late king Henrie, as also for the death of the earle of Murreie the late regent. At what time there came in a priest without compulsion of anie (as hath béene said) and before the regent declared, that one Iohn Hamilton, being in extreme sicknesse, vnder confession told him, that the bishop did send him with thrée others to the murther of the king. And as touching the murther of the erle of Murreie, the bishops flat answer was, he might The archbishop of saint Andrews executed. haue letted it if he would. Therewith the people that heard him, cried, Awaie with him, hang him. And so for these and other offenses, for the which he had beene forfalted afore that time, he was now executed on a gibet, set vp in the market place of Striueling towne. After this, the regent summoned a parlement, to begin at Edenburgh the fourteenth of Maie A parlement summoned. next insuing, and passed from Striueling to Lithquo. Here the earle of Morton (with the rest of the commissioners for the kings part, being returned out of England, with other of the nobilitie) met the regent, and then they passed toward Edenburgh, where they thought to haue béene receiued, and so to haue kept the parlement there. But they were not suffered to enter that towne, nor yet the castell, the same being defended against them by the lard of Grange, who after the death of the earle The castell of Edenburgh kept by the lard of Grange against the regent. of Murreie, was reuolted from the kings part to the Hamiltons side, and had fortified both the towne and castell: so that the regent and nobilitie being kept out there, held their parlement in the Cannogate stréet, within the suburbs of the towne, where sundrie of the quéenes part were forfalted. This being doone, and sundrie skirmishes had with them that issued foorth of the towne against them without, the regent returned to Striueling, there to remaine for a season. In the meane time the earle of Morton, hauing certeine stuffe come foorth of England by The lard of Carmichell. sea, and brought to land at Leith, sent the lard of Carmichell with his houshold seruants, & two hundred shot, to fetch the same from thence vnto Dalketh, being fiue miles distant from Leith. At their returne with the stuffe, they were set vpon by the earle of Huntleie, and the lord Hume, who issued out of Edenburgh with their power: so that betwixt them was a verie hot skirmish. But in the end the earle of Huntleie, & the lord Hume were The earle of Huntleie and lord Hume put to flight. constreined to flie, and were pursued by Carmichell and his companie euen vnto the gates of Edenburgh, some of their men béeing slaine, and others taken prisoners. For reuenge of which ouerthrow, shortlie after the earle of Huntleie, and Claud Hamilton, with their forces marched from Edenburgh, to Dalketh, purposing to haue spoiled the towne. But the earle of Morton, hauing knowledge of their intention and comming, sallied foorth of Dalketh with the power which he had there with him, although not comparable in number to his aduersaries; & meeting them in the field, there was a sharpe skirmish betwixt them, and manie hurt on both parties: but in the end the earle of Morton was put The earle of Morton put to the worse. to the worse, fourtie or more of his men taken prisoners. And the cause was, for that his footmen were too forward, wanting helpe of their horssemen that should haue succoured them. About the fiue & twentith day of Maie following, capteine Cullen issued foorth of Edenburgh with two hundred shot, meaning to intercept certeine harquebusers, which were appointed to come out of Fife ouer the riuer of the Forth, vnto the earle of Morton, who kept still at Dalketh. Wherevpon the said earle, hauing knowledge of Cullens enterprise, aduertised the regent therof, who being then at Striueling, the next day came downe to Dunfermling in Fife. But before his comming thither, Cullen had met with a bote vpon the water, wherein were aboord fiue and twentie shot, whome he tooke prisoners, and led them awaie with him to Edenburgh. The next day the earle of Morton came to Leith, where he met with sir William Drurie, and there they lodged that night. The next morning sir William Drurie passing foorth of Leith towards Edenburgh, accompanied with sundrie capteins, and other gentlemen for his conuoie thither, they within Edenburgh perceiuing them comming, imagined that they were come foorth to offer a skirmish, wherevpon they issued out of the towne and castell to incounter them. So that being readie on either side to begin the skirmish, sir William Drurie, being come to talke with the parties for some accord to be had, tooke in hand with great diligence to appease them: and at length procured them to agrée vpon a truce to indure till eight of the clocke at night. But yet when both parts staied in the fields for the space of an houre, because they could not agrée whether companie shuld first retire from the field, they fell at length in skirmish (notwithstanding the truce) and fought verie sharplie for the time, till A skirmish. The abbat of Kilwinning slaine. The lord Hume and capteine Cullen taken. in the end they of the towne and castell had the ouerthrow: the abbat of Kilwinning being slaine, with diuerse other; and there were taken aboue an hundred prisoners: amongest the which the lord Hume, and capteine Cullen were accounted principall. Those that escaped were chased & constreined for their safetie to flee into the towne of Edenburgh, & capteine Cullen was afterwards beheaded. The regent immediatlie after this skirmish came with all spéed to Leith, as well to fortifie the towne, as to make some further attempt against his aduersaries within the towne and castell of Edenburgh. Herevpon was Leith [whose capteine was Patrike Lindseie] Fr. Thin. Leith fortified. intrenched round about, being estéemed a place of great importance, standing both in the face of the enimies, and so readie to annoie them, and also seruing well to preuent them of such succour as they looked for dailie out of France. In this meane time, the lard of Grange, then capteine of the castell, and prouost of the towne of Edenburgh, caused proclamation to be A proclamation. made, that all those inhabitants which were not willing to take part with him in his dooings, should depart out of the towne. Wherevpon, manie of them departed thence, togither with their wiues and children, and tooke with them also such goods as they could secretlie conueie: and comming to Leith, offered their seruice vnto the regent, who thankfullie accepted their offer: and so they remained at Leith, seruing against the contrarie faction vpon their owne expenses. After this, the lard of Grange, vnderstanding that report had bene made by some of the The challenge of the lard of Grange. kings part, that he was a traitor to the king, and an enimie to his countrie, offered the combat to anie that would iustifie the same. Which being aduertised to them within Leith, diuerse gentlemen were desirous to vndertake the challenge: but the regent granted it to the lard of Garlisch, being a Steward, & his kinsman, who had earnestlie requested it. The lard of Garlisch. Wherevpon, after diuerse messages by heralds sent to and fro betwixt them, the time and place was appointed; but the matter went not forward, excuse being made on the behalfe of the lard Grange, that by reason of the charge which was committed to him, it was not thought conuenient that he should hazard the whole cause vpon his owne person. Shortlie after, there came out of France one Iohn Cheseholme, who was sent with monie Iohn Cheseholme. to the lard of Grange for the paiment of his souldiors: he brought with him also a certeine quantitie of powder, and thrée hundred caleeuers. Vpon his entering into the water of Fourth, and comming vp the same, he learned how the regent was in Leith: wherevpon he landed at Brent Iland, and afterwards for feare hid himselfe betwixt two clifs of a rocke, not farre from the quéenes ferrie: but at length he was found out by the abbat of saint Colmes Inch, and deliuered to the regent at Leith, in which towne the said regent laie about two moneths, vsing sundrie meanes, as well by practise and policie, as by force to haue taken the towne of Edenburgh. In the meane time sundrie skirmishes chanced betwixt them, and diuerse prisoners were taken on either part. At length, the regent caused a parlement to be summoned, appointing the same to be A parlement summoned. holden at Striueling the two & twentith of August next insuing. And when that day ap proched, he left the lord Lindseie at Leith in charge, as his lieutenant to gouerne the towne, and all the men of warre appointed to remaine in gard thereof; and repaired himselfe to Striueling, where at the prefixed daie did assemble the earles of Morton, Mar, Crawford, Sutherland, Montrosse, Eglenton, Glencarne, the lords Ruthwen, Glamis, Methwen, Sempill, Ogiltree, and Cathcart, with manie lards and gentlemen. The first day of this parlement the king was conueied thither, the crowne, scepter, and swoord being borne before him. When he had taken his place, he vttered a certeine speech as had béene taught him, touching the assembling of that parlement, which matter the regent more at large declared vnto the whole house: and this doone, they procéeded further to other affaires, concerning the state of the common-wealth. Moreouer in this parlement, the duke of Chatelerault with his two The duke of Chatelerault forfalted. sonnes, the abbat of Arbroth, and Claud Hamilton, the earle of Huntleie, the lard of Grange and sundrie others were forfalted. This parlement continued by the space of seuen daies: at the end whereof, to wit, vpon the second of September, Claud Hamilton, the lard of Bouclugh, the lard of Ormiston, and diuerse others, to the number of thrée hundred horssemen, verie earlie in the morning entered the towne of Striueling, and suddenlie beset not onelie the regent, but also the rest of the nobilitie within their lodgings. The regent hearing a great vprore raised within the towne [in which George Ruthwen was Fr. Thin. slaine] and not vnderstanding the cause, nor who were the authors thereof, after he perceiued how the house wherein he lodged was beset on ech side, he defended the same against the enimies for a good space: but at length despairing of succours, and doubting least the house had béene vnderlaid with some barrels of powder, aud that it would be blowen vp if he yéelded not as some told him: and the enimie to increase that doubt, crieng still; Blow vp the house, what shuld we stand longer about him? at length he was contented to The earle of Lennox taken in his lodging. yéeld to the lard of Ormiston, but not before he saw that some of his stoutest capteins had yéelded themselues before his face. He yéelded, with condition to haue his life saued: but promise in that behalfe was not long kept. For those that had thus taken him, when they perceiued rescue comming downe from the castell, so that they should not be able to carrie him awaie, capteine Cauder with a pistolet shot him into the bodie, before he could be The earle of Lennox wounded. recouered out of their hands. The rest of the nobilitie, to wit, the earles of Morton, Eglenton, and Glencarne, and diuerse other being taken prisoners, were presentlie rescued by those that issued out of the castell. The earle of Morton being in the hands of the lard of Bouclugh, tooke the same lard prisoner, he yéelding himselfe vnto him: and likewise the earle of Glencarne tooke his kéeper prisoner, and so did sundrie others take their takers: but Claud Hamilton, with others their companies, hauing first gotten all the horsses that were found in the towne into their hands, when they heard that the rescue was comming, shifted for themselues, and fled awaie. The regent, being mortallie wounded, but yet deliuered from his enimies, rid vp to the castell, and calling there vnto him the whole nobilitie, when he perceiued his end to approch, he vsed these woords (or the like in substance) as followeth. "My lords, it is not vnknowen vnto you all, that my comming hither to take this The earle of Lennox his woords before his death. regiment vpon me, was not of mine owne séeking, but at the request of you all. And that which chieflie mooued me heerevnto, was, for the defense of the kings person, being yet (as you sée) an infant; of whome by nature and dutie I was bounden to haue carefull consideration, and that in his minoritie, the good and quiet gouernement of this common-wealth might be aduanced, and iustice executed vpon those that most cruellie did murther the late king, my sonne the kings father, and his vncle the good earle of Murreie, late regent: whose mischéeuous and diuelish deuises if in time you doo not preuent by your wisedoms and discretions, they will procure the finall ouerthrow and destruction of you all. In this action (as you sée) I haue spent my bloud, and haue plaied the last part of my tragedie, and now I féele death to draw néere at hand. "Wherefore I require you all, for the due regard that you haue of your duties, first to almightie God, and next to the king your most lawfull and naturall prince now in these his tender yéeres, wholie to imploie your seruice in his defense, with care to mainteine the state of this common-wealth, whereby you shall not onelie accomplish your duties towards God, but shall be assured to find in your king in time to come (God lending him life) all that good which you can iustlie require. And I shall further commit to your friendlie protection, my poore seruants, who for their good seruice haue well deserued, and yet remaine vnrecompensed, desiring you all to be good to them. And lastlie, I desire you to commend me vnto the ladie Margaret my déere wife, now being in England: vnto whome I beséech God to be a comforter. And now sith my spirits begin to faile, and that my life draweth neere to an end, I take my leaue of you all, desiring you to praie to God for me." These words being ended, he called to God for mercie, and continuing in praier vnto the end, within a while The earle of Lennox departeth this life. after he departed this life, and was buried in the kings chappell in the castell of Striueling. ¶ Thus haue I hitherto continued this historie of Scotland, not so largelie nor perfectlie as I could haue wished, but skambled forward with it in such sort as you maie sée; hauing deliuered nothing vnto you to impaire the credit of the Scotish nation, otherwise than I haue found in authors, or learned by credible report (as I take it) hauing put off the parciall affection, which I beare of dutie to mine owne countrie, in this respect, that I shuld not séeme to wrest the woords of writers, either to the aduantage of the English people, or disaduantage of the Scots, speciallie in politike gouernement, warlike exploits, ciuill demeanor, and other vertuous exercises: which as I haue found them either in anie one person particularlie, or in the multitude in generall; so haue I reported the same, not sparing the truth heerein, as I haue found it recorded, either for loue or hatred, dread, fauor, or enuie: but yet in no wise presuming (as else-where I haue said) to vse mine owne censure, but rather leauing the iudgement of other mens reports vnto the readers discretion. To whome I wish such vnderstanding and knowledge in the truth, as maie satisfie himselfe, and redound to the publike commoditie of his countrie, and pleasure of the almightie; in whose hands are the hearts of kings & gouernors, guiding the states of realms and common wealths, as to his diuine wisedome séemeth most expedient. To whome be glorie, honor, and praise for euermore; Amen. Thus farre the painefull industrie of Raphaell Hollinshed, and others. The sequele, concerning the continuation of this Scotish historie, is a new addition before this time neuer in English published.
Et populi pensas crimina lance pari,
lura tibi, tuus ille Solon, tuus ille Lycurgus,
Quæ recti è puris fontibus hausta dedit,
Nobilium regum exemplis obsignat auitis,
Hic, vbi quid fugias, quidue sequaris, habes.
Felix, si fugias fugienda, sequenda sequaris !
Felix cum populo túq;, patresq; tuo."